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Gift of 

Seaver C. Smith 





Diseases of Women and Children 





Similia aimilibus cnrantur ; 
Remedium singulum euique morbo • 
Pars minima, sano k amino ten tat o. 


No. 19 Beekman Street. 


A JUL 1965 


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, by 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York. 


is Water Street, BosTos. 

®o i\t Uttawrg of 














There are several Homoeopathic works upon general domestic practice 
now before the public. Their practical utility, and the estimation in which 
they are held by the public, are amply demonstrated by the ' manner in 
which they have been received. There is scarcely a family in the commu- 
nity, entertaining views favorable to the cause, but possesses one or more of 

They are accepted and welcomed wherever advice is needed, and medi- 
cal aid cannot be obtained. Their use is not, however, exclusively con- 
fined to those who are the friends and open advocates of Homoeopathia. A 
great many families, always employing an allopathic physician as their 
regular medical adviser, keep one of these manuals, with a few of the more 
common remedies, and themselves prescribe for all the minor ailments, es- 
pecially those to which the children are liable. 

The first practical information, often carrying conviction with it, of the 
art of Homoeopathia is, not unfrequently, obtained from these manuals. 
They thus become the harbingers of its great and abiding truths ; the si- 
lent, but efficient missionaries, working their way through the wilderness 
of error and prejudice, carrying the glad tidings of great joy to the suffer- 
ing and afflicted, preparing the way for the speedy entrance of the regular 
practitioner of Homoeopathia. They are often far in the advance, where, 
indeed, Homoeopathia would never reach, were it obliged to wait until it 
were openly and publicly accepted in the person of a regular Homceopa- 

With their aid, the people mitigate suffering, and conquer disease, and in 
the experimentation — for, at first, it is nothing else — themselves become 
conquered, and ever after stand forth as open advocates of a cause which 
they never could have embraced, had it not been for these silent workers, 


which had thus undermined their prejudices, and eventually, by direct, prac- 
tical demonstration, rooted out the errors which precept and example had 
long before established. 

It is not at all to be wondered at, that those, who, from early teaching, have 
been led to believe that large doses of nauseous drugs are necessary for 
the eradication of slight ailments, should hesitate to believe, upon simple 
hearsay, that minute, nay, even infinitesimal doses are sufficient, when prop- 
erly administered, successfully to combat diseases of the most violent and 
fatal tendencies. It is not to be presumed that people imbued with doc- 
trines so entirely opposite to those which we believe and teach, will at once, 
upon the recommendation of an acquaintance, abandon their old belief, and 
become converts to the new, even though the old were not entirely satis- 
factory. Such proselytes would be a detriment rather than an advantage 
to any profession. To convince an intelligent man that you have a way 
superior to his, it is necessary to bring forward a fair amount of evidence 
in support of the assertion. He is not going to believe it simply because 
you say so. He may not doubt your word or the sincerity of your belief ; 
but he doubts your judgment. He may think he is just as competent to 
form an intelligent opinion as you are ; and so, perhaps, he is. But he may 
be looking through an obscure medium ; prejudice may have drawn a film 
over his eyes, or he and the object of which he judges may each be stand- 
ing in opposite valleys, with an intervening hill between. Now, bring him 
upon the same level with yourself, — remove his prejudices, and clear his 
vision ; and, quite likely, you will both arrive at the same conclusion. No 
man has a right to pronounce a statement false, especially when made by 
another equally as intelligent and honest as himself, simply because it, or 
the arguments advanced to support it, appear to Mm to be at variance with 
reason and common sense. He is in duty bound, in justice to himself and 
those who depend upon his judgment and decision, to give every subject 
that is honestly advanced, that touches upon his particular sphere of fife, a 
thorough and candid investigation ; not to argue the case with another 
as firmly opposed to it as himself, but to put it to the actual, practical test, 
which alone can decide its truth or falsity, and which, if it be advanced 
with truth and sobriety, its friends and advocates will always court. How 
many of those physicians in this city, who are our most bitter opponents, 
have ever given Homoeopathia the least practical investigation ? Few, in- 


Tell a person, unfamiliar with the laws of chemistry, that water can be 
made to burn, or one ignorant of the fact, that every drop of water he 
drinks contains minute, often hideous-looking animals ; and your veracity or 
sanity will at once be doubted. You may use your best arguments and 
illustrations, and still fail to convince him ; but actually burn the water 
before his eyes, and, as the flame arises, it will have a wonderful effect 
upon his perceptive faculties ; or, place a drop under the microscope, and 
the little anirualculoe will soon wriggle a firm belief of their actual existence 
into his imagination. 

So it is with Homoeopathia ; you may talk all day, and in the end fail 
to make one believe that a few globules, looking and tasting, for all the 
world, like sugar, and of which you could eat a pound, perhaps, without 
harming you in the least, are sufficient, when administered according to 
known laws, to remove the most serious diseases ; you simply excite the 
ridicule of doubters. 

There was a time when all learned men disbelieved and doubted, what I 
have no doubt nine-tenths of the fair, intelligent part of this community 
would, to-day, were the fact for the first time presented to them, " that an 
ounce-weight, and a ton-weight, will fall down a pit with the same speed and 
in an equal time." About three hundred years ago, Galileo, an Italian, 
taught views contrary to the popular belief. His teachings, however, 
met with little success, until the University of Pisa challenged him to the 
proof. That was just what he wanted, and the leaning tower of Pisa was 
just the place for the experiment. Two balls were procured, one exactly 
double the weight of the other. Both were taken to the top, and all the 
dignitaries of the place assembled, to see the then obscure and despised 
young Galileo proven a false teacher. The two balls were dropped at the 
same instant. Old theory and all the world said, that the large ball, being 
twice as heavy as the other, would come down in half the time ; any other 
result was, in their estimation, " contrary to all reason." All eyes watched, 
and lo ! all eyes beheld them strike the earth at the same time. The ex- 
periment, though oft repeated, always produced the same result. The 
little ball was sufficient to destroy a theory two hundred years old. Had 
Galileo's teachings never been tested, they would, to this day, have been 
called vagaries. Argument would never have convinced a doubting 

Hahnemann, when he presented his discoveries to a suffering people, 


was also confronted with the objection, that it was "contrary to all reason 
and common sense." He hurled his little pills against a theory as time- 
honored as that which opposed Galileo, and with the same result. 

Those who honestly came out to observe the effect were convinced ; 
many refused to look, as did some in Galileo's day, and cried, " Humbug." 
It would seem absurd for two men to spend their time in arguing the 
point whether an apple is sweet or sour, when each of them can soon 
decide the case by tasting for himself. Strange as it may sound, there are 
those, who, doubting the truth that there has been a better way discovered 
of treating diseases than that handed down to them through several gen- 
erations, should, in this enlightened age, flatly refuse to put the theory to 
a practical test ; nevertheless, such is the fact. 

Perhaps there never was a more bitter opponent to the vagaries, as he 
then thought them, of Hahnemann than the writer of these pages, when he 
was first matriculated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in the City 
of New York. Before the term had expired, however, his faith in the 
collected wisdom of past ages was somewhat shaken, as the comparison of 
the two modes of treatment, that pursued at the cliniques of the College, 
and that at his preceptor's office — who was a Homceopathist — was too 
unmistakably in favor of the latter. Demonstration here taught in weeks, 
what argument the most logical, backed by statistics incontrovertible, had 
failed to do in years. 

Experience has long since demonstrated that public opinion is shaped 
mainly by the inaudible and invisible teachings of passing events, rather 
than by any appeals, however urgent, or by any arguments, however 

The work of reformation in medicine is being carried on to a great 
extent by manuals like this. Not a few, otherwise opposed to Homce- 
opathia, think it an excellent practice for children ; some even go so far as 
to admit females into the list of those to whom it is specially applicable ; 
but, that it is sufficient for all cases met with in general practice, they 
will not admit. 

The favorable impression they possess, has not been forced upon them 
by argument, but, rather more likely, by seeing a neighbor's child instantly 
relieved of colic by two or three globules of chamomilla or colocynth ; 
or, a female friend, suffering from some annoying complaint, restored to 
permanent health, by doses tasteless and infinitesimally small. 


They argue that the organization, and, especially, that of the nervous 
system, of delicate females and children, is so sensitive, that small doses are 
sufficient, and, therefore, they think it an excellent system for such per- 
sons. It is a noticeable fact, however, that, when a family begins to give 
chamomilla to the baby, and have learned the names of some of the 
more common remedies for colds, coughs, and children's complaints, and have 
actually seen diseases cured with them, it soon becomes the owner of a 
book and case of medicines, and afterwards treats all those slight ailments 
which are constantly occurring in every family, according to the teachings 
of Hahnemann. 

All this they can do without exciting the taunts and ridicule of friends, or 
hurting the feelings of their family physician. But this mode of medica- 
tion cannot be continued long, without convincing those who have thus 
far given it a trial, that it can be used with safety, as well, in complicated 
and serious cases. By their prompt, pleasant and satisfactory action, — 
the convenience and ease with which they are administered, — these 
remedies gradually establish their own claims to superiority in the estima- 
tion of many a one whom arguments would have never convinced, and 
whom nothing but practical demonstration, and that too, without pomp or 
ceremony, could. 

For a while, books upon domestic medicine were looked upon with 
distrust by many in the profession. It was feared that the honor and 
dignity of the cause would be injured, were the common people allowed 
free access to those mines of knowledge, which for ages had been so 
scrupulously and religiously guarded. This feeling, however, it is but fair 
to state, was principally entertained by those who had been educated 
under old-school regime, in a practice where the confidence of its patrons 
was in direct ratio to their ignorance of an art they were required to 
believe. At present, as far as I am aware, the only antipathy to them 
exists among the drones of the profession ; those who are too indolent 'to 
keep in advance of an intelligent public, when this public is not debarred 
from acquiring that knowledge upon medical subjects, which has, hereto- 
fore, to too great an extent, been the exclusive privilege of a chosen few. 
In general, the profession seems to accept them as necessary allies in the 
vast work of instructing the people, and carrying forward the great 
truths, readily seeing the important part which they have taken in dis- 
seminating the beneficent doctrines of our art, and facilitating their appli- 
cation by enlightening the public upon the principles which we profess. 


For our own part, we are of the decided opinion that the more intelli- 
gent the people become as to the great principles of medicine, the higher 
its standard among the profession will be elevated. As the teacher must 
keep in advance of his pupils and patrons, so an intelligent public demands 
and will have intelligent physicians. 

Perhaps there never has been a time, in the history of medicine, since 
Hahnemann first gave his discovery to the world, when the public mind 
was so generally detaching itself from its old moorings, and yielding more 
and more to the current of Homoeopathia. 

The old practice is becoming distasteful to the people ; it is unsatisfac- 
tory ; it will not bear comparison with the new. The fact is, Allopathy has 
been, for some time, like an old ship at sea, without chart or compass, run- 
ning from one hypothetical fog into another, until now she is stranded, high 
and dry, upon Galen's theoretical sand-bar of contraries, her every timber 
creaking out the echo of her dying groans, while the sea-gulls — druggists 
— catch the mournful requiem, and Hygeia weeps for joy. 

The present appears to be a most auspicious time to erect sign-boards, 
that those may read, who will not listen, — to place at the disposal of those 
who wish to test the correctness of our doctrine, the necessary instructions 
for conducting the experiment. 

In the spirit of the foregoing remarks, implied if not always expressed, 
the following manual is presented to the public. The author is not un- 
mindful of the responsibilities he has assumed, in thus entering himself 
upon the list of public instructors ; however, an experience of over ten 
years in active practice awards him some grounds of assurance, in giving 
his opinion and advice upon that specific branch of a science, to which he 
has devoted the larger part of his attention. 

The author saw, what every other practising physician must also have 
seen, the imperative necessity of a work upon this particular branch of 
medicine ; he has endeavored to supply the want to the best of his abili- 
ties. Perhaps, in other and abler hands, the matter might have been pre- 
sented in a more concise and agreeable manner, but other hands neglected 
or refused the task ; therefore the responsibility has fallen where it has. 

The author does not wish to apologize, or " crave the indulgence of a 
generous public f" the work must stand upon its own merits, or fall. 

Many of these pages were written without a thought of publication, and, 
therefore, no pains were taken to note authorities. It would not, therefore, 


be at all strange if the author had used facts, reasonings, and even long 
quotations from other works, without acknowledgment. This causes him 
much annoyance, but is now quite beyond his power to remedy. 

Before closing this preface, the author would remark, that it must not be 
presumed that this work is intended to supersede the physician ; on the 
contrary, we do not believe that this book, or any that has been, or ever 
will be written, can supply the place of the intelligent physician at the 
bedside of the patient. 

Should these pages attract the attention of any who have already passed 
the gradum tyronis, it is requested that all such will bear in mind for 
whom these are intended, as they do not profess, by any means, to pre- 
sent a complete and formal treatise upon the particular branch of medicine 
to which they are devoted, but are simply offered, according to the title- 
page, "as a test-book for intelligent heads of families and students in 

With the hope that the work will prove acceptable, and fulfil its design 
in answering all the requirements of the lay practitioner, the author bids it 
" God speed." 

No. 138 Remsen St., March, 1866. 

Beookltn, N. T. 


As this manual is intended for the people at large, — for those who are, 
and for those who are not, familiar with the doctrines and practice of Ho- 
moeopathia, — for those confessing humble literary attainments, as well as 
those more favored in mental culture, — we have endeavored to avoid all t 
ambiguous and technical terms, and to use only such language as would, in 
our opinion, be within the comprehension of all. We are well aware, that, 
in giving the definition and causes of diseases, we have, in many instances, 
used terms not familiar in ordinary language. This, it has been impossible 
to avoid. In the treatment of diseases, however, which is the practical, 
and, therefore, most important and useful part of the work, we have been 
able to come nearer our desires. It has constantly been the endeavor of 
the writer to state in the clearest and simplest possible form, the precise 
ideas wished to be conveyed. To do this, grace of style has, in many 
instances, been sacrificed. This immolation of language, however, is of 
but little account, provided the object aimed at is attained, namely, com- 
manding the attention and the assent of the mass of the people, or of the 
common people, and bringing the whole subject within the easy grasp of 
ordinary intellectual capacity. If we have succeeded in doing this, — and 
we have been so explicit in the practical part of the work, that it seems 
impossible for one who attentively reads, to be left in any doubt as to the 
proper course to pursue, — we have no fear whatever that remedies will be 
misapplied, or that it will ever be necessary to grope in darkness, and pre- 
scribe by chance. For the above reasons, we have not seen fit to append 
a glossary of medical terms, deeming it quite evident that those who are 
unable to understand the text, are most assuredly not sufficiently intelligent 
to have charge of the sick. 

Some knowledge of Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, and Hygiene may 



unquestionably be regarded as useful information for every female in the 
community. All these, though incidentally, are embraced in the body of 
the present work. In the consideration of a number of diseases, it has 
been deemed expedient, for the purpose of conveying a better understand- 
ing of the subject, to give a concise description of the anatomy of the 
parts involved. This, in many instances, will be found of immense value, 
especially to medical students, and all those who wish to obtain a definite, 
correct, and practical knowledge of diseases. As all these divisions are 
distinctly marked, they occasion no confusion, but, on the contrary, render 
the whole article at once intelligible, and its different parts of easy access. 

In order to facilitate their study, every article in the book has been so 
divided that any of its parts may be consulted, without the necessity of 
reading the whole ; so that a person, wishing to ascertain the nature, treat- 
ment, or causes of a given disease, can at once turn directly to the desired 

For reasons already given, the most common names of the various 
diseases have been given, as well as those adopted for the same, in 
nosological works. 


The fundamental principle governing all prescriptions in Homoeopathic 
practice, is that " diseases are cured most quickly, safely and effectually, by 
medicines which are capable of producing symptoms similar to those exist- 
ing in the patient, and which characterize his disease." 

This law of cure is expressed by the maxim, " similia similibus 
curantur ; " and in the adaptation of our remedies to the sick, this thera- 
peutic law of similarity must be scrupulously observed, or our success in 
practice will not be commensurate with our reasonable expectations. 

In prescribing for a given case, great care should be taken that the first 
prescription be as near Homoeopathic * as possible, to the disease ; not that 
there is any danger of doing harm, should a wrong remedy be selected. 
The medicines are given in such minute doses, that they affect only such 
portions of the system as are morbidly susceptible to their action, raised 
to this condition of idiosyncracy by the disease ; and, therefore, if they are 
not Homoeopathic to the disease for which they are prescribed, the whole 
force of their action will be expended upon healthy parts, which are always 
capable of resisting the action of doses much larger than any we ever 
think of giving. Hence, if a remedy does no good, it will do no harm, which 
is considerably more than can be said of other modes of practice. Still, if 
the right remedy is not selected at the outset of the disease, valuable time 
will be wasted. 

In all cases, where the cause of the difficulty can be readily detected, 
the course of treatment to be pursued, becomes at once very much sim- 
plified. Unfortunately, however, it is not always possible to say exactly 

* By this term is meant that the drug, selected for the cure of a disease, should possess 
the power of exciting, in the healthy subject, a series of phenomena similar to the symptoms 
of the disease for which it is administered. 


what is the cause : frequently there are many causes, and besides, after 
the cause has been removed, or passes away, the effect does not always 
immediately disappear. 

Hahnemann has directed us to form a " correct image of the disease," 
by taking cognizance of every symptom of which the patient complains, 
and noting down every detail of the case. Then, from the remedies given, 
select the one that covers the largest number, and the most prominent of 
the symptoms pi'esent. 

The remedy that corresponds to the totality of the symptoms, and 
especially to all the most prominent characteristic and leading ones, should 
be administered in preference to any other, no matter whether such remedy 
be found under the head of the disease of which the patient is complaining, 
or elsewhere. 

If, in making the selection of a remedy, the choice should fall between 
two or more remedies which seem equally indicated, the preference should 
be given to the one which corresponds most nearly to the symptoms which 
appeared last. 

It is often a difficult point, to decide as to which a preference shall be 
given of two remedies, that seemingly are equally indicated in a given 
case, still neither of them corresponding to all the symptoms, or even to 
all the prominent ones, but each covering important points, which the other 
fails to. Many physicians, in such cases, compromise the matter by giving 
the two in alternation. This I believe to be usually a bad practice, though, 
in some few instances, I have recommended it in these pages. There is al- 
ways one remedy that is preferable to another, and that remedy should be 
diligently sought for. By the layman, it may not easily be found, but, by 
the regular practitioner, it generally should. Where more than one reme- 
dy is required to complete a cure, as is frequently the case, they should be 
given in rotation or succession, not in alternation. 

I have heard of physicians prescribing half a dozen different remedies 
at the same time ; — one for fever, one for headache, one indeed for every 
symptom of which the patient complained. Such ignorance is inexcusable. 
The physician who is too indolent to hunt up the appropriate remedy, or 
too ignorant to recognize it, when found, should not be tolerated for a mo- 
ment in charge of a patient. 



Homoeopathic medicines are prepared in the form of tinctures, tritura- 
tions, dilutions, Knd globules. The latter we consider the most convenient 
for general domestic use, and therefore recommend them in this work. 
Some prefer the dilutions, thinking they act with greater certainty, or are 
less liable to deteriorate, or lose their active principle. We are confident, 
however, from long experience and observation, that the globules are just 
as reliable as any other form in which the medicines can be prepared. We 
have found them to act promptly and satisfactorily seven years after having 
been once thoroughly and carefully medicated. Many of our best physi- 
cians prefer them, and use nothing else ; and indeed our higher potencies 
are used in no other form. If the medicines are put up by a reliable phar- 
maceutist, it matters but little, except for convenience' sake, whether they are 
in the form of dilutions or globules. Tinctures and triturations are but 
the primary, or preparatory stages, and by pure homceopathists are seldom, 
if ever, prescribed. 

The medicines should be kept in a chest made for the purpose, in a dry 
place, free from all odors. "When uncorking a phial, care should be taken to 
replace the identical cork, or a new one, should the first get broken. Med- 
icine should never be put into a phial that has been once used, unless indeed 
it be the same medicine that the phial formerly contained. Old corks should 
not be used. Every phial should be plainly labelled, and the potency marked 
upon it. 

The medicines may be administered by placing three or four globules, 
dry, upon the tongue, and let them dissolve. For small children, a less 
number will be sufficient ; for an infant, one globule will be quite sufficient. 
"Where the medicine is to be given for a length of time, at short intervals, it 
is best they should be dissolved in water. For this purpose, take a clean 
tumbler containing about twelve spoonfuls of water ; put twelve globules of 
the selected remedy into the water ; after they are dissolved, stir the solution 
with a clean spoon for several minutes, until the medicine is thoroughly in- 
corporated with the water. Of this solution, one spoonful may be given as 
a dose for an adult ; for an infant, half the quantity. If the tincture is 
used, put one or two drops in a tumbler about one third full of water, and 
administer as above. Should the trituration be used, the size of the dose 


will be about as much as could be placed on a three-cent piece, or taken up 
by the point of a knife. 

Too much care cannot be taken that the vessel in which the medicines are 
prepared are ■perfectly clean. A tumbler is always to be preferred to a cup. 
Cups which are cracked, or have particles of the glazing worn off, are ob- 
jectionable. The spoon, if convenient, should be a silver one, and it 
should never be allowed to remain in the medicine. If more than one 
remedy is used at the same time, each should have a separate spoon. The 
same vessel and spoon should never be used for different medicines, until 
they have been thoroughly washed and rinsed out. 

In most instances, specific directions have been given in the body of the 
work for the repetition of doses. It is difficult to say much upon the sub- 
ject here, as the frequency with which a remedy should be repeated, must 
necessarily be, in a measure, governed by the severity and nature of the 
disease. In mild cases, one dose will often be sufficient to remove the 
trouble. In acute cases, the remedy may be repeated at intervals of 
one or two hours. In those severe and dangerous diseases which rapidly 
run their course to a fatal termination, unless arrested in their progress, it 
may be necessary to repeat the dose as often as every half-hour, until 
amelioration takes place. In chronic cases, a well-chosen remedy need not 
be repeated oftener than once in one, two, or three days. 

A general rule may be here laid down, which, if followed, will be pro- 
ductive of good results. It is this : no matter what the disease, its nature 
or severity, if, after one dose has been given, the patient begins to feel 
better, no matter how slight the improvement may at first be, discontinue 
the medicine at once, and wait the result. In many instances, one dose 
will be sufficient to complete the cure. In all cases, however, as soon as 
the improvement ceases, repeat the dose, or, in case the symptoms have 
assumed a new form, select and administer another remedy. 

If, after the administration of a remedy, a slight aggravation of the 
symptoms should speedily become manifest, it may be taken as a good sign. 
The medicine should be discontinued, and the result, which will soon follow, 
will be a permanent improvement in the condition of the patient, which 
should not be interfered with, as long as it continues, by a repetition of 
the remedy. As soon, however, as improvement ceases, and it becomes 
necessary to repeat the medicine, give it in smaller doses. Should the 
symptoms have altered, select another remedy. 


A medicinal aggravation may be known by the symptoms becoming 
suddenly worse after the exhibition of a remedy. The aggravation of the 
disease is gradual and progressive, manifesting such symptoms as belong to 
the advanced stage of the malady. 

Should a medicinal aggravation be severe, it may be necessary to coun- 
teract it by administering an antidote. See " List of Remedies." 

Sometimes, during the course of a disease, the action of remedies is 
interrupted by some extraneous circumstance, as errors in diet, taking cold, 
and so forth. "Whenever this happens, the interruption should be removed 
by appropriate treatment, after which the previous remedies should be 

A most pernicious and mischievous habit, too often observed in the 
practice of laymen and beginners in Homceopathia, is the frequent changing 
from one remedy to another. A medicine is hastily and inconsiderately 
chosen, of which two or three doses are given in quick succession. If the 
patient does not begin immediately to improve, it is quickly abandoned for 
another, which perhaps bears no more resemblance to the case than the 
first, and this, in turn, without having had an opportunity to exert a salu- 
tary influence, were it perfectly capable of so doing, is as hastily disposed 
of. And thus they fly from one remedy to another, obtaining but little, if 
any, beneficial results from any. This practice cannot be too strongly 

It may be set down, as an invariable rule,, that, after a remedy has been 
judiciously selected, and administered in accordance with directions already 
given, it should not be changed as long as benefit residts from its employ- 
ment, or until a reasonable length of titne has been allowed for its action. 
Still, after a reasonable length of time has been allowed a remedy, and it 
produces no good results, it should be at once exchanged for another that 
has been carefully selected. 


No definite rule can be given as to the potency to be used in all cases. 
Difference in age, sex, temperament, constitution, and habits, renders vari- 
ations, both in the potency used, and the frequency with which the doses 
should be repeated, absolutely essential. Females and children are, gener- 
ally speaking, more susceptible to medicinal influence than others, and, 
therefore, the higher potencies are better adapted to their diseases. 


The potencies, used by physicians in this city, range all the way up from 
the first to the two-hundredth, and higher ; none being willing to confine 
himself to any one particular point. Our own convictions incline us to the 
higher, though we have cured a great many cases with the third, that Ave 
could not with the two-hundredth, but we have cured vastly more with the 
two-hundredth that we could not touch with the third. 

It is recommended that laymen who use this volume should make use 
of the thirtieth potency. This will be found to correspond with the vast 
majority of the cases treated of in the work. Still, we would prefer that 
each one should consult the family physician upon the subject, and then 
act in accordance with his directions. 


To obtain the most satisfactory results from remedies, much depends on 
the adoption of a proper course of diet by the patient during treatment. 
It is of the utmost importance, that the food partaken of should be light, 
of easy digestion, and nutritious, and in quantities just sufficient to satisfy 

The idea is an erroneous one, still very generally entertained, that a pa- 
tient should eat a certain amount of food daily, whether he feels an inclina- 
tion to or not. Food that is not relished, or at least when taken with abso- 
lute repugnance, — " forced down," as the saying is, — adds but little, if 
any, to the patient's strength. 

Our advice always is, to wait until the patient calls for nourishment, or, 
at least, has some little desire for it ; then its judicious administration will 
afford valuable assistance in his restoration from disease. 

The idea is a prevalent one, that the reason Homoeopathic physicians 
place such rigid restrictions upon their patients' diet is, that they imagine 
most articles of food contain sufficient medicinal properties to antidote, or 
turn aside the health-renewing action of their remedies. In regard to a 
few dishes which modern cookery has invented, this objection may be rea- 
sonably advanced, but its universal application, as generally supposed, is 
entirely a mistake. At least, speaking personally, and for ourselves alone, 
it is by no means the principal consideration that governs us in our dietetic 
instructions to patients. Had we no more faith in the reliability of Homoe- 
opathic medicines, than for a moment to suppose that their action could be 


neutralized by the simple seasoning of ordinary food, or by the mineral 
salts held in solution by the water we drink, or that certain remedies, 
arsenicum, for instance, could not be relied on, when given to persons liv- 
ing upon the coast, for fear a breeze from seaward might contain natrum 
muriaticum, sufficient to act as an antidote, we would abandon the practice, 
and seek some other employment. 

We place restrictions upon diet, because we believe the system is inca- 
pacitated by disease, from carrying on, with the same amount of energy, 
the process of converting food into the necessary material for supplying the 
ordinary waste of the body, as in health. We wish to tax the system as 
little as possible, because we believe its capabilities are restricted. The 
process of repair is, in a measure, arrested by every disease, and the first 
intimation we have of a loss of this power is manifested by a loss of ap- 

It should ever be remembered, that we " eat to live," and, therefore, no 
more food should be taken than can be properly digested ; for all food tak- 
en into the system and not digested is like coals thrown upon the fire that 
are not ignited by the flame ; they clog up the furnace, and extinguish what 
little fire was there burning. 

The necessity, therefore, of regulating a patient's diet, so that he shall 
have nothing but what is of easy digestion, is of prime importance. It is 
not only important that the food should be of easy digestion, but no more 
of it should be taken than can be easily disposed, of. 

Deeming this subject an important one, we have treated it at large in 
another part of this work. The reader is referred to that portion of the ar- 
ticle on " Dyspepsia " which speaks of the " Diet and Regimen." 



Beverages. Pure cold water : this should have the preference over all 
other drinks. There is no disease, where its free use in moderate quanti- 
ties is not allowable. Should it be preferred, the water may be sweetened 
with sugar, currant jelly, raspberry or strawberry syrup, or quince and 
apple jelly ; barley-water, rice-water, toast-water; cocoa, milk ; and all other 
beverages of a non-medicinal nature. 


• Gruels, made of oat-meal, wheat-flour, farina, rice-flour, corn-meal, corn 
starch, pearl barley, tapioca, 

Soup or Broth, made from beef, mutton, or chicken, to which may be 
added rice or barley, or any other farinaceous article ; also vegetable soups. 

Meats. Beef, mutton, chickens, pigeons, turkeys, all kinds of tongue and 
venison, game of all kinds in its season. 

Fish. Cod, rock-fish, perch, flounders, haddock, pike, perch, trout, mack- 
erel, and herrings. 

Salt fish should be well soaked in cold water before it is used. 

Oysters roasted in the shell, made into soup, or raw, are not only nutri- 
tious, but of easy digestion. 

Vegetables. Potatoes, beets, green peas, all kinds of beans, when young 
and tender, carrots, turnips, tomatoes, spinach, cauliflower, cabbage, and, in 
some cases, asparagus, mushrooms, dried peas and beans. All kinds of 
vegetables ought to be well cooked ; potatoes are best when roasted. 

Puddings, made of arrow-root, rice, sago, tapioca, Indian meal, corn- 
starch, farina, oat-meal, barley flour, and so forth. Puddings should not 
be made too rich ; eggs, milk, and sugar, ought to be used sparingly. 

Bread and Calces. All kinds of fight bread not recently baked, biscuits, 
simple cakes. 

Eggs, lightly dressed, either boiled, poached, or made up into custards. 

Fruits. Baked, stewed, or preserved apples or pears, raspberries, 
whortleberries, blackberries, strawberries, peaches, oranges, plums, apricots, 
watermelons, muskmelons, &c. Also, some kinds of dried fruit, as dates, 
prunes, figs, or, in fact, any fruit not of too acid a quality. 

No fruit whatever, except, perhaps, peaches and blackberries, should be 
used in case of bowel-complaints. 

Milk. Milk, either raw or boiled, may be used, provided it agrees ; the 
same may, also, be said of fresh buttermilk. 

The above list is given to convey an approximate idea of what is whole- 
some, and will not disagree, under ordinary circumstances, with an invalid, 
provided it is taken in proper quantities, and at regular intervals. Still, 
all such regulations are subject to considerable modifications, for, as it is 
frequently said, " "What is one's meat is another's poison," so individual pe- 
culiarities must be studied and consulted. "Whatever is known or found 
upon trial to disagree, should be scrupulously avoided. 

Regularity in the hours of meals should be observed. Too long fasting* 
as well as too frequent eating, is to be deprecated. 




Beverages. All kinds of liquors, coffee, green tea, lemonade, and all 
acidulated drinks. — See " Diet during Nursing." 

Meats. Pork, veal, sausages, kidney, geese, ducks, mince-pies, and every 
kind of salted or fat meat. 

Soups. All high-seasoned soups, such as turtle, mock-turtle, &c. 

Fish. Crabs, lobsters, clams, and all kinds of fish not mentioned in 
" Articles allowed." 

Vegetables. Cucumbers, onions, radishes, celery, parsnips, garlic, all 
kinds of pepper, pickles, and salads of every description. 
• Pastry of every description, whether boiled, baked, or fried. 

Spices and artificial sauces of every kind. All condiments, as catsup, 
vinegar, and mustard. 

Perfumery of every description, as well as medic'ated or scented tooth- 

Rancid cheese and butter. 

All kinds of nuts, and fruits not mentioned among the articles allowed. 

All patent medicines, and every description of domestic medicine, no 
matter how simple, as well as all external applications, medicated plas- 
ters or poultices, and all irritants. 



1. Aconitum or Aconite — Aconitum-napellus. Monk's Hood (plant). 
Antidotes — Wine, Vinegar, Camphor, Nux-vom. 

2. Alumina — Oxide of Aluminum (mineral). Antidotes — Bryonia, Cham- 
omilla, Ipecac. 

3. Antimonium-crud. — Antimony (mineral). Antidotes — Hepar-sulph., 
Mercurius, Pulsatilla. 

4. Apis-mellifica — Poison of the honey-bee. Antidotes — Arsenicum, 

5. Arnica — Arnica-montana, Leopard's Vane (plant). Antidotes — Cam- 
phor, Ignatia, Ipecac. 

6. Arsenicum — Arsenicum-album (mineral). Antidotes for its poisonous 
effects — Rust of Iron. For its dynamic effects — China, Hepar-sulph., Ipecac. 
Nux-vom., Veratrum. 

7. Aurum — Aurum-metallicum, Gold (metal). Antidotes — Belladonna, 
China, Cuprum, Mercurius. 

8. Belladonna — Deadly Night-shade (plant). Antidotes — Coffea, Hy- 
oscyamus, Hepar-sulph., Pulsatilla. 

9. Borax — Borax-veneta, Sub-borate of Soda (mineral). Antidotes — 
Chamomilla, Coffea. 

10. Bromine — (Chemical Element). Antidotes — Coffea, Opium, Camphor, 

11. Bryonia — Bryonia-alba, White Bryonia (plant). Antidotes — Aconite, 
Chamomilla, Ignatia, Nux-vom. 

12. Calcarea-carb. — Carbonate of Lime. Antidotes — Camphor, Nitric 
acid, Sulphur. 

13. Camphora — Camphor. Antidotes — Opium, Nitris spiritus dulcis. 

- 14. Cannabis — Cannabis-sativa, Hemp (plant). Antidote — Camphora. 
-~ 15. Cantharis — Spanish Fly (animal). Antidote — Camphora. 

16. Capsicum — Cayenne Pepper (vegetable). Antidote — Camphor. 

17. Carbo-vegetabilis — Wood-Charcoal. Antidotes — Arsenicum, Cam- 
phor, Lachesis. 

18. Causticum — Caustic of the Alkalies. Antidotes — Coffea, Nux-vom., 

19. Chamomilla — Common Chamomile. Antidotes — Aconite, Cocculus, 
Coffea, Ignatia, Nux-vom., Pulsatilla. 



18. China — Cinchona, Peruvian Bark (vegetable). Antidotes — Arnica, 
Arsenicum, Belladonna, Calcarea-carb., Ipecac, Carbo-veg., Sulphur. 

19. Cicuta — Cicuta-virosa, Water-Hemlock (plant). Antidotes — Arnica 

- 20. Cina — Wormseed (vegetable). Antidotes — Ipecac, Veratrum. 

21. Cinnamonum — Cinnamon (vegetable). Antidotes — 

22. Coccionella — Cochineal (animal). 

23. Cocculus — Indian Cockle (vegetable). Antidotes — Camphor, Nux- 

24. Coffea — Coffea-cruda, Raw Coffee (vegetable). Antidotes — Aconite, 
Chamomilla, Nux-vom. 

24. Colchicum — Meadow Saffron (plant.) Antidote — Nux-vom. Coc- 
culus, Pulsatilla. 

24. Colocynthis — Colocynth, Bitter Cucumber (vegetable). Antidote — 
Camphor, Causticum, Coffea, Chamomilla. 

25. Canium — Hemlock (vegetable). Antidotes — Coffea, Spiritus nitris dulcis. 

26. Corallia — Red Coral (mineral). Antidote — Calc-carb. 

27. Crocus — Crocus-sat., Saffron (vegetable). Antidote — 

28. Cuprum — Cuprum-metallicum, Copper (mineral). Antidotes — Bella- 
donna, China, Ipecac, Mercurius, Nux-vom. 

29. Digitalis — Digitalis-purpurea, Fox-glove (plant). Antidotes — Nux- 
vom., Opium. 

30. Drosera — Round-leaved Sun-dew (vegetable). Antidote — Camphor. 

31. Dulcamara — Bitter-sweet, Woody Nightshade (plant). Antidotes — 
Camphor, Ipecac, Mercurius. 

32. Euphrasia — Eye-bright (plant). Antidote — Pulsatilla. 

33. Ferrum — Ferrum-metallicum, Iron (metal). Antidotes — Arnica, Ar- 
senicum, Ipecac, Mercurius, Belladonna, Pulsatilla. 

34. Glonolne — A Chemical Preparation from Glycerine, Nitrate of Oxide 
of Glycil. 

35. Graphites — Plumbago, Pure Black-Lead (metal). Antidotes — Ar- 
senicum, Nux-vom., Wine. 

36. Helleborus — Helleborus-niger, Black Hellebore (plant). Antidotes — 
Camphor, China. 

37. Hepar-sulph. — Sulphuret of Lime. A.ntidotes — Vinegar, Belladonna. 

38. Hyoscyamus — Hyoscyamus-niger, Henbane (plant). Antidotes — Bel- 
ladonna, Camphor, China. , 

39. Hamamelis — Hamamelis-virginica, Witch Hazel (plant). 

40. IgnAtia — St. Ignatius' Bean (plant). Antidotes — Pulsatilla, Chamo- 
milla, Camphor, Cocculus, Vinegar, Arnica. 

41. Ipecac. — Ipecacuanha (vegetable). Antidotes — Arsenicum, Arnica, 

42. Kali-bichromicum — Bichromate of Potash (mineral). Antidote — 

43. Kali-carbonicum — Carbonate of Potash (mineral). Antidotes — 
Camphor, Coffea. 

44. Kalmia — Kalmia-latifolia, Moun tain Laurel, Broad-leaved Laurel (plant) . 

45. Kreosotum — Creosote, an oxy-hydro-carburet (vegetable). Anti- 
dotes — Aconite, Nux-vom., China, Arsenicum. 


46. Lachesis — Trigonoeephalus Lachesis, the chemical extract of the virus 
of the South American Snake (animal). Antidotes — Arsenicum, Belladonna, 
Nux-vom., Rhus-tox. 

47. Ledum — Ledum-palustre, Marsh-tea (vegetable). Antidote — Camphor. 
4S. Lycopodium — Club Moss, Wolfs Claw (vegetable). Antidotes — Cam- 
phor, Pulsatilla. 

49. Mercurius — Mercurius-solubilis Hahnemanni, Hahnemann's Prepara- 
tion of Mercury (mineral). Antidotes — Arnica, Belladonna, Camphora, Hepar- 
sulph., Iodine, Lachesis, Sulphur. [There are several preparations of Mercury ; 
those generally used are the Mercurius-sol., Mercurius-vivus (Quicksilver), Mer- 
curius-cor., Mercurius-iodatus.] 

50. Mephitis putorius — Skunk (animal). Antidote — Camphor. 

51. Mezereum — (plant). Antidotes — Camphor, Mercurius. 

52. Muriatic-acid — Acidum Muriaticum (mineral). Antidotes — Camphor, 

53. Nateum — Natrum-muriaticum, Muriate of Soda, Kitchen-Salt (min- 
eral). Antidotes — Arsenicum, Camphor, Nitris-spiritus. 

54. Nitric-acid — Nitri Acidum (mineral). Antidotes — Calcarea, Cam- 
phor, Conium, Hepar-sulph., Sulphur. 

55. Nux-moschata — Myristica Moschata, Nutmeg, from the East Indies, 
(vegetable). Antidote — Camphor. 

56. Nux- vomica — Strychnos, Nux-vomica (vegetable). Antidotes — Aco- 
nite, Camphor, Coffea, Pulsatilla. 

57. Opium — White Poppy (vegetable). Antidotes — Camphor, Coffea, Cal- 
carea, Hepar-sulph., Sulphur. 

58. Petroleum — Mineral Oil. Antidotes — Aconite, Cocculus, Nux-vom. 
~~ 59. Phosphorus — (mineral). Antidotes — Camphor, Coffea, Nux-vom. 

60. Platina — (Mineral). Antidotes — Belladonna, Pulsatilla. 

61. Plumbum — Lead (mineral). Antidotes — Belladonna, Opium. 

62. Podophyllum — May Apple (vegetable). Antidote — Nux-vom. 

63. Pulsatilla — Meadow Anemone (plant). Antidotes — Chamomilla 
Coffea, Ignatia, Nux-vomica. 

64. Rheum — Rhubarb (vegetable). Antidotes — Camphor, Coffea, Ignatia, 

65. Rhus — Rhus-toxicodendron, Sumach, Poison Oak (vegetable). Anti- 
dotes — Belladonna, Bryonia, Camphor, Coffea, Sulphur. 

66. SablnA.— Savin (plant). Antidote — Camphor. 

67. Sambucus — Sambucus Nigra, Elder Flowers (vegetable). Antidotes — 
Arsenicum, Camphor. 

68. Sanguinaria — Sanguinaria Canadensis, Common Blood-root (vegeta- 

69. Secale — Secale-cornutum, Ergot of Rye (vegetable). Antidotes — 
Camphor, Opium. 

70. Sepia — Inky Juice of the Cuttle-Fish (animal). Antidotes — Aconite, 

71. Silicea — Silicious Earth (mineral). Antidotes — Camphor, Hepar- 
sulph. r 

72. Spigelia — Spigelia Anthelmintica, Indian Pink (vegetable). Anti- 
dotes — Camphora, Aurum. 


73. Spongia — Spongia-tosta, Burnt Sponge. Antidote — Camphora. 

74. St annum — Pure Tin (metal). Antidotes — Coffea, Pulsatilla. 

"" 75. Staphysagria — Stavisacre (vegetable). Antidote — Camphora. 
- 76. Stramonium — Thorn Apple (vegetable). Antidotes — Belladonna, 

77. Sulphur — (mineral). Antidotes — Aconite, Camphora, Mercury, Nux- 
vom., Pulsatilla. 

78. Sulphuric-acid — Oil of Vitriol (mineral). Antidote — Pulsatilla. 

79. Tartar Emetic — Tartarus Emeticus, Stibium, Tartarized Antimony 
(mineral). Antidotes — Cocculus, Ipecac, Pulsatilla. 

80. Teucrium — Teucrum Marum Verum, Germander (plant). Anti- 
dotes — Camphora, Ignatia. 

81. Thuja — Thuja-occidentalis, Arbor Vitse, Tree of Life (vegetable). 
Antidotes — Camphora, Pulsatilla. 

82. Veratrum — Veratrum-album, White Hellebore (vegetable). Anti- 
dotes — Ipecac, Arsenic, Camphora, Coffea, Aconite, China. 

83. Viola tri-color — Jacea, Heart's-ease, Violet (plant). Antidote — 


Cantharis Tincture. 

Arnica Tincture. 

Calendula Tincture. 

Ruta Tincture. 

Urtica-urens Tincture. 

Staphysagria Tincture. 

Hypericum Perfoliatum Tincture. 


The use of these tinctures is specially referred to in the book whenever 
needed. They are intended for external use only. 





General Remarks. — Perhaps no function of the female econ- 
omy is so imperfectly understood by those most interested — the 
females themselves — as that of menstruation. Indeed, this is not 
to he wondered at, when we remember that all the investigations 
and writings upon > the subject have been confined to that branch 
of literature, which seldom comes within their range of observa- 
tion. Besides, what has been written upon the subject, till within 
a comparatively short time, has been so speculative and hypotheti- 
cal, and so mystified with verbiage, which writers have seen fit to 
use in endeavoring to explain what they themselves but imperfectly 
understood, that none but an earnest seeker after truth would 
ever have the patience to wade through it. It would take a scholar 
indeed to extract the wheat from the chaff. 

Deeming it next to impossible to make any one understand 
the disorders of menstruation without first imparting some little 
information in regard to the normal condition of the function, I 
shall endeavor, in this article, to lay before the reader, in as short 
and comprehensive a manner as possible, the true theory of men- 
struation, its causes, and its use, as settled by scientific investiga- 
tions within the last thirty years. 

Perhaps no question has excited so much controversy and 
speculation, or such earnest desire and constant inquiry after 
truth, as what could be the cause of the regular menstruation in 
woman. The ancients had many superstitious notions in regard 



to it ; and to this day, many of their rules and observances are 
still regarded by not a few among the lower classes of society. 
The wonderful periodicity and regularity of the menses, their 
recurrence once in each, lunar month, led to a general conviction, 
that, like the tides of the ocean, their return was governed by the 
moon. It is somewhat strange that this opinion should have 
gained such universal credence, when, at any day in the month, 
millions of persons could testify to its fallacy. For, here, in this 
city, there is not an hour in the whole year, but that women are, 
one or another, in every stage of the term. Did the influence of 
the moon have anything to do with it, this would not be so, but 
all women would be unwell at the same time. 

Other hypotheses have been advanced, and have found favor, 
more, perhaps, from the ability of their authors than from any 
merit which they possess. But so obscure, indeed, lay that un- 
known force, the real cause of the menstrual hemorrhage, in spite 
• of. all the researches, conjectures, and observations of the most 
learned men in the profession, that near twenty-five hundred years 
passed before a satisfactory conclusion was arrived at, and the 
essential truth was discovered. 

Perhaps no one has done more to satisfy the inquiring mind that 
the true theory of menstruation has been arrived at, than Dr. 
Meigs, of Philadelphia. He has exhausted the whole subject in his 
writings and lectures before his class. To him I am largely 
indebted for the material of this article. 

"Omne vivum ex ovo" (the germ of all life is the egg or cell), 
is the universal, sole law or principle of reproduction. This has 
been controverted by some, and we have had set forth several 
theories of generation ; but we might as well suppose half a doz- 
en laws of therapeutics, of elective attraction, or of gravitation, as 
to suppose a number of reproductive laws or principles. There 
is but one law. Men of eminence and ability, who have made 
this subject their study, have brought forward an overwhelming 
amount of evidence in support of our assertion. 

The violet by the wayside, the sturdy oak upon the mountain- 
top, the sparrow that chirps in the hedge, the lion that roams 
through the forest, and man, — God's last and noblest work, — 
are all produced by the one, same, inherent, generic law. 

Every grain of wheat, every kernel, every seed, and every egg, 
whether it be of the humming-bird or of the ostrich, contains a 
germ within it which, when brought within known and proper 


conditions, is capable of reproducing organized bodies, each after 
its own kind. When we plant wheat, we expect to grow wheat 
from it ; and when we plant an acorn, we expect an oak. So 
far it is all plain enough ; but the great mystery of generation, 
especially in all the zoological series, was the production of 
germs. Whence came they? It is now ascertained that each 
animal, as well as each plant, that comes into existence, is pro- 
vided with an organ for the evolution of germs or cells. This 
organ in the human female — : and it is of her only that we deem 
it necessary to speak — is the ovary. The ovaries are two in 
number, small, oval bodies, about an inch in length, rather more 
than half an inch in breadth, and a third of an inch in thickness. 
In general terms, this measurement would answer ; but the size 
of the ovaries differs in different women: some are larger, and 
some are smaller. Each ovary is attached to an angle of the 
womb, by means of a ligament, which is about one inch in length. 
Their situation, in relation to adjacent parts, varies, at different 
ages, and also according to the state of the uterus. Being 
attached to within about an inch of the upper portion of the 
womb, they are low down in the pelvis, or up in the abdomen, 
according as that organ is distended by pregnancy, or otherwise. 

Now, the physiological function and sole duty of the ovary is, to 
mature and deposit its ova, or eggs, which contain the germs, 
once in every twenty-eight days ; and this it does, in the majority 
of healthy females, with great regularity. 

The microscopic egglet, thus produced, measuring no more than 
the two-hundred-and-fortieth of an inch in. diameter, is, in every 
essential, an egg. In fact, the egg of a canary bird is no more a 
perfect egg, than is this ovum of the human female. 

During the maturition and depositing or discharging of the 
ovum into the canal or tube, which conducts it into the womb, 
the whole vascular apparatus of the generative organs is turgid 
or congested, looking almost as if inflamed. This local congestion 
rises to such a height that it, as it were, overflows and produces 
the outward signs of menstruation, — a discharge of bloody fluid 
from the genitalia. This fluid exudes from the vessels on the 
inner surface of the womb, and completely relieves the engorge- 
ment. As the flow commences, the heat and aching in the region 
of the ovaries, and the weight and dragging sensation in the 
pelvis, which almost all women experience, gradually diminish, and 
finally all disappear. 


You will therefore observe, that the whole act of menstruation 
consists simply in the depositing or discharging of an ovum or 
egg, which, when not impregnated, is washed away by the men- 
strual fluid, — the . menstrual fluid being nothing more nor less 
than an exudation of blood from the inner surface of the womb. 

The periodicity of menstruation has excited a good deal of 
wonder and controversy. And, really, I cannot see why it should 
have done so ; for if we look about us, and consider for a moment, 
we shall observe that, throughout the animal and the vegetable 
kingdom, germ-production takes place, not continuously, but at 
stated times. Why should it be otherwise with our race ? It is 
the same. 

We all know when fruit and vegetables are ripe ; when the farmer 
mows and reaps his harvest ; when the tulips bud and blossom ; when 
birds and animals produce their young. Every lady knows at what 
season of the year to go out to gather the seeds from her flowers. 
The farmer does not dig his potatoes in spring, cut his corn nor 
reap his wheat in June, — and why ? Because he knows they are 
not ripe. The germ-production is not completed. All this should 
teach us that the paroxysmal, periodical maturing of germs is a 
law of nature. And if every vegetable and every other animal 
obeys it, why should not woman, in her monthly term. 

It may also be remarked, that, by the same wonderful law of 
which we have been speaking, all forms of existence are kept 
within prescribed and proper limits. The blade of grass of 
to-day is an exact copy of- its primitive pattern. Nature makes 
no improvements. Her laws are perfect from the first ; every 
animal that inhabits this globe, all plants and trees, are exact 
copies of those which preceded them ten thousand years ago. 
The same force which governs one governs all, and keeps them in 
their pristine purity, as free from admixture as when they first 
issued from the hands of the Creator. 

It is only when civilized man interferes with nature that we find 
deviations from her laws. We find mongrels and crosses only 
among domestic plants and animals. It is the work of man. 

Adopting this theory, that the essential feature of menstruation 
consists in the periodical maturition and spontaneous deposit of 
an ovum, — the menstrual flow being but the outward visible sign 
of such an act, — it is possible that a woman may menstruate 
regularly and truly without having the least show. This may 
sound strange to one who has read or thought but little upon the 


subject. But there is not the least doubt that many women are 
perfectly regular who give not the least outward sign of it. This 
is proved by the fact that many a female has become pregnant 
who has never menstruated at all. There are not a few cases 
upon record, where a young woman reaching the age of puberty, 
gets married, becomes pregnant, and has a child, without ever 
having seen the first outward sign or show. Again, it is not at all 
uncommon for a woman to have two, three, or more children, 
without, in the meantime, ever having had a sign of regular 
menstruation. We have every reason to suppose, that germ- 
production takes place regularly, though perhaps feebly, through 
the whole nursing period, although the woman does not perceive 
that she menstruates, — the function of supplying milk being suffi- 
cient to turn aside or draw off the nervous and sanguine deter- 
mination from the organs of generation. 

The foregoing remarks may be sufficient to show, that because 
a woman does not have her menses just at the time it is expected, 
she does not necessarily need "doctoring;" because though she 
does not seem regular, she really may be. 

Great alarm is often created in the minds of parents, because 
their child fails to menstruate as early in life as they expected she 
should. And, not unfrequently, all sorts of quack nostrums are 
resorted to, to induce or force the discharge. If the young lady 
be bright, cheerful and active, if her health appears good, and no 
derangement is observable, though she does not have her menses, 
medical interference is unnecessary and unjustifiable. In such a 
condition of affairs, the work should be left to nature. 

The first Accession of the Menstrua. — Menstruation, menses, 
catamenia, courses, monthly periods, and being " unwell," are 
some of the conventional terms by which this periodical deposit 
of an ovum, and its accompanying discharge of blood and mucus, 
are designated. 

In this country, the sexual function is not assumed until the 
fourteenth or fifteenth year ; in warm climates, it appears some- 
what earlier, and in cold ones later. Perhaps situations and con- 
ditions have as much to do with the early or late appearance of 
the catamenia as has the climate. It has been observed that 
those who are brought up luxuriously, and whose moral and 
physical training has been such as to exaggerate the susceptibili- 
ties of their nervous system, are unwell at an earlier period than 
those who are brought up roughly, and are accustomed to coarse 
food and laborious employment. 


The appearance of the menses previous to the fourteenth year 
is to be regretted, because it indicates a premature development 
of certain parts; and, on the other hand, a late or retarded first 
appearance is always to be regarded as an evidence of weakness, 
or disorder. An undeveloped state of the uterine organs, indi- 
cated by a procrastinated, or non-eruption of the menstrua, 
always, in the minds of physicians, excites apprehensions for the 
welfare and security of the person in whom it is observed. In 
such cases, we often find the general character and appearance of 
the body blighted, the mind dull and weak, with the chest and 
lungs insufficiently developed, — all of which render the patient an 
easy prey to disease. 

The first accession of the menses is generally preceded by the 
following symptoms : headache, heaviness, languor, pains in the 
back, loins, and down the thighs, and an indisposition to exertion. 
" There is a peculiar dark tint of the countenance, particularly 
under the eyes, and occasionally uneasiness, or a sense of constric- 
tion in the throat. The cutaneous perspiration has often a faint 
or sickly odor, and the smell of the breath is peculiar. The 
breasts are enlarged and tender. The appetite is fastidious and 
capricious, and digestion impaired. These symptoms continue 
one, two, or three days, and subside as the menses appear." The 
period continues during three, five, or seven days, according to 
the peculiarities of the constitution. The quantity of the men- 
strual discharge varies in different women. Some have to make 
but one change during the whole period. This, however, is un- 
common, as they generally average from ten to fifteen. 

These monthly periods return with great regularity, from the 
age of fourteen or thereabout, to the forty-fifth year, except 
during pregnancy. At about the forty-fifth year, the final cessa- 
tion of menstruation takes place. This period is one which often 
excites the fears of females ; not unfrequently the symptoms, 
which present themselves at this time, such as sickness at the 
stomach, capricious appetite, swelling and pain in the breast, etc., 
are mistaken for those of pregnancy. Menstruation rarely ceases 
at once ; more commonly the change is gradual, and, for a time, 
is attended with irregularities. Sometimes the discharge returns 
every two or three weeks, then ceases for two months, or per- 
haps more, returning again, perhaps as regular as ever, for a few 
months, when it finally disappears altogether. 

During the menstrual period, especially in young persons, great 


care should be taken to ward off all influences, whether mental 
or physical, which may have the least possible tendency either to 
interrupt or to increase the discharge. Because, upon the healthy 
and regular action of the discharge depends so much of the beauty, 
perfection, and security of the female. During this period there 
is an increased susceptibility and excitability of the system, and 
consequently a greater liability to derangements and to diseases 
of various kinds. 

Serious and even dangerous results often follow a sudden sup- 
pression of the menses. Among the causes which produce trouble 
during this period, we may mention, — sudden frights, fits of 
anger, great anxiety, and all powerful mental emotions. Exces- 
sive exertions of every kind, long walks or long rides, especially 
over rough roads, dancing, frequent running up and down stairs, 
have a tendency not only to increase the discharge, but to pro- 
duce falling of the womb. The discharge is not unfrequently 
morbidly increased, or entirely arrested by taking purgatives, 
emetics, stimulants, and the various patent medicines recom- 
mended for female weaknesses. Cold and warm bathing, hip and 
foot baths should be discontinued during the period. Care should 
also be taken, not to expose the feet to cold or wet. Females sub- 
ject to leucorrhcea and who are taking vaginal injections, should 
discontinue them shortly before and during this period. 

During the menstrual period in a healthy person, there is little 
required besides carefully avoiding the injurious mental and phys- 
ical influences above-mentioned. If, however, the female be deli- 
cate, and suffering from any of the various derangements of 
menstruation, medical treatment should at once be secured. 

(first menses.) 

Definition. — When the menses do not appear at the period of 
life, at which they may be naturally expected, we call it delayed 
or retained menstruation. This delay may be owing to a disor- 
dered condition of the general system, or to functional inactivity, 
or weakness of the uterine organs themselves. By obstructed 
menstruation is meant an actual impediment to the flow. In such 
cases there is periodically an evident effort on the part of nature 
to produce the change, the patient having all the premonitory 
signs, the pains, aches, etc., the ovaries and womb perform their 


part, but still the flow does not appear ; there is an obstruction, 
either at the mouth of the womb or somewhere within the vagina. 
This obstruction may be congenital, — that is, having existed from 
birth ; or it may be the result of some former disease, — inflamma- 
tion, perhaps, of the parts. 

Causes.- — Delayed and obstructed menstruation may arise from 
so many causes, and present such a complication of symptoms, 
that it requires the skill of an experienced physician to treat them 
successfully. I shall, therefore, simply enumerate some of the 
causes and symptoms of the disease, only tendering the advice that 
all these cases should be placed under the care of an intelligent 
homoeopathic physician. 

It has already been stated that, as a general thing, regular men- 
struation, in this country at least, does not take place until about 
the fourteenth or fifteenth year. Whenever it is delayed beyond 
the sixteenth year we have good reason to have serious apprehen- 
sions for the security and future health of the individual in whom 
it is observed. 

Among the causes of delayed menstruation we have enumerated 
an imperfect or late development of the uterine organs, functional 
inactivity, weakness or disorder of the uterus or ovaries, or an 
entire absence of these two organs. Perhaps, in the majority of 
cases, the direct or immediate cause lies in some peculiar condition 
of the ovaries. It is most frequently met with in those who lead 
indolent and sedentary lives, who indulge in luxurious and gross 
diet, and who have been accustomed to hot rooms, soft beds, and 
much sleep. 

As a cause, we may also mention the vicious system of modern 
fashionable education, over-taxation of the mental faculties ; want 
of exercise in the open air ; badly lighted, cold, and damp dwell- 
ings ; sudden and extreme atmospheric changes. 

The disease is not unfrequently a mere symptomatic or sympa- 
thetic condition, dependent upon some disease existing in a distant 
part or organ of the body. 

The causes of obstructed menstruation are, an imperfect hymen, 
total or partial obliteration of the vagina, or closure of the mouth 
of the womb. Either of these causes, you will readily observe, 
could only be detected by a physician. Hence the necessity of 
having counsel in these cases. 

Symptoms. — In delayed menstruation the symptoms of uterine 
congestion, such as an aching pain in the region of the ovaries, a 


weight in the lower part of the abdomen, aching in the tops of 
the hips, etc., are almost or entirely wanting. Or, occasionally, or 
even monthly, an apparent attempt at menstruation occurs, char- 
acterized by the usual symptoms preceding the discharge. After 
two or three days, these symptoms all subside without any men- 
strual evacuation, or merely with leucorrhceal discharge. 

These cases always present a great many symptoms of constitu- 
tional derangement. There is a general lassitude, with great 
aversion to exercise, either mental or physical. The bowels be- 
come irregular, the countenance pale, the skin discolored, the 
general appearance bloated and flabby, the pulse small and fre- 
quent, the breathing short and hurried. There is headache and 
buzzing in the ears. Digestion becomes deranged ; there is a 
taste for strange things, — to eat chalk, slate-pencils, pickles, vine- 
gar, etc. Nausea and vomiting are frequent accompaniments. 
Various hysterical symptoms manifest themselves through the 
course of the disease. 

If relief is not obtained, the general health gradually declines, 
and the patient passes into chlorosis, tubercular consumption, or 
some one of the various nervous ailments, hysteria, epilepsy, etc. 

The symptoms of obstructed menstruation are somewhat different 
from those which attend delayed menstruation. In these cases, 
we have monthly exacerbations of all the symptoms preceding 
menstruation. All the outward signs of puberty are present. 
The patient complains of pain in the back, loins, and hips ; of dis- 
tention of the lower part of the abdomen, and of a sense of weight 
and bearing down. Still there is no show. These symptoms are 
increased every month ; the fulness in the abdomen is augmented 
at each monthly period, and the general health becomes very 
much affected. In these cases menstruation takes place regularly, 
but the flow is prevented by some obstruction. The menstrual 
blood is confined within either the womb or vagina; of course, 
each monthly period increases the distention of the parts, and, if 
rupture of the parietes does not take place, as sometimes occurs, 
the general health gives way, and the patient dies from the gen- 
eral disorder thus induced. 

Treatment. — It is not necessary to put a girl under a course 
of medical treatment, simply because a regular monthly evacua- 
tion does not take place as early in life as it is usually expected, 
because a female may be regular in her menstruation and still 
have no show at all. — " See Menstruation." If the girl be bright. 


cheerful, and active ; if her general health appear good, and no 
derangement is observable, leave the case to nature. When, 
however, the symptoms above enumerated begin to show them- 
selves, and it is evident that nature, without assistance, is unable 
to effect the change, judicious medical treatment should at once 
be instituted. But, of all things beware of what are called forc- 
ing medicines. Many a female has ruined her health by resorting 
to quack medicines of this description. 

My remarks upon treatment shall be brief, and they shall be 
confined to the first stage of the disease. When the remedies 
here recommended do not afford relief, apply to a homoeopathic 
practitioner without delay. Where the difficulty apparently arises 
from close application to study, or close confinement in school, 
or from sedentary habits, proper attention to out-door exercise, 
and a little restriction of diet, will generally produce a healthy 
state of the function. The girl should be removed from school ; 
studies should be banished ; a cheerful disposition should be cul- 
tivated ; out-door exercise, either walking or riding, is a capital 
remedy ; wear warm stockings and thick shoes ; change the 
clothing to suit the variations of temperature, but always have it 
warm ; avoid all stimulating food and drinks ; eschew tea and 
coffee ; avoid exposure to night air ; keep regular hours ; retire 
early, and rise early in the morning. 

The remedies most applicable to this disorder, are, Pulsatilla, 
Bryonia, Lycopodium, Phosphorus, Arsenicum, Sulphur. 

Bryonia. — Where there is congestion to the head, with fre- 
quent nose-bleeding, palpitation of the heart and constipation. 
Lycopodium is suitable for similar symptoms. 

Pulsatilla. — This remedy is especially adapted to females of a 
mild, easy disposition, inclined rather to weep, than to be angry 
or fretful. Paleness of the face, with flushes of heat ; loss of ap- 
petite with desire for acids ; sour taste in the mouth after eating ; 
nausea and vomiting. After Pulsatilla give Sulphur. 

Phosphorus. — Where there is a predisposition to lung disease ; 
delicate constitution ; weak chest ; cough ; pain in the chest ; ex- 
pectoration of blood. 

Arsenicum. — In those cases attended with dropsical swellings 
either of the feet or about the eyes ; pale complexion ; great 

Administration of Remedies. — Give either of the above reme- 
dies, according to the indications, a dose every morning for one 


week ; if the symptoms abate, wait one week without medicine, 
and afterwards give one dose of Sulphur every evening, for a 
week. If not better, select another remedy and apply in the same 

Dose, six globules, or dissolve twelve globules in six spoonfuls 
of water, and take one spoonful of the solution at a time. — See 
" Chlorosis" 


Definition. — By the term menorrhagia is to be understood an 
immoderate flow of the menses. The quantity of blood eliminated 
from the uterus at each menstrual period cannot be definitely 
ascertained. In this country, perhaps, the amount varies from 
four to eight ounces. However,. every woman in good health, has 
a rate of her own ; some discharge one ounce, and some discharge 
eight, or ten, or more, at each period. Therefore, what would be 
excessive for one woman, might be quite moderate for another. 
Less than four, I think, may be considered scanty, and more than 
eight or ten, excessive. The quantity discharged at each period 
may be approximately estimated by the number of napkins used. 
Half an ounce, or about one table spoonful would render a napkin 
quite uncomfortable. Then eight napkins would contain about 
four ounces ; and twenty, ten ounces. 

Excessive menstruation may occur in a variety of ways ; the 
evacuation may return too frequently, or too copiously, and con- 
tinue for too long a period. 

Causes. — Some females are hereditarily predisposed to uterine 
hemorrhages. There is a weak condition, or rather a relaxed or 
flabby state of the texture of the uterus. The same condition, 
however, may be induced by frequent child-bearing, by abortions, 
by prolonged or too frequent suckling, by rich living, indolence, 
hot rooms, and soft beds. 

Among the exciting causes of profuse menstruation, we may 
mention over-exertion, lifting heavy weights, running up and 
down stairs, dancing, local injuries, falls, the use of drastic medi- 
cines, irritating purgatives, exposure to cold, and mental excite- 
ment and moral emotions. Young girls, as well as grown and 
married women, are subject to menorrhagia. In them, the dis- 
order is generally dependent upon a weak, enervated condition 
of the uterine organs. This is especially the case with school- 


girls, whose mental application is severe, and whose opportunity 
for physical out-door exercise is limited. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms are similar to those of ordinary 
menstruation, except the flow is greatly increased, and consists 
of a purer blood than that of the regular catamenial evacuation. 
Sometimes the discharge, though natural enough otherwise, con- 
tinues for too long a period, lasting two, or even three weeks. 
Again, although natural, at least in quantity, it may return too 
frequently, as every two or three weeks. As a general thing, the 
patient is also afflicted with leucorrhcea. 

This excessive drain upon the system, as a matter of course, 
cannot continue a great while without producing debility, to a 
greater or less extent. If the disease goes on unchecked, the 
patient even begins to complain of languor ; she is always tired ; 
there is an indisposition to all exertion. Headache, throbbing in 
the temples, weakness across the loins and hips are common 
symptoms. As the exhaustion and languor increase, the counte- 
nance becomes pale and sallow, the pain about the loins and hips 
increases ; pain in the left side, repeated and severe headache, 
derangement of the stomach and bowels follow. The general 
appearance of the patient is such that her friends remark that 
she is going into a decline. 

In some cases the flow commences with sudden and violent 
gushes, after which, it stops for some hours, and then recurs, and 
thus alternates during the whole menstrual period. Sometimes 
the hemorrhage continues so excessive that the patient is com- 
pletely prostrated, and sinks, fainting, from exhaustion. 

Treatment. — Whatever other treatment shall be instituted, it 
is absolutely necessary, during the flow, that the patient maintain 
a recumbent position. She should go to bed in a cool room, and 
cover herself lightly with bedclothes. If the flowing be excessive, 
cloths wrung out of vinegar and water may be applied to the 
lower bowels. 

Crocus. — This is a most important remedy, especially in cases 
where the menses have returned too soon, and the discharge, 
which is copious, consists of dark-colored clots. 

Chamomilla. — When, in connection with the symptoms calling 
for Crocus, there are also griping pains through the abdomen, 
severe colic, or pains like those of labor, extending from the back 
forwards towards the abdomen, great thirst, and paleness of the 


Ipecacuanha — When the blood consists of bright-red blood, 
and when the menses return too early, may be followed by Sabina. 

Belladonna. — When the menses return too soon, are accom- 
panied with bearing-down pains, and pressing outward. Also 
severe headache with flushed face and cold extremities. 

Nux-vomica. — When the flow commences with sudden, violent 
gushes, or stops for a short period, and returns again ; is too 
copious ; continues too long, and returns before the usual time ; 
when the periods are attended with spasms in the abdomen, 
nausea, sickness at the stomach, and fainting ; also when there is 
a sensation of heaviness, or bloatedness, with pain and soreness 
as from a bruise. It may follow Chamomilla. 

Platinum. — When the discharge consists of thick, dark-colored 
blood, and is attended with bearing-down pains. 

Cinchona. — This remedy is called for in those cases where 
the catamenial discharge has been so excessive as to produce great 
weakness. Should be given after other remedies have controlled 
the discharge. 

Calcarea. — This is a valuable remedy in obstinate cases, — 
those which have resisted other remedies, continued a long time, 
and caused general constitutional sufferings. It is especially 
adapted to persons of relaxed muscular fibre, to weak, cachectic 
or scrofulous subjects. 

Secale. — Profuse menses, with violent cramp ; tingling in the 
legs, cramps in the feet. 

Sulphur. — When other remedies fail to act, though appa- 
rently well indicated. 

Administration of Remedies. — Of the selected remedy dis- 
solve twelve globules in twelve spoonfuls of water, and of this 
solution take one spoonful at a dose, and repeat every hour, or 
two, three, or four hours, according to the severity of the attack. 

Diet. — The diet should be light; all hot drinks should be 



Definition. — After menstruation has once become established, 
it may show itself less frequently than at the regular periods. 
That is, instead of returning once in twenty-eight days, it may be 
delayed to five, six, or more weeks. And, besides, the discharge, 
when it does appear, is not free, and does not afford that relief, 
which regular, healthy menstruation does. This is especially the 


case in young females. Scanty menstruation is not always ac- 
companied by a tardy eruption ; on the contrary, the periods may 
return as often as every two or three weeks, and the discharge 
scarcely amount to anything. 

Elderly females — those who are about experiencing a " change 
of life" — are almost always subject to intermissions and delays in 
their menstrual periods. In persons thus situated, when the dis- 
charge does make its appearance, it is apt to be very severe, 
amounting sometimes to almost flowing. 

Treatment. — For irregular menstruation, be it either too late 
or too early, too scanty or too profuse, Pulsatilla is most gener- 
ally the appropriate remedy. It is especially adapted to females 
of a mild and easy disposition, and particularly if the following 
symptoms are present: pain low down in the abdomen and 
through the small of the back ; nausea and vomiting ; shivering ; 
pale face; alternate crying and laughing; sadness and melan- 
choly ; giddiness ; fulness about the head ; semilateral headache ; 
roaring in the ears ; drawing pains, extending to the face ; ten- 
dency to diarrhoea and leucorrhcea. 

All the symptoms are worse in the afternoon and at evening ; 
the pains frequently change from place to place, and are relieved 
by the patient's being out in the open air. 

Natrum muriaticum. — Menses too late and too scanty with 
rush of blood to the head. 

Sepia. — Delayed menses, with violent colic ; fits of fainting ; 
leucorrhcea and pressure in the abdomen ; uterine cramps ; face 
bloated, and marked with yellow spots, especially across the cheeks 
and nose. 

Belladonna. — If there is a rush of blood to the head, nose- 
bleed, redness of the eyes, intolerance to light, and giddiness, es- 
pecially after stooping, the menses delayed, but when they do 
occur, too profuse. 

Bryonia. — If, instead of menstruation, there is bleeding at 
the nose, with congestion of the head and chest. 

Causticum. — Menses delayed, but profuse ; pains in the sides ; 
yellow complexion. 

Cocculus. — Scanty discharge of dark clots ; excessive nervous- 
ness ; contracting, pinching pains in the pelvis. 

G-raphites. — Menses too late, too little, and too pale. During 
the menses, spasms and violent cutting pains in the abdomen ; 
labor-like pains ; nausea and violent headache. 


Lachesis. — Especially applicable during the" critical period." 
Short and scanty menses ; before the discharge, vertigo and head- 
ache ; colic and leucorrhoea. 

Phosphorus. — For females of a delicate constitution ; those 
predisposed to lung difficulties, and when, in place of regular 
menstruation, there is expectoration of blood, or menses too soon 
and too profuse. During the menses, there is weariness, shiver- 
ing, headache, pain in the back. 

Sulphur. — When .other remedies have been insufficient, or 
when there is great heat in the head, giddiness ; palpitation of the 
heart, shortness of breath ; abdominal cramps, pains in the side 
and bowels ; loss of appetite, sickness at the stomach, emaciation, 
and depression of spirits. 

Compare, also, " Suppression of the Menses" " Belayed and 
Obstructed First-Menses" " Chlorosis" 

Administration of Remedies. — Dissolve, of the remedy selected, 
six globules in twelve spoonfuls of water ; take of this solution one 
spoonful every six hours, until amelioration or change. 

PAINFUL, menstruation — menstrual colic. 

Definition and Causes. — The term dysmenorrhea, which is a 
Greek word, signifies a difficult monthly flow. The menstrual 
discharge is preceded by severe pains through the loins and in the 
lower part of the abdomen. These pains are sometimes so intense, 
as to be almost insupportable, compelling the patient to go to bed, 
forcing from her tears and groans, as she writhes under the ago- 
nizing pain. 

The pain is in the nerves of the womb, and perhaps may be 
fairly attributed to the compression which they receive from the 
congested state of the organ which exists during the period of 
menstruation. The pains may also be neuralgic or rheumatic in 
their character. 

The most common exciting causes are exposures to cold, sudden 
fright, or shocks, or violent mental emotions. Indeed, any cause 
which would excite inflammation, or produce a suppression of the 
menses, would be sufficient to cause dysmenorrhcea. 

The neuralgic variety of dysmenorrhcea occurs chiefly in un- 
married females, and in the married who have not borne children. 
It is almost confined to women of irritable, hysterical, and ner- 


vovls temperament. The inflammatory variety of the disease most 
frequently attacks those of a full habit and of a sanguine tem- 
perament, married or unmarried, whether they have borne chil- 
dren or not. 

Symptoms. — The majority of females are notified of the ap- 
proach of their terms by a sense of weight and dragging in the 
region of the pelvis, — symptoms which gradually disappear, as 
soon as the flow fairly commences. But still not a few never ex- 
perience the least trouble or inconvenience from these monthly 
visitants. This is not the case, however, with the woman who has 
an irritable, a rheumatic, or a neuralgic womb. 

The pain of dysmenorrhcea, according to my observations, pre- 
sents all the characteristics of neuralgia. For a short time pre- 
vious to the flow, there is a sense of general uneasiness, a deep- 
seated feeling of coldness, restlessness, sometimes chills, flushes of 
heat and headache. The pain commences, usually, in the region 
of the sacrum, — that is, the lower portion of the backbone, — and 
extends round and through the lower part of the bowels, and 
down the thighs. The amount of suffering varies, but it is some- 
times very severe ; the forcing or bearing-down sensation, which 
is often present, is not unfrequently so great, that it seems as 
though the whole contents of the pelvis would be forced out. In 
. some instances, the torture is so extreme, that the patient cannot 
lie still, but constantly keeps rolling about, lies or presses upon 
the abdomen, endeavoring to get ease from her sufferings. Nausea, 
sickness at the stomach, and severe retching are not uncommon. 

These sufferings may continue only for a few hours, or they 
may continue for two or three days, before the discharge com- 
mences. As a general thing, the discharge appears slowly, and is 
at first scanty, or it may appear in slight gushes. The quantity 
varies in different persons, or even in the same persons at different 
periods. It is often scanty, rarely too much. In color, it is fre- 
quently quite natural ; sometimes it is light and mixed with small 

Between these monthly periods, the health of the patient is 
little affected, although headaches are not unfrequent ; but these 
are generally transient. Leucorrhoea is sometimes present, during 
the interval, and, especially if the attacks are of an inflamma- 
tory nature, is often persistent and difficult to control. 

Treatment. — If it be possible, the patient should lie down, or 
at least she should keep very quiet. The indications in the treat- 


ment are twofold: first, to reduce the pain during the attack, 
and secondly, to prevent its return by appropriate remedies during 
the interval. 

Belladonna. — Is called for, when the pains in the abdomen are 
as if the parts were clutched, with severe pain in the back ; also, 
when the pains are in the lower portion of the abdomen, and are 
of a bearing-down nature, as if the parts were about to fall out. 
The pains come on before the appearance of the menses, with 
strong determination of blood to the head, accompanied with 
frightful visions, confusion of sight, headache, red and puffed 
face, and violent thirst. 

Coffea. — When there is great nervous excitement, wringing 
of the hands, grinding the teeth, screaming, great restlessness, 
twisting of the whole body ; distressing colic, fulness and pressure 
in the abdomen, as if it would burst ; coldness of the body, numb- 
ness and stiffness. May be given in alternation with Pulsatilla or 
may be followed by Cocculus. 

Chamomilla. — For pains resembling those of labor, commenc- 
ing in the small of the back, and extending around to the front 
and lower part of the abdomen ; menses premature and too pro- 
fuse, attended with violent abdominal cramps, great sensitiveness 
of the abdomen, discharges of dark, coagulated clots. 

Pulsatilla. — For abdominal spasms with discharge of dark 
clots, or of pale blood ; weight in the bowels, as from a stone ; 
pressing pain in the abdomen and the small of the back, pains in 
the sides, nausea and vomiting ; frequent inclination to pass 
water, and ineffectual efforts to evacuate the bowels. 

Nux-vomiea. — For cramps of the womb ; writhing pains in the 
abdomen, or pains in the back, as if dislocated ; lameness of the 
sides ; forcing pains, nausea, and sickness at the stomach ; fre- 
quent urging to urinate. 

Cocculus. — For colic pains; abdominal cramps; flatulency; 
nausea and faintness ; cramps in the chest ; premature menses 
with abdominal spasms. 

Secale cornutum. — Tearing and cutting colic, with profuse and 
long-continued flow ; pale face ; cold limbs ; cold sweat. 

Veratrum. — Menstrual colic, with nausea and vomiting; hys- 
teric distress ; nervous headache ; coldness of the nose, feet, and 
hands ; fainting fits ; headache before the flow commences. 

Platina. — Leucorrhoea before and after the menses. The 



menses are too frequent, too profuse, last too long, and are ac- 
companied by cramp, colic, and forcing pain. 

Sulphur. — Abdominal cramps and colic during the menses. 
The menses are preceded by headache. 

Administration op Remedies. — The remedies above enumerated 
are to be given at short intervals during the continuance of 
the pain. The remedy selected may be dissolved in water, twelve 
globules in twelve spoonfuls, and one spoonful given every half 
hour, until the pain abates ; then the intervals can be lengthened. 

A preventive course of treatment should be adopted between 
the monthly returns of these severe attacks. Every effort should 
be made to strengthen the patient, and to diminish the general 
and local irritability. The diet should be plain and nourishing ; 
stimulants of all kinds, condiments, high-seasoned dishes should 
be strictly avoided ; coffee, under no consideration whatever, 
should be used. 

The patient should take plenty of out-door exercise. The 
habitual daily use of cold or tepid baths, and vaginal injections 
are often of great benefit. Cold bathing and injections should, 
however, be discontinued a few days previous to the expected 
menstrual eruption, and should not be resumed, until three or 
four days after its cessation. It is sometimes advisable to make 
use of warm hip and foot-baths, for two or three nights in succes- 
sion, preceding the eruption of the menses. 

The remedies to be made use of, during the intervals, are Sul- 
phur, Pulsatilla, or Nux-vomica. One dose of six globules, every 
third or fourth evening. 


Definition. — By suppression of the menses is understood a 
disappearance of the same, after having been regularly established 
for a longer or shorter period, independent of pregnancy, or old 

Suppression of the menses may take place suddenly or grad- 
ually ; that is, it may be acute or chronic. 

Causes. — ■ Among the causes of acute suppression, may be 
mentioned cold caught during the flow, by exposure to damp 
night-air, by wet feet, etc., by fear, bodily shocks, or by sudden, 
violent mental emotions, either just previous to or during the 
menstrual discharge. Anxiety, depressing passions, insufficient 
clothing, and exposure to want will also produce it. Fevers, in- 


flammations or almost any acute disease, occurring just before 
the period, will have the same effect. 

Chronic suppression of the menses is commonly a consequence 
of the acute, or it may arise from the gradual supervention of 
delicate health. It may also proceed from disease of the ovaria 
or womb. This form of the disorder comes on gradually. The 
quantity of the discharge becomes diminished, the periods irreg- 
ular and uncertain, until at length the function ceases altogether. 

Symptoms. — The amount of disturbance, consequent upon the 
sudden arrest of the menses, varies with the habit of body and 
temperament of the patient. In robust females, — those of full 
habits, — most frequently a degree of fever results, with headache, 
hot skin, thirst, quick pulse, etc. And, not unfrequently, severe 
attacks of acute disorders, such as inflammation of the lungs, 
brain, bowels, or womb are produced. Females of spare habit and 
nervous temperament are liable to be seized with various hysteri- 
cal affections; palpitations, loss of voice, nervous cough, head- 
ache, pains in the side, back, and abdomen, or attacks resembling 
inflammation, or neuralgia of different parts, but which are purely 

The symptoms following chronic suppression are gradual im- 
pairment of the general health, disorder of the digestive organs, 
loss of appetite, constipation, pains in the back and side, and head- 

Treatment. — When the suppression of the menses is caused 
by the presence of some other disease in the system, the cure of 
such disease must first be effected by appropriate treatment, be- 
fore we can look for a return of the catamenia. 

If, however, the suppression is sudden, — the result of cold, or 
fright, or other morbific cause, — our first endeavor should be to 
recall the discharge, if possible. For this purpose, the following 
remedies are. recommended ; Aconitum, Bryonia, Belladonna, Pul- 
satilla, Opium, Veratrum, Sepia, Sulphur. It is sometimes advisa- 
ble for the patient to take, just before retiring, a warm foot or 

Should the attempt to reestablish the discharge fail, we must 
content ourselves with mitigating the severer symptoms, until the 
approach of the next menstrual period. 

Aconitum. — This remedy may be given, when a sudden sup- 
pression of the menses is occasioned by fright, and, especially, if 
there is congestion of blood to the head and chest, with redness 


of the face, pains in the head, giddiness, nausea, and faintness. It 
may be given in alternation with Bryonia. Should these remedies 
fail, or afford but partial relief, they may be succeeded by Opium. 

Belladonna. — For females of a full habit, when there is con- 
gestion of the head or chest with throbbing headache, red and 
bloated face, and burning thirst. 

Bryonia. — When the suppression is followed by headache and 
giddiness, which is aggravated by stooping and motion ; also when 
there is pain in the pit of the stomach, sour eructations, rising of 
food, constipation, and bleeding at the nose. 

Pulsatilla. — This is the chief remedy in this disorder, and, in 
the majority of cases, will be the only one required to make a 
prompt and perfect cure. It is especially called for when the sup- 
pression has been occasioned by exposure to dampness or cold, or 
by getting the feet wet, and the following symptoms are present : 
severe headache, which is chiefly confined to one side, with shoot- 
ing pains, which extend to the ears, face, and teeth ; pale complex- 
ion ; vertigo, with buzzing in the ears ; palpitation of the heart ; 
feeling of suffocation, especially upon the least exertion ; cold- 
ness of the hands and feet ; flushes of heat ; nausea and vomit- 
ing ; pressure in the lower abdomen ; frequent desire to urinate ; 
swelling of the feet ; leucorrhcea ; tendency to sadness. 

Sepia. — This is another important remedy, especially when 
there is leucorrhcea. Also, when the following symptoms are 
present: nervous headache, with alternate shuddering and 
heat ; colic and pain in the sides ; bearing-down pains ; pale 
complexion, or yellow spots in the face ; sad mood ; weeping ; 
hysteric complaints ; lameness and soreness of the limbs. 

Veratrum. — For nervous headache, and hysteric ailments ; 
frequent nausea and vomiting, with coldness of the hands and 
feet ; great weakness, and fainting turns. 

Sulphur. — Headache, chiefly in the back part of the head ; 
feeling of fulness and weight in the head ; pain over the eyes ; 
confusion of the head, with throbbing and buzzing in the head ; 
pale face ; red spots on the cheeks ; bluish circles around the eyes ; 
sour stomach ; sour eructations ; pressure, weight, and fulness in 
the stomach ; constipation, with ineffectual urging to stool, or else 
mucous diarrhoea, with slimy evacuations ; tendency to piles ; leu- 
corrhoea, with itching in the parts ; numbness of the limbs ; ten- 
dency to take cold ; pains in the loins ; weariness after talking ; 
difficulty of breathing ; irritability of temper, or sad and weeping 


Chronic cases, — those of long standing, — where the patient 
has run down, other remedies will be called for ; such as China, 
Arsenicum, Natrum-muriatieum, Grraphites, but it will be much 
safer to place the patient under the care of an intelligent homoeo- 
pathic physician. 

See, also, " Tardy Menstruation" and " Chlorosis" 
Administration op Remedies. — Dissolve twelve globules in 
twelve teaspoonfuls of water ; of this solution give one spoonful 
every hour or every two hours, according to the urgency of the 
symptoms, until the discharge returns, or the symptoms are removed. 
If the discharge does not return in a day or two, and yet the pain, 
headache, and other symptoms subside, discontinue the medicine, 
and resume it again a few days before the next period. 


Definition of Symptoms. — By the phrase, " change of life," 
or the " critical period," as it is also called, is understood the final 
cessation of menstruation. Public opinion holds that this change 
takes place at the forty-fifth year, and all women look for the 
change at that time, but not a few are disappointed ; for all women 
do not change at that time ; some women definitely cease to men- 
struate at thirty, and some even earlier, while in others, again, 
the change may be postponed to the fiftieth year, or even later. 
However, as a general thing, we can anticipate' the change at 
about the forty-fifth year. 

Women of delicate constitutions, and those who have been in the 
habit of living well, enjoying the good things of life, as they went 
along, and whose habits have been sedentary, who have been 
confined to the house, and especially to warm rooms, experience 
the change earlier than those of a more robust organization, or 
those who have led a temperate, active life, avoiding all dissipation. 

This period, which is rightly considered a critical one for every 
female, may pass without a single untoward symptom, the monthly 
evacuation gradually ceasing, without being attended by any un- 
pleasant consequence, and leaving the patient enjoying better 
health than she ever experienced before. On the contrary, it may 
be fraught with peril, through which she can be safely conducted 
only by a skilful and experienced physician. It is, therefore, 
highly important that all the unpleasant sensations, which may be 
experienced, during this time, should receive a careful considera- 
tion, and not be hushed up with the unsatisfactory reply, that 


such complaints are owing to the " change of life," and likely to 
vanish whenever that change shall become complete. 

If proper attention is not paid to the various complaints which 
may and frequently do manifest themselves during this period, 
the seeds of endless miseries and even early death will be allowed 
to germinate, and cut short a life that, by proper foresight and 
care, might have been conducted to a ripe old age. 

As the change approaches, the menses gradually becomes irregu- 
lar both in regard to the time of their recurrence and the quantity 
discharged. They may return too soon or be delayed beyond the 
usual time. The quantity discharged is at times much less than 
common. Sometimes the discharge returns every two weeks, then 
ceases for several weeks, or even months, and afterward recurs for 
a few periods as regularly as ever, and then altogether ceases. 

Perhaps, in the majority of women, while this change, which 
lasts usually from a year to a year and a half, is in progress, there 
is more or less disturbance of the general health. And not un- 
frequently it is difficult, sometimes quite impossible, to say exactly 
what is the matter with the patient, except that she is generally 
out of health. A host of symptoms present themselves ; the 
patient complains of headache, vertigo, biliousness, indigestion, 
flatulency, acidity of the stomach, diarrhoea, costiveness, irregu- 
larity in the urinary discharge, piles, pruritis, — violent itching of 
the private parts, — cramps and colics in the abdomen, palpitation 
of the heart, hysterics, nervousness, pains in the back and loins, 
swelling of the abdomen, swelling of the extremities, paleness and 
general debility. To unravel all these, and to decide what is the 
best plan of treatment to pursue, requires the skill of an intelli- 
gent physician. I would, therefore, recommend you to take the 
early and constant advice of your family physician during this 

The remedies called for during this change, or those which we 
most frequently have occasion to use, are Pulsatilla, Lacliesis, 
Bryonia, Cocculus, Ignatia, and Sulphur. 

As a general thing, treatment may commence with Pulsatilla and 
Lachesis. One dose, — six globules, — of Pulsatilla may be given 
for four days, then omit all medicine four days ; then give Lachesis 
in the same manner. If the symptoms abate, wait as long as the 
improvement continues ; if they do not abate, repeat the remedy 
as before, or select a new one. 

It is very important in these cases to pay strict attention to the 


dress, diet, and exercise. The diet should be light and easily 
digested. Everything of a stimulating nature, unless otherwise 
ordered by the attending physician, should be studiously avoided. 
Daily exercise in the open air, either by walking or riding, will be 
found highly beneficial. The clothing should be warm and com- 
fortable, and changed to suit the weather. 




General Remarks. — It is my desire, in this article, to impart 
a more definite idea of what uterine displacements are, than that 
possessed by the generality of females. Indeed, very few females 
know anything about the womb, — its size, shape, position, or even 
location within the body. Every one has heard, it is true, of 
falling of the womb, but where it fell from, or what made it fall, 
few have the remotest idea, — not as much, indeed, as they have in 
regard to the fall of man. Why Eve ate the apple, when tempted 
by the serpent, is necessarily a mystery, and always must remain 
so ; but why a womb can or does turn topsy-turvy, or sink down 
into the pelvis, need not be a mystery; because a very trifling 
knowledge of anatomy and physiology which can, with but little 
labor, be acquired by any one, will explain it all, and make it per- 
fectly clear and plain to even the most obtuse understanding. 
Many physicians studiously avoid explaining to their patients the 
nature or extent of their maladies ; they prefer blind faith and 
obedience to their behests, rather than an intelligent and willing 
compliance, when a small amount of reasoning would not only con- 
vince the patient what was the nature of the indisposition which 
had reduced her from perfect health to a bundle of aches and 
pains, but would cause her gracefully to yield to the proposed 
course of treatment, — which at times is anything but agreeable, — 
necessary to reestablish a healthful condition of the parts diseased. 
For my own part, I prefer treating my patients as rational, reason- 
ing beings ; and, when I can make them understand, by appeals 
to their common sense, by illustrations, or, when possible, by 
actual demonstration, that I perfectly comprehend their disorder, 
and can assure them that the disease is curable, I think I have 
gained a great deal ; I have won their confidence, and removed 
from the mind that pernicious impression, which, in most diseases, 


does more toward retarding a cure than all else put together, 
that they are to live and to suffer year after year, by a disease 
which banishes all their charms, their splendor, and their gayety, 
and which, eventually, is destined to bring them to an untimely 
grave. As I have before frequently remarked, I do not expect, 
nor do I desire, to make anatomists, or physiologists, or practising 
physicians of all who may do me the favor to read these pages ; 
but I do wish to impart such a knowledge in regard to diseases, 
and especially that class of diseases which affects the uterine 
organs, that the patient may in a measure so understand her 
malady, as not to expect a spontaneous cure, and, in the fond 
anticipation of soon receiving so desirable a boon, allow her fas- 
tidious delicacy to prevent her from applying to a physician for 
relief, until her disease becomes so firmly established that its 
removal will be difficult and tedious, or even, perhaps, impos- 

The difficulty of treating uterine disease is greatly enhanced, 
by the unwillingness on the part of the patient to apply for relief 
early, and by the reluctance, which is always present and natural 
enough, to a thorough investigation of the disorder. 

Now, every woman who complains of pelvic pain has not a 
prolapsion, although she may think she has ; and, if she has com- 
plained of these pains for a long while, it is quite likely that her 
physician has himself got in the habit of speaking of her com- 
plaint as a prolapsed uterus. I contend that it is absolutely impos-' 
sible for a physician to say, positively, whether a woman has or has 
not a dislocated womb, simply from her enumeration of her aches, 
pains, and all-gone feelings. No sane man would think of render- 
ing an opinion in regard to a supposed luxation of a joint, how- 
ever much the patient might complain of feelings indicative of 
such a condition, without first making a complete and thorough 
examination of the part. 

Physicians are in many instances not permitted to institute the 
only inquiries which can possibly reveal the precise nature and 
indications of the case. Even in those few cases where the 
patient has consented to an investigation, which alone can form 
the basis of a rational diagnosis, there often remains more or less 
obscurity, because the physician, in too many instances, feels a 
delicacy in making free use of all, or in employing every means 
of research in his explorations, and in repeating those explora- 
tions sufficiently often. 


There are plenty of physicians, who, knowing the host of objec- 
tions sure to be met with, almost never think of proposing an 
examination to their patients, but go on treating them in a hap- 
hazard manner, never effecting a cure, and scarcely ever expecting 
one ! Now, a physician who prescribes for his patients without 
knowing what is the matter (and how can he know, if he is not 
permitted to make the necessary inquiries ? ) is like the hunter, 
who shoots up into a tree, hoping he will kill a bird, because he 
knows there is one there, for he heard it chirp. Such a physician 
is more mischievous than the disease left to its own natural ten- 

Please do not understand me as arguing the necessity of an 
examination in every case of backache or pelvic pain, because I 
am decidedly of the opinion that not more than half those who 
complain in this way do really suffer from uterine deviations or 
displacements. But where, in the estimation of the attending 
physician, it is necessary, and especially when the patient has been 
ailing a good while and treatment has proved ineffectual, I say 
she is a fool who refuses to submit to each and every proper mode 
of investigation which can lay bare the obscurities and difficulties 
that embarrass the decision and action of the physician. But he 
is a greater fool who consents to commence, or continues in care 
of, a case which he has no reasonable hopes of curing, because he 
does not understand it. And he cannot understand it, neither 
can he think he does, because no intelligent, reasoning man will 
ever consent to rest his judgment upon a ground-work of guesses. 

The many painful sensations experienced within the pelvis are 
but the expressions of some disordered condition. What that 
condition is, can only, in many instances, be decided by an exam- 
ination. It may be that the case is one of true prolapsion, and 
that the pain arises from the pulling or stretching of the nerves 
caused by the sinking down of the organ ; or, as in many instances, 
the aches and pains which so resemble those of the true disorder, 
and which lead astray so many who reason a priori, are purely 
neuralgic, and entirely unconnected with any deviation or dis- 

The principal reason why so many females fail to receive perma- 
nent benefit from their family physician, and finally resort to some 
empiric, or to some one who makes it his special business to treat 
this class of diseases, is, that they but half relate their case to 
him, who above all others should be their confidant in matters of 


this kind. True they frequently complain, and receive a prescrip- 
tion for their complaints ; but it is all done in an incidental sort of 
way, perhaps while the physician is attending some other member 
of the family. He prescribes without giving the case much atten- 
tion, and perchance would never think of it again ; but she, in a 
few days, finding no relief, mentions the fact and receives another 
prescription, and so on, mentioning her case every time the physi- 
cian happens to be in the house, but never sending for him for 
herself, " because she is always complaining." After suffering in 
this way for months, perhaps years, she finally resolves that, as her 
physician can do nothing for her, she will consult one who has a 
reputation for curing complaints like hers. She does so, and the 
first thing demanded is an unconditional surrender of her fastidi- 
ous modesty ; an examination is at once instituted, which reveals 
the whole difficulty ; a cure is commenced and rapidly completed. 
Now, if the family physician had been allowed the same privilege 
and received the same compensation, he would have located the 
disease and made a cure just as promptly as the stranger did. 
Some may say, " The physician is as much to blame as the 
patient; he ought to explain that the case needed investigation 
before a remedy could be given." I do not think so ; the doctor 
is asked casually if he cannot give something for a weak back ; 
of course he can, and does give something that affords temporary 
relief. He cannot, neither is it expected that he will, sit down and 
unravel what, no doubt, he foresees will prove a very knotty case 
before he prescribes. 

I would advise every one who wishes to consult a physician, and 
especially in regard to diseases of the description we are now con- 
sidering, and kindred cases, to make a business of it. Go, and in 
a formal manner relate your case. Do not button-hole a physician 
in the street or at a neighbor's, but call at his office, or have him 
call upon you, and whatever method of investigation he may think 
will best reveal the true nature and indication of the disease, you 
will do well to submit to in a quiet, sensible, becoming manner. 
If your physician be a man fit for the high calling of a missionary 
of health, filled with respect and compassion for the afflicted, you 
need have no fear of being subjected to any unnecessary or humili- 
ating treatment. 



Definition. — Causes. — For a better understanding of this 
common disorder, let us for a moment consider the anatomy of 
the organ. The uterus or womb, in its natural unimpregnated 
state, in females who have borne children, weighs about one ounce 
and a half. It is shaped like a pear flattened from before back- 
ward, and is from two and a half to three inches long by one and 
three-quarters wide at the top, and terminates below in the neck 
or mouth, which is about half an inch across. 

It is situated in the pelvic cavity, between the bladder in front 
and rectum behind, resting upon the upper end of the tube of the 
vagina, and retained in this position by four ligaments which act 
as guys. These ligaments are about two and a half inches in 
length, and their sole duty is to retain the womb upright in the 
centre of the pelvis. 

Prolapsion of the womb % or, as it is commonly called falling of 
the womb, is in reality a descent or sinking down of the organ. 
In some instances the displacement is but slight, scarcely notice- 
able, while in others it is so great as to permit the uterus to pro- 
trude through the external parts. 

Properly speaking, this is not a disease of the womb, but rather 
of one of the supporting tissues. It will readily be observed, that 
although the looseness and extensibility of its connection allow 
the womb to float about, as it were, in the pelvic cavity, it will 
be absolutely impossible for it to become displaced, prolapsed, or 
retroverted while the vagina retains its natural dimensions and 
the ligaments of which we have spoken are but two and a half 
inches long. It is quite true, that in many instances of prolapsus 
uteri, other lesions of the organ, as inflammation, ulceration, etc., 
are associated with the displacement ; but these are not the cause 
of it. Nor, will their removal replace the womb in its natural 
position. Women suffering from this complaint can usually state 
the exact date of its attack, or at least they imagine they can, and 
will lay it to a fall, to lifting a heavy child, or raising some heavy 
weight, or a wrench of the body which caused a sensation of 
something giving way in the interior of the back. Perhaps it 
would not be quite true to say that this is all imagination, — that 
such a thing never did happen ; still it is very doubtful whether a 
sudden jerk or strain would cause the womb to prolapse and stay 
so. It requires a long course of preparation so to destroy sufii- 
ciently the tone, and relax the walls of the vagina, and other sup- 


porting tissues as to allow of a true prolapsion. Menorrhagia, or a 
debilitating leucorrhcea, if allowed to continue for a considerable 
time, would almost certainly produce the disorder. Another occa- 
sion of it is a too early getting up after delivery or abortion, or a 
too early resumption of household duties. The stretching, relax- 
ing, and other changes of the supporting parts consequent upon 
child-bearing, miscarriages, or difficult labors, undoubtedly predis- 
pose to all the displacements to which the organ is liable. An- 
other cause, especially in females of a delicate constitution, is the 
incessant running up and down long flights of stairs, which some 
are compelled to do. Among the causes we may enumerate tight- 
lacing, the weakening effect of cathartics and other drugs, the 
injudicious application of the bandage after confinement by thought- 
less physicians, or ignorant midwives or nurses, and also large 
doses of ergot and other allopathic drugs. 

Symptoms. — The degree of prolapsion is no guide as to the 
severity of the case, or to the amount of pain attending it. I 
have known the slightest possible descent of the womb to produce 
most intolerable pain through the lower abdomen and back ; while 
other cases, where the organ has descended so low as to peer out 
at the genital fissure, produced no pain whatever. The pain in 
many instances is truly an abdominal neuralgia, excited, quite 
likely, by the depression. 

There is generally more or less bearing down, or dragging sensa- 
tion in the lower part of the abdomen, drawing from the small of 
the back and around the loins and hips, pressure low-down toward 
the lower parts, with a desire to make water, sometimes without 
ability to do so, " or if it does pass, it is reluctantly, and often- 
times painfully hot, — a sense of faintness, and occasionally a 
variety of nervous or hysterical feelings and alarms which almost 
overwhelm the patient. A pressure and feeling about the rectum, 
resembling a slight tenesmus, sometimes importunately demand the 
patient's attention, which, if she obeys, almost always end in una- 
vailing efforts. The pain in the back is sometimes extremely dis- 
tressing, while the patient is on her feet, and gives to her walk 
the appearance of weakness in her lower extremities. A be- 
numbing sensation shoots down the thighs, especially when the 
woman first rises upon her feet, or when she changes this position 
for a horizontal one. In some few instances, the woman is 
. obliged to throw her body very much in advance, or is obliged to 
support herself by placing her hands upon her thighs, when she 


attempts to walk. But all these symptoms subside, almost im- 
mediately, if she indulge in a recumbent posture, and this circum- 
stance pretty strongly designates the disease." 

Though to seeming certainty, the above symptoms appear to indi- 
cate a true case of prolapsion, we are still in doubt as to the true 
nature and indications of the disease, and must ever remain so, 
until an examination of the parts involved has been made. 

See " General Remarks " under head of " Uterine Displace- 

Treatment. — The majority of females who are troubled with 
falling of the womb, think it necessary that they should wear 
some kind of an abdominal supporter. As this is the only oppor- 
tunity, perhaps, that I shall have, in these pages, to express my 
opinion in regard to these abominable contrivances, I may as well 
at once give vent to my ire, and denounce what I consider the 
most unscientific, anti-surgical, and unphysiological of all the 
inventions man ever yet devised. The very idea that to dimin- 
ish the capacity of the abdomen — for this is the direct effect of 
all utero-abdominal supporters — would, in any way, tend to hold 
up the womb, is perfectly preposterous. 

These belts and pads, however applied, offer no support whatever 
to the bowels ; on the contrary, the squeezing to which they are 
subjected, forces them and the womb with them, down into the 
pelvis, where they ought not to be. Do not, I pray you, ever for 
a moment think of reverting to this expensive and nonsensical 
gearing, under the impression that it will afford you any relief, 
as it affords none. 

Thank Heaven, that among all the names appended to the un- 
blushing advertisements of utero-abdominal supporters, which 
are constantly thrust into public notice, you will find not one 
homoeopathist ! 

Cases of prolapsion are constantly occurring under the observa- 
tion of physicians, where the patient, suffering intense pain, can 
be promptly relieved by simply raising the womb up to its place. 
Now, an instrument that will keep it in place will make that re- 
lief permanent. The utero-abdominal supporter will not do it, 
but a pessary will. (A pessary is an instrument made of wood, 
ivory, silver, caoutchouc, or other material, and is introduced into 
the vagina affording direct support to the womb.) But it is an 
unpleasant and disagreeable thing to wear, and the relief so ob- 
tained is but palliative. Sometimes, we have to accept it as a 


necessary evil, and use it, as we would a splint upon a fractured 
bone, to hold the parts in position while a cure is accomplished. 

It is very seldom indeed, however, that the homoeopathic physi- 
cian has to resort to anything but the specific power of his medi- 
cines to make prompt and perfect cures. 

The remedies are, Aurum, Belladonna, Calcarea-carb., Nux- 
vomica, Platina, Sepia. 

Belladonna. — When the following symptoms are present, 
pressure, as from a load in the lower abdomen, or, as if the con- 
tents of the abdomen would fall out; heaviness even in the 
thighs, crampy pains through the abdomen and pelvis, also ex- 
tending down to extreme point of spinal column ; great sensibility 
and irritability ; also when accompanied by leucorrhoea and mo- 

Nux-vomica. — For congestion of the womb, with pressure 
downwards," especially when walking or after walking ; great 
heat and weight in the womb and vagina ; dragging, aching pain 
in the back, also from the abdomen down into the thighs. Dur- 
ing the menses, abdominal spasms and headache ; disposition to 
miscarriage ; menses too early, and too profuse ; leucorrhceal dis- 
charge of fetid, yellow mucus. 

Sepia. — Irregular menstruation, too early, too feeble or sup- 
pressed ; heat in the womb ; pains in the back and abdomen, 
aggravated by walking ; frequent desire to urinate ; contractive, 
pressive pain in the abdomen, as if everything would be pressed 
out ; colic before the menses ; itching, excoriating leucorrhoea, with 
a discharge of a yellowish or reddish water, or a mattery, fetid fluid. 

The treatment, in most cases, may commence by administering 
one dose of Nux-vomica every four hours, and be continued for 
one week ; during the next week no medicine should be taken, but 
the week following, the patient may take one dose of Sepia, night 
and morning. If the symptoms indicate Belladonna, that remedy 
should be preferred to Nux-vomica, at the beginning, and followed 
by Sepia, or Calcarea-carb. 

Calcarea-carb. — This is an excellent remedy for persons of a 
weak or lax muscular system, or of a scrofulous habit, and especial- 
ly when menstruation is exhaustive, too profuse, and too frequent. 

Secale cornutum — is occasionally called for, especially when 
there is prolonged bearing-down, forcing pains ; profuse menstrua- 
tion ; depression, lowness of spirits ; deficient contraction after 


Other remedies, as Mercurius, Thuja, Kreosote, Nux-mos, Stan- 
num, are at times called for. 

Too high praise can hardly be awarded to cold water, when 
properly used in this disease. The most convenient and advan- 
tageous mode of application is the wet bandage, renewed two or 
three times a day. Frequent sitting-baths, of short duration, will 
be of great benefit. 

At the commencement of the treatment, it is often necessary for 
the patient to maintain a recumbent position a large portion of 
each day, and in all cases it is absolutely necessary to refrain from 
all active exercise, sweeping, lifting, carrying a child; running 
up and down stairs is especially objectionable. The patient 
should strictly avoid taking cathartic or opening medicines. 

Diet. — In all diseases which have a tendency to debilitate the 
patient, a good nourishing diet should always be prescribed. In 
this disease, a stimulating diet should be avoided, Coffee and tea 
are strictly prohibited. 

In all cases, when possible, consult a homoeopathic physician. 


Definition. — Perhaps there is no term in the whole catalogue 
of diseases more generally undefined than that of leucorrhcea. 
It is derived from two Greek words, which, literally translated, 
signify a white discharge. The general application of the term to 
all non-sanguineous, vaginal discharges, no matter what their 
character, and without any definite knowledge of the various dis- 
eased conditions which give rise to them, has led to much confu- 
sion and loose treatment. 

When we come to speak of the causes of this disease, it will be 
seen how essential it is, in the treatment of the sick, that our 
conclusions should be based upon correct premises. 

In popular phraseology, " Leucorrhcea," " Fluor Albus," 
" Whites," and " Female Weakness " are synonymous terms, 
and by them is understood a light, colorless discharge from the 
female genitals, varying in hue from a whitish or a colorless to a 
yellowish, light green, or to a slightly red or brownish, varying 
in consistency from a thin, watery, to a thick, tenacious, ropy 
substance, and in quantity from a slight increase of the 
healthy secretion, to several ounces, in the twenty-four hours. 
— Copland. 


Leucorrhcea may occur at any period of life, from early infancy 
to old age, but it is most frequent between the ages of fifteen and 
forty-five. It seldom continues later than this period, except 
when the discharge has its origin in some organic disease of the 
womb. It may occur even before the first menses have made 
their appearance, especially in scrofulous subjects, and materially 
interfere with the full and free development of this important 
function. As a general thing, the leucorrhoeal discharge is more 
copious at the time of the menses than at any other time. 

With propriety the disease may be divided into acute and 
chronic ; the acute being nothing more nor less than an attack of 
inflammation of the mucous membrane, lining the parts, from 
whatever cause it may arise. A large majority of the mild 
cases consist simply of a catarrhal inflammation, occasioned by 
taking cold. The chronic form is but a continuation of the 
acute ; the inflammatory stage of the disease being neglected, or 
improperly treated, passes into the chronic, with ulceration of the 
neck of the womb. 

Causes. — By many, leucorrhcea is looked upon as simply the 
result of "general debility;" and most patients, suffering from 
the disease, think, if they could only get something that would 
strengthen them, they would be cured. Under this delusion 
many a woman has dallied away valuable time in taking some 
one of the many strengthening bitters or universal panaceas 
advertised to rejuvenate waning humanity. This is a mistake : 
the debility is not the cause of the disease, neither is the dis- 
charge ; they are simply the outward manifestation, or the result 
of morbid action going on in some portion of the uterine organ- 
ism. "What that disease is, or has been, which has given rise to 
these symptoms, can generally be ascertained by the nature of the 
discharge, and the peculiarities which each particular case pre- 
sents. For instance, the discharges from the vagina are of three 
kinds, namely : mucus, purulent or mattery, and watery. And 
there are morbid conditions capable of producing each of these 
evacuations. Inflammatory action is not necessary for the secre- 
tion of mucus, but it is for the secretion of pus, etc. It is very 
necessary that we should ascertain definitely the cause of the 
various forms of the malady, that we may be able to treat it intel- 
ligently, and not blindly. 

For the most part, leucorrhcea has been looked upon and treated 
as a vaginal disease. With the very limited knowledge of its 



pathology which most physicians possess, it is no wonder they 
have fallen into the habit of treating it upon routine principles, and 
that the success of that treatment has been anything but flatter- 
ing. Leucorrhoea, especially the inveterate forms of it, is not a 
disease of the vagina, but in truth a disease of the womb ; and he 
who attempts to treat it without taking into consideration the 
condition of this organ, will make a miserable failure, as, indeed, 
is done every day. 

Wherever I have had an opportunity to make a thorough exam- 
ination of these cases, I have found nine out of every ten to con- 
sist of congestion, inflammation, or ulceration of the neck of the 
womb ; and when these were removed, the discharge soon ceased, 
and " general debility " tarried but a little while. 

That leucorrhoea is a hereditary disease can hardly be ques- 
tioned. Perhaps, however, it would be more proper to say, that 
many females — those, for instance, possessing a lymphatic, ner- 
vous constitution, with soft flesh and pale skin — are hereditarily 
predisposed to uterine affections. With such, a cold, errors in 
diet, nightly dissipation, tight-lacing, or other indiscretions would 
result in leucorrhoea, or some kindred disease ; while other women 
might commit the same imprudent acts, but, being differently 
constituted, would be affected in a totally different manner. 

Among the exciting causes of the disease may be enumerated 
cold, sitting upon very cold seats, upon stones, or upon the ground 
exposure of the neck and shoulders to cold air, violence, excessive 
indulgence, tight-lacing, irritation from stimulating injections,, 
inflammation of the rectum, haemorrhoids, miscarriages, abortions, 
uterine displacements, ulceration of the womb, tumors of various 
kinds, purgatives and emmenagogue-medicines, which are in- 
tended to promote the menstrual discharge, warm injections,, 
abuse of warm baths, late hours, improper articles of diet, fish, 
crabs, lobsters, oysters, acid and watery fruits, the excessive use 
of tea and coffee, depressing passions, chagrin, grief, etc. 

Leucorrhoea is quite common in cold, damp climates, and 
among that class of people who are compelled to live in narrow 
lanes and alleys, and in basements, where the atmosphere is damp 
and loaded with noxious matter, exhaled from dirty streets. 
However, it is by no means confined to this class, and perhaps it is 
quite as common among the highest strata of society, where over- 
indulgence in luxurious habits, sleeping upon downy beds, sitting 
upon soft cushions, living in houses tempered to suit the delicate 


susceptibilities of these favored ones of earth, have exhausted their 
vitality and energy, and rendered them capable of raising as 
luxuriant a crop of uterine diseases as those who live and suffer 
so far from them at the other extreme of society. 

A leucorrhceal discharge is not unfrequently produced in young 
female children by the presence of pin-worms, which find their 
way from the rectum to the vagina. In these cases, a removal of 
the worms is speedily followed by an abatement of the annoyance. 
It is always well, when little girls are troubled with a discharge or 
an itching of the parts, to make a close examination of the vagina. 
I have frequently known children to be kept awake, night after 
night, from the itching occasioned by two or three little worms 
just within the lips of the vagina. They can be easily removed 
with a little piece of cloth, after separating the lips. 

Symptoms. — In some rare instances, the vaginal discharge is 
about the only symptom complained of. As a general thing, how- 
ever, the disease is attended with quite a long list of aches and 
pains. In fact, the constitutional symptoms, in many cases, are 
so plainly marked as to be mistaken for the cause of the disease- 
Not a few will complain of pains here and there, with which they 
are afflicted ; they will refer to the color of their skin, to their 
bloated faces, to their shortness of breath, to their constipation, to 
the obtuseness of their moral and intellectual faculties, their gen- 
eral debility, etc., etc., and say not one word about the vaginal 

As before stated, the discharge varies in color, quantity, and 
consistency. At times it is a white or colorless fluid, scarcely leav- 
ing a stain upon the linen, but stiffening it, and coming off, under 
friction, in the shape of a fine white powder, or of little scales. 
At other times it is of a yellowish, greenish, or brownish tinge. 
It may vary in consistency from a thin, watery fluid, to that of 
milk or cream, or even thicker. In quantity, the discharge varies 
in different cases, and in the same case under different circum- 
stances. At times, it is a mere exudation. Again, it is so copious 
that the patient is compelled to protect herself, as during her 
menstrual flow. Sometimes it is even more severe, and is evacu- 
ated in considerable quantities ; indeed, there are cases where the 
leucorrhceal discharge amounts to a perfect flooding. In such 
cases, it seems as though the secretion accumulated in the cavity 
of the womb, and, during its accumulation, all the concomitant 
symptoms, especially the uneasiness and pain in the region of the 


womb, the aching in the limbs and joints, and the weariness are 
increased. When the discharge takes place, it affords marked 

In mild cases of catarrhal leucorrhoea, the discharge is mild or 
bland, and does not irritate or excoriate the parts ; it therefore 
causes but little inconvenience, and is often scarcely noticed ; but 
where the discharge depends upon a low grade of inflammation 
of the neck of the womb, or of the mucous lining of the womb 
and vagina, or where ulceration or other organic lesions of the 
uterus or its appendages exist, the discharge becomes acrid, 
corrosive, fetid, and of a brownish or greenish color, and exco- 
riates the lips and adjoining skin, to the great annoyance of the 

If the attacks of leucorrhoea are but slight, and not too fre- 
quent, the general health of the female suffers but little. In 
acute cases, — those arising from colds, — the symptoms are those 
of catarrhal inflammation ; there will be a sense of heat and sore- 
ness of the parts, with a feeling of weight or heaviness, or of a 
bearing-down pain, with languor and a general feeling of weari- 
ness. These symptoms are at times accompanied with slight chills, 
and are followed by pain in the back, quick pulse, thirst, high- 
colored urine and other febrile symptoms. Soon after these symp- 
toms appear, the discharge manifests itself, and, as it increases, 
the symptoms abate. If, at this stage of the disease, proper treat- 
ment is instituted, there will be very little difficulty in controlling 
it, while the discharge and other symptoms will gradually subside. 

If improperly treated, and especially if astringent injections 
and cathartic medicines are made use of, the disease will almost 
certainly pass into the chronic disorder ; the languor and debility 
will increase ; the discharge will continue or become more copious ; 
pain and a sense of heaviness in the abdomen will be complained 
of; digestion will become impaired, nausea, loss of appetite, head- 
ache, vertigo, palpitation of the heart, weariness upon the slight- 
est exertion, and a host of dyspeptic symptoms will soon mani- 
fest themselves. Ultimately, the disease extends to and into the 
womb ; congestion, inflammation or ulceration takes place ; the 
tissues become relaxed ; prolapsus uteri soon follows, with a gen- 
eral increase of constitutional disorder. 

After a season the patient grows thin, the pulse quick and 
small, the tongue coated, and either dry or pasty, often flabb} r and 
indented with the teeth ; a constant aching is felt in the small of 


the back, and especially low-down between the hips; great ex- 
haustion after the slightest exertion, and general debility ; erup- 
tions of small, black-headed pimples appear upon the forehead 
and face ; the face becomes thin, or bloated and pale, the eyes 
sunken and surrounded by a dark circle. The intellectual and 
moral faculties are always more or less weakened. 

Much experience and great care are often necessary to deter- 
mine the nature of the disease, and its exact location, which give 
rise to vaginal discharges. Where the discharge is purulent, 
bloody-colored, or fetid, the disease occasioning it is evidently of 
a grave nature, and should receive prompt attention from a skil- 
ful man. 

Simple leucorrhcea is scarcely ever, in itself, a serious disease ; 
but as there are so many diseases of the uterine organs which 
produce a discharge simulating that of leucorrhcea, it is best that 
in these cases the patient should be under the care of an intelli- 
gent, practical physician. It is a disease, which, at best, is diffi- 
cult to cure, and the longer it continues, the more obstinate it 
becomes ; however, a well-directed and persistent course of treat- 
ment seldom fails to afford permanent relief. 

Treatment. — To obtain satisfactory results from remedies in 
this disease, it is necessary that the patient, physically and men- 
tally, should be placed in a favorable condition. All the sur- 
rounding circumstances which may in any way tend to excite or 
aggravate the disease should be promptly removed. Late suppers, 
and all dissipations, whether bodily or mentally, must be avoided.. 
The diet should receive strict attention; the food should be nour- 
ishing, as little stimulating as possible, and be taken at regular 
intervals. Tea and coffee with all acid and watery fruits must be 

Moderate exercise in the open air will be of great assistance in 
promoting the* cure ; care, however, should be exercised to avoid 
fatigue. The clothing ' should be so adjusted as to admit the 
freest motion of the body, and about the waist should be espe- 
cially loose. All exciting and depressing emotions ought, as far 
as possible, to be avoided. If the patient resides in a low, marshy, 
or damp, unwholesome region, she should, if convenient, be re- 
moved to a dry and open country. This, I am aware, in many 
cases will be impossible, but whenever it can be done it is strongly 

When these requisitions are complied with, the following reme- 


dies will be found efficient in arresting the disorder in by far tbe 
great majority of cases : — 

Pulsatilla. — When the discharge is thin and acrid, excoriating 
the parts at times, "with swelling of the vulva, or when the dis- 
charge is thick, like cream, and attended with crampy or cutting 
pains in the abdomen. Leucorrhcea, occurring during pregnancy, 
or during and after menstruation. Pulsatilla is especially appli- 
cable to females of a mild disposition, with soft, muscular sys- 
tem, light hair, and pale skin, and subject to menstrual derange- 

Sejna. — Especially indicated in sensitive and delicate females. 
The discharge is yellowish or greenish, sometimes mixed with 
matter and blood, and often fetid, more or less acrid, and attended 
with stitches in the vagina, and with burning pain and soreness 
of the parts ; leucorrhceal discharge of a yellowish or reddish 
green water; itching of the external parts, with redness and 
soreness ; falling of the womb. 

Alumina. — Leucorrhcea after the menses, profuse discharge of 
transparent mucus during the day, stiffening the linen ; corrosive 
leucorrhcea, producing heat, soreness, and itching of the vulva ; 
between and after the menses discharge of bloody water ; profuse 
leucorrhcea just before and'after menstruation. 

Calcarea-carb. — Leucorrhcea before the menses, itching, burn- 
ing leucorrhcea, with milky discharge at intervals, or when urinat- 
ing. Especially applicable to females of light complexion, with 
pale skin, lax fibre, and sluggish circulation, and those who are 
troubled with too frequent and too copious menstruation. 

Kreosotum. — Whitish, acrid leucorrhcea, attended with great 
weakness ; discharge of blood and mucus from the vagina on 
rising in the morning; excessive pains in the small of the back; 
falling of the womb ; smarting and itching of the external parts. 

Nitric Acid. — Eor fetid, brownish leucorrhcea, mucus and 
greenish, or flesh-colored leucorrhcea. 

Mercurius. — Purulent corrosive leucorrhcea, discharge of flecks 
of mucus and matter from the vagina, with smarting. 

Cocculus. — Watery, bloody leucorrhceal discharge during preg- 
nancy ; scanty menses, with leucorrhcea between the periods ; leu- 
corrhcea instead of the menses. 

Conium. — Smarting, burning, acrid, excruciating leucorrhcea, 
preceded by pinching colic, and lameness in the small of the back, 
and excessive itching of the external parts. 


Sulphur. — In stubborn cases, slimy or yellowish, smarting, ex 
coriating leucorrhcea, preceded by colic. 

Silicia. — Leucorrhcea like milk, acrid, excoriating leucorrhoea, 
with itching of the pudendum. 

Administration op Remedies. — Of the selected remedy, give 
six pills every morning and evening until five doses have been 
taken. If the case does not improve, give a dose of Sulphur and 
omit four days, when the remedy may be repeated. If this affords 
no relief, or if the symptoms assume a new form, the remedy may 
be changed. * 

Most physicians speak highly of water as a remedial agent in 
this disease, and experience has taught me that too high enco- 
mium can hardly be awarded to it when judiciously employed. 
Under the head of causes of leucorrhoea, it will be remembered, I 
asserted that the disease was not unfrequently occasioned by the 
use of water. This is true. Some over-fastidious females are not 
content with cleaning their external person, but think it necessary 
to syringe themselves out frequently with tepid or cold water. 
Vaginal injections during health are not only uncalled for, but 
are positively injurious. I will explain how they are so. In its 
natural, healthy condition, the lining membrane of the vagina is 
kept constantly moistened by a mucous secretion. Now an injec- 
tion, even of simple water, washes away this secretion, and leaves 
the surface dry, in a condition easily irritated and prone to dis- 
ease. Water, however, is not the only injection made use of, and 
cleanliness not the only pretext for its use. But upon this point 
we have already spoken in another chapter. The object now is, 
simply to protest against the use of injections in health. 

The use of vaginal injections in leucorrhcea is of great impor- 
tance. In those cases where the discharge is acrid and excoriates 
the parts with which it comes in contact, I have found injections 
of water especially beneficial. The water dilutes the secretion, 
and thus renders it less irritating ; besides, it has a tendency to 
re-establish a healthful action in the parts. I have known many 
cases where prompt recovery has speedily followed the use of sim- 
ple injections of cold water. Cold hip-baths are also beneficial. 

I have treated some severe, obstinate cases with injections of a 
decoction of Hamamelis Virginica. It can be obtained from any 
botanic drug-store, and a tea made with but very little trouble. 
Before using it, the vagina should be thoroughly washed out with 
injections of warm water, or warm castile soap-suds. It may be 
used three or four times a day. 



It is unnecessary in a work like this to say anything in regard 
to the various kinds of tumors, indurations, contractions, and 
cancers which may affect the womb and vagina. They can be 
recognized by an experienced physician only. 


Definition. — This disease is almost exclusively peculiar to 
young ladies. As a general thing, it manifests itself at about the 
period of puberty, and is characterized by a pale, yellowish- 
green countenance, deficient warmth, perverted appetite, with 
occasional nausea or sickness, great physical and mental weak- 
ness, impaired digestion, palpitation of the heart, and general 
derangement of the sexual function. 

Causes. — It has been asserted by some, and maintained with a 
good deal of pertinacity, that chlorosis is essentially a disease of 
the uterine organs, amenorrhcea. I am inclined to think, how- 
ever, that the uterine disorder is rather a coincident effect of the 
same diseased condition or state that produces the chlorosis, — 
perhaps a defective energy of the nervous system, a lack of vital 
force. However this may be, we are well aware that in chlorotic 
patients we not only find retained or deranged menstruation, but 
we also find all the organic functions — those of digestion, assim- 
ilation, sanguification, and nutrition — inadequately performed. 
Therefore, there would be just as much propriety in calling the 
disease dyspepsia as amenorrhcea. 

"We find the disease most frequent in young girls about the age 
of puberty, and especially among those who have led a sedentary 
life. Those who work in crowded and ill-ventilated manufacto- 
ries, and who sit constantly at the sewing-machine, or follow any 
employment which requires a stooping position, and particularly 
when they have been put to such trades or occupations when very 
young, before the frame is fully developed. 

Those who possess feeble and delicate constitutions, or who 
reside in damp, unwholesome localities, and those who have in- 
sufficient, unwholesome, or innutritious food, as well as those who 
drink largely of tea, coffee, diluted acids, herb teas, bad wines, 
and are addicted to too great indulgence in warm bathing, to tight- 
lacing, excessive sleeping or watching, are predisposed to the dis- 
ease. In fact, anything which tends to debilitate and relax the 
system predisposes to this disease. 


The exciting causes are, disturbing emotions, troubles of all 
kinds, and especially unrequited love, or unfortunate and impru- 
dent attachments, homesickness, depression of spirits, long-enter- 
tained feelings of anxiety or sadness, etc. 

Symptoms. — The groups of symptoms which characterize this 
disease, do not come upon the patient all at once, but manifest 
themselves gradually, insidiously, almost insensibly. The patient 
first complains of general lassitude, and has a great aversion to 
either mental or physical exertion ; she loses her complexion, be- 
comes emaciated, has no appetite, or if any, only for such things 
as are unwholesome, and has a longing for such substances as 
chalk, slate-pencils, or charcoal. The tongue is generally coated 
white, and there is a pasty taste in the mouth, especially on rising 
in the morning ; the breath is offensive. The least bodily exer- 
tion causes shortness of breathing, and palpitation of the heart. 
Sleep is disturbed and unrefreshing. The bowels are constipated ; 
sometimes there is nausea and vomiting ; the pulse is small and 
frequent ; there is a desire to be alone. She has frequent fits of 
weeping, is sad and sighs frequently. The menses are either 
retarded or scanty, and of a pale color. 

If the disease continues, all these symptoms grow worse, and 
new ones manifest themselves. The countenance becomes more 
and more pale, and presents, in a marked degree, the character- 
istic feature, of the disease, — the greenish yellow tint. The lips 
and gums, and whole interior of the. mouth, become pale ; the eye- 
lids livid and swollen ; the white of the eyes looks almost chalky ; 
there is a sad expression about the face ; the muscles are flaccid, 
the extremities cold, and the ankles swollen. The appetite be- 
comes more and more capricious and vitiated ; various dyspeptic 
symptoms become troublesome, — heartburn, sour stomach, pain 
in the stomach, accompanied with nausea and vomiting, especially 
in the morning. The patient experiences great difficulty in 
breathing, and palpitation of the heart upon the least exertion, 
especially on going up-stairs. The menses, when they have ap- 
peared, gradually become scanty, and are attended with an unusual 
amount of pain ; they continue but a short time, are pale and 
watery, recur at long periods, and finally cease altogether. 
The abdomen often becomes tense and swollen ; so much so, that 
not unfrequently the patient is accused of being pregnant. The 
veins of the skin are pale, and never distended as in health ; the 
blood is thin and watery ; frequently there is severe pain under 


the left breast, or pain through the chest, with slight cough and 
hectic fever; sometimes the cough is attended with expecto- 
ration of small clots of blood, — symptoms which have all the 
appearance of a rapid decline. During the course of the disease, 
various hysterical complaints manifest themselves. 

Chlorosis is not unfrequently mistaken for disease of the heart, 
or for tubercular consumption. 

Treatment. — From what has already been said about this dis- 
ease, you may well infer that it always needs the attention of a 
skilful physician ; for, if neglected or improperly treated, it will 
surely destroy the health and happiness of the patient. We shall 
here simply draw the attention of the reader to a few prominent 
remedies appropriate to the disease, and especially those whose 
early application will tend to arrest its progress. 

At the outset, before much else can be done, we must, if pos- 
sible, ascertain and remove the exciting cause. Perhaps in no 
other disease does change of occupation, of climate, and of scenery 
produce such salutary results, as in chlorosis. A complete change 
should be made in the patient's whole existence. If she leads a 
sedentary life, change it to an active one ; if she is confined to 
school, and close application to her books, break off her studies ; 
postpone her education ; send her to the country ; give her plenty 
of active out-door exercise ; institute the frequent use of cold bath- 
ing. The mental and moral causes, which perhaps are the most 
important ones, are the most difficult to remove. New scenery 
and new friends will go a great way toward erasing old attach- 
ments. But for the evils of unrequited love, or for a lacerated 
heart, the cool advice of the medical man is far exceeded in value 
by that which gushes forth from the warm heart of a loving mother. 
" We come to men for philosophy, to women for consolation." 

For those who sit from early dawn till late at night in some 
close, ill-ventilated factory, or those who from choice or necessity 
work all day long, and especially if their occupation compels a 
stooping position, an absolute radical change is necessary before 
medical treatment will be of any avail. A change of employment 
must be made. 

From the list of remedies for this disease, we will mention Pulsa- 
tilla, Calcarea-carb., Ferrum, Bryonia, Sepia, Sulphur, Lycopodiuon, 
and Belladonna. 

Pulsatilla. — Especially for females of a mild, easy disposition, 
given to sadness and tears. The symptoms indicating this remedy 


are : sallow complexion, alternating with redness and flushes of 
heat ; frequent palpitation of the heart ; great difficulty of breathing, 
with a sensation of suffocation after the least exertion ; weariness, 
and heaviness of the legs ; cold hands and feet ; looseness of the 
bowels ; pressure and heaviness in the abdomen ; nausea ; vomit- 
ing; chilliness; swelling of the feet; frequent headache, especially 
upon one side ; buzzing in the ears, with pains which extend to 
the teeth, and frequently fly from one side of the face to the 
other; acrid, burning, or thick, painless leucorrhoea, like cream. 

Bryonia — May be given in alternation with Pulsatilla, when 
there is frequent congestion of the chest ; bleeding from the nose ; 
constipation; coated tongue; flushes of heat; chilliness; cough, 
with expectoration of clots of dark, coagulated blood, and espe- 
cially when Pulsatilla affords but partial relief. 

Ferrum. — Especially when there is great debility ; constant de- 
sire to sit or lie down ; want of appetite ; nausea, and hectic cough ; 
dropsical swelling about the eyes ; swelling of the extremities ; 
want of vital heat ; difficulty of breathing, as if from contraction 
of the chest ; palpitation of the heart ; extreme sallowness of the 
skin ; the lips very pale, looking almost bloodless. 

Sulphur. — For obstinate cases, and especially, though apparently 
well indicated, if the above fail to afford relief; also, when the 
following symptoms occur : pain in the back of the head ; throbbing 
pains in the head ; humming in the ears ; great depression after 
talking; difficulty of breathing, with sense of weight in the chest; 
constant drowsiness in the day-time ; pressure in the abdomen ; 
voracious appetite ; sour eructations ; emaciation ; constipation of 
the bowels, with hard stool ; sensitiveness to the open air. Suit- 
able for irritable persons, or those inclined to sadness and crying. 

Calcarea-carb. — This remedy is suitable after Sulphur, espe- 
cially when the difficulty of breathing is very great, and there is 
excessive emaciation ; weariness and heaviness of the body ; pal- 
pitation, nausea, and vomiting ; desire for wines, salt things, and 

Lycopodium. — Especially when Oalcarea affords but partial 
relief; also, where there is obstinate constipation, extreme lan- 
guor and cough, with tendency to consumption. 

Belladonna. — When there is a pressing or bearing-down pain, 
as though the internal parts would fall out, with or without 
leucorrhoea, scanty and painful menses, preceded by colic. 

CJmia. — When the disease occurs after a severe fit of sick- 
ness, or after hemorrhages. 


All patent or forcing medicines, which are recommended to 
bring on the menses, under the impression that, when they ap- 
pear, the patient is cured, should be strictly avoided, as numbers 
of females have ruined their health forever, and shortened their 
lives considerably, by resorting to such quackery. 

Administration of Remedies. — Of the selected remedy, give 
five or six globules, dry, upon the tongue, once in six hours. As 
soon as "improvement sets in, lengthen the interval between the 
doses to twelve hours ; and, as it continues, to two or three days. 

If preferred, you may dissolve twelve globules in six spoonfuls 
of water, and of the solution take one spoonful at a dose. 

Diet and Regimen. — The diet should be perfectly plain, and 
of the most nutritious kind ; all stimulants and condiments of 
every description should be strictly avoided. Coffee, green tea, 
and all spirituous and malt liquors are objectionable. 

The directions in regard to mental and physical exercise, to- 
gether with strict attention to diet, are indispensable to a success- 
ful treatment. 




General Remarks. — The woman whose privilege it is to bear 
within herself a human being occupies a high position in the scale 
of humanity ; within her has started a ripple, which may continue 
as a wave upon the great ocean of life, itself producing and repro- 
ducing others like unto it, until its ever-widening circles are lost 
from human gaze in the greater ocean of eternity itself. 

It is said, that not a single sound that was ever made has ceased 
to reverberate, that it continues and continues on, ever ending, ever 
beginning, always changing, yet immutably the same. It is also 
said, that every little pebble thrown into the ocean disturbs the 
whole waters of that mighty deep, that the little circlet of waves 
thus set in motion is ever widening, ever breaking upon distant 
shores, ever returning, but never ending. If this be true, that 
slight impressions, thus made upon material substances, produce 
such great results, who can estimate the influence of a single indi- 
vidual upon the generation in which he lives, or, in fact, upon all 
generations which are to follow him. 

It is very easy for any of us to look back upon times that are 
long passed, and pick out prominent characters, the marks of 
whose influence we can now trace upon individuals, in our own 
immediate circle of friends. We all, no matter how obscure our 
positions, in journeying through life, make impressions upon those 
with whom we come in contact, either for good or evil, which are 
never effaced ; not only that, but these very impressions are trans- 
mitted to others, and to others still, and, though originating with 
us, may affect thousands yet unborn. 

Thoughts like these lead one to contemplate the responsibilities 
of life, and when applied to the mother, existence itself must 
assume a more sacred import, as she gazes upon her new-born 
babe, that miniature human being, whose moral and physical 


form she herself has moulded and stamped with the imprint of 
her own nature. She, certainly, to a great extent, must be respon- 
sible for its future life. Springing from herself, — an almost 
imperceptible germ, — and growing day by day upon the very life 
it drew from her, it has attained a body which is a part and parcel 
of her very self. This close connection could not have, has not 
existed without their lives being one. The infant's mind, its dis- 
position, its habits, its loves, and its hates, have been formed by 
the parent in the exact image and likeness of herself, and undoubt- 
edly, were the child kept exclusively in the society of its mother, 
away from the influence of all other persons, it would grow up, at 
least as far as its general disposition and mental characteristics go, 
the exact counterpart of her who gave it birth ; as it is, even in 
spite of all surrounding influences, — the society of other children, 
the precept and example of ad alts, education at school and in 
society at large, — we still see prominently exhibited, during the 
whole period of life, the same habits of thought and action which 
were peculiar to the parent. 

It is true, in the highest possible degree, that the habits of mind, 
the impulses and emotions of the mother during pregnancy, do 
have a direct and powerful influence upon her offspring, and to 
such an extent, too, that it is in the power of the mother to deter- 
mine, at least in a great measure, what class of passions shall have 
predominance in the souls of her children. 

It would be hardly natural to suppose that a female who, during 
pregnancy, was habitually irritable, passionate, and sour-tempered, 
would give birth to an infant, sweet-tempered and amiable ; in fact, 
any of us would about as soon expect to obtain sweet fruit from a 
sour apple-tree. Some one has said, " Show me a child, and I will 
tell you the disposition of its parents." Scripture has it, " By 
their fruits ye shall Jmow them." Any of us meeting a matron 
of gentle and winning disposition, one in whose mental composi- 
tion all the faculties are well balanced, and governed by a pure 
morality, would expect, on being introduced into her family, to 
find the same commendable qualities exhibited in her children. 
And why ? Because observation has taught us that the general 
disposition and mental characteristics of the parent descend to the 

We naturally suppose, besides, we have ample proof in support 
of the supposition, that the physical composition of the infant 
resembles that of the mother, during her pregnancy ; we know, 


that if the parent be suffering from any constitutional disease, it is 
transmitted to the child. Now is it not just as correct to suppose 
that habits of mind, the impulses and emotions of the mother, 
are also transmitted to the infant ? Cases are by no means rare 
where the excessive anxiety or sadness of the mother, during the 
period of gestation, is shown in the after-life of the child. " By the 
unalterable decree of the Divinity, impressions indulged by the 
mother during this period, as they are received by her own highly 
impressible and delicate organization, are conveyed from each of 
those organs to the corresponding organs of the child she bears, 
and she is thus forming for good or for evil, for virtue or for vice, 
one who is hereafter to be her happiness or her misery, her honor 
or her reproach." — Small. 

"We can scarcely over-estimate the importance of maintaining a 
proper state of the mind and feelings during this period ; not only 
intellectually, but morally and socially, the habits and condition of 
the mind of the mother are important to the future welfare of the 
child. Violent anger, terror, or jealousy, seldom fails to produce 
unpleasant effects, and the consequences are sometimes alarming, 
and even fatal. Abortion is not unfrequently the result of mental 

Most women are very particular to avoid all unsightly objects, 
for fear of producing some physical deformity in their child. In 
my estimation, this popular precaution has very little, if anything, 
in truth to support it. It is against the production of mental, and 
not physical, deformities in their offspring, that pregnant women 
should be most on their guard. 

Gloomy and harassing thoughts and impressions should be most 
sedulously guarded against. I am well aware that during this 
period, owing to. the unusual irritability of the system, the diffi- 
culty of controlling the feelings becomes greatly enhanced. But 
then a greater effort should be made to confine the thoughts and 
attention to the beautiful and true. Every means should be taken 
to procure a healthy and vigorous tone of mind. Cheerful conver- 
sation, pleasant friends, agreeable books, music, household duties, 
and out-door exercise, should all contribute their share to promote 
comfort and enjoyment. 

There is no period, perhaps, in the whole life of a female when 
she stands so much in need of sympathy as at this interesting 
period, and especially the sympathy of him who has sworn to pro- 
tect and love her, in sickness and in health. She needs the sooth- 


ing care of affection, and the strong arm of love, to smooth over 
the rough places of life, and to surround her with every comfort ; 
to encourage her cheerful moods, and banish her gloomy emotions ; 
in a word to make to her the foreboding path which she has to 
travel as smooth and easy as kindness, patience, and affection can. 
I do not mean that every nonsensical whim should be gratified, — 
that she should be surrounded with all the luxuries that her mor- 
bid imagination may suggest ; she will have many longings for 
strange, and sometimes unheard-of things, and will endeavor to 
make herself and others believe, what perhaps she has heard from 
those who are old enough to know better, that, unless these fancies 
are indulged, evil will result to the child. This is sheer nonsense, 
and, were a woman's mind engaged as it should be, such things 
would never enter her head. To gratify such whims tends only 
to increase the trouble. If she finds that, by longing for a thing, 
she ,can have it, she will long for things you little dream of. She 
will want strawberries in the winter, and if she cannot have them, 
will imagine that her child will be marked with a strawberry upon 
its face. The proper treatment, in such a' case, is to occupy the 
mind with other things, — cheerful employment, entertaining 
books, and healthful exercise. 


The diagnosis of early pregnancy is no easy task ; it frequently 
baffles the most experienced physicians ; therefore, great care and 
discrimination should be exercised before venturing upon a posi- 
tive assertion. The general condition of a pregnant woman is 
that of a full habit ; the pulse is quicker and fuller, and the quan- 
tity of circulating fluid is said to be increased. There are various 
and well-marked sympathies excited in distant organs. Varia- 
tions in temper and disposition are of frequent occurrence. The 
appetite is often capricious. The skin sometimes becomes sallow 
or discolored in patches. 

The deviations from the ordinary state of health in some partic- 
ulars are quite remarkable, and constitute the special signs upon 
which our conclusions must be based. Those we shall now notice 
in detail. 

Cessation op Menstruation. — This is one of the earliest and 
most unvarying signs of pregnancy. The non-appearance of the 
catamenia at the proper time is one of the first circumstances 
which leads a female to suspect that she is pregnant; and, if the 


second period passes by, and they are still absent, it is deemed 
conclusive. But, strictly speaking., it is not conclusive, because 
menstruation may be arrested by various diseases ; besides, men- 
struation may occur for some months after conception, or even 
monthly during the whole period of gestation. Nevertheless, al- 
though exceptions do occur, when menstruation ceases without any 
perceptible cause, the woman otherwise remaining perfectly well, 
we take it as pretty good evidence that conception has taken 

Morning-Sickness. — When combined with other symptoms, 
this one is of great value, but, when taken alone, there is not much 
.reliance to be placed upon it, because it may be altogether absent, 
and yet the patient be pregnant ; on the other hand, it may be 
present, as morning-sickness, from various causes, and yet the 
patient not be pregnant. 

This irritability of the stomach, arising from sympathy with the 
uterus, commences soon after conception, and ceases soon after the 
third month. 

Salivation. — Salivation is sometimes present, though not, I 
take it, as a general thing, as I have never observed it myself. 
This form of salivation differs from that induced by mercury, in 
the absence of sponginess and soreness of the gums, and of the 
peculiar fetor. 

Enlargement of the Breasts. — " About two months after 
conception, the attention of the female is attracted to the state of 
the breasts. She feels an uneasy sensation of fulness, "with throb- 
bing and tingling pain in their substance, and at the nipples. 
They increase in size and firmness, and have a peculiar, knotty, 
glandular feel ; the areola — a colored circle round the nipple — 
darkens, and, after some time, milk is secreted. But it must be 
recollected that the breasts may enlarge from other causes ; this 
happens with some women at each menstrual period when the 
catamenia are suspended, or after they cease, and at such times a 
milky fluid may be secreted." — Churchill. 

Enlargement of the Abdomen. — The gradual enlargement of 
the abdomen, taken in connection with the symptoms already 
enumerated, enables us to estimate with a good deal of certainty 
the period of pregnancy at the time the examination is made. 
During the first four months the entire womb is contained within 
the cavity of the pelvis, and, therefore, cannot be felt through the 
walls of the abdomen ; but, soon after this time, it may be felt, 



especially in thin females, just above the share-bone ; about the 
fifth month, it reaches midway between the umbilicus and share- 
bone, and gives a roundness and fulness to the abdomen ; about 
the sixth month, it is as high as the umbilicus, which it protrudes ; 
during the seventh and eighth, it fills the whole abdomen, the 
intestines having been pushed above and behind it. 

Distension of the abdomen, however, sometimes takes place 
from other causes than pregnancy ; therefore, this sign alone is not 
sufficient to warrant us in pronouncing upon a case. 

Quickening. — This term is applied to the first movement of the 
child within the womb, or rather, to the first perception of such 
movement on the part of the mother. Some women labor under 
the erroneous belief, that the child is not alive until the fourth 
month, — the time at about which quickening is first felt. The 
fact is, however, we have just as much reason to believe that the 
child is alive at the fourth week as at the fourth month. Indeed, 
we have no reason to doubt but that the child is actually alive 
from the very first moment of conception. Quickening takes place 
at about the fourth month after conception, though some women 
feel it earlier, and others not until the sixth or seventh month. 
" The sensation is at first like a feeble pulsation, and, though so 
slight, is often accompanied by sickness of stomach and faintish- 
ness, or even complete syncope. By degrees it becomes stronger 
and more frequent, until the movements of the different extremi- 
ties are distinguishable." — Fletcher. 


We have already remarked upon the close connection that 
exists between the health and happiness of the mother during 
pregnancy, and the future disposition and well-being of the child. 
We have shown that the moral and physical condition of the 
infant in utero are intimately connected with the health and regu- 
larity of the parent's system ; that moral and physical perturba- 
tions of any kind not only act injuriously on the female herself, 
but, through her, upon the infant, and impressions thus made are 
not transient, but affect the whole future welfare of the child. 
Therefore, during the interesting period of pregnancy, it becomes 
the female sedulously to guard against all accidents and circum- 
stances which may have an unfavorable influence upon the deli- 
cate organization of the incipient being within her womb. And 
nothing perhaps can contribute more to the general good health 


and vigor of both body and mind, and thereby promote the happi- 
ness of the individual and the well-being of her offspring, than 
proper attention to dress, exercise, and diet. Upon each of these 
points we shall offer a few remarks. 

Dress. — Lycurgus, the great Spartan lawgiver, once ordained 
a decree that all pregnant women should wear wide, loose clothing. 
A similar law also prevailed among the Komans. The dress 
should be warm, loose, and light, during the whole period of preg- 
nancy ; and, at this day, were there such a law, and the proper 
power to enforce it, you would hear fewer complaints of " bad 
gettings-up," "fallings," " prolapsuses," " broken breasts," "weak- 
nesses," and many other complaints which do so much to under- 
mine the constitutions of married women. Let out your dresses 
early ; no part of the dress should be tight ; even garters should 
be abandoned ; everything should be loose, so as to allow a free 
circulation of the blood. Tight-lacing is highly injurious : how 
can it be otherwise ? While nature is gradually increasing the 
capacity of the abdomen to accommodate the steady development 
of the child, for the woman to compress her chest with stays, or 
to gird her abdomen about with skirts, it seems to me that any 
one with common intelligence must know cannot fail to prove 
injurious both to mother and to child. Special care should be 
taken that the dress is loose about the breast. This is highly im- 
portant ; for not unfrequently the breasts and nipples are so 
completely flattened out, by direct pressure, that, after confine- 
ment, there is nothing that can properly be called a nipple to 
be found. More will be said upon this subject, when speaking of 
the Preparation of the Breasts. 

Exercise. — There is an impression among some people, that 
a pregnant female should carefully avoid exercise, especially 
during the early months. This is altogether a mistake. Ex- 
perience has taught us that it is impossible for a pregnant woman 
to enjoy good health, unless she daily takes active exercise ; pas- 
sive exercise — such as riding out in a carriage — is not sufficient. 

The daily household duties should be continued just the same 
as usual. Actual fatigue should be induced by continued, mod- 
erate action ; not, however, to such an extent as to interfere with 
quiet sleep. 

Quick and violent action should be avoided, as lifting of 
heavy articles, or great exertion in moving them; there should 


be no exposure to sudden strains, as in lifting or reaching ; or to 
jar or falls, as in jumping, etc. 

Those women who are actively employed during the whole 
period of gestation are seldom annoyed by any of that multitude 
of bad feelings, which are so apt to attend their state ; and this, of 
itself, is a sufficient reason why a woman should never be idle, — 
should never have time to picture to herself the reality of any of 
those mishaps, to which her particular friends have informed her 
that females in her condition are peculiarly liable. 

In addition, however, to the usual exercise of accustomed 
employment, active exercise should be taken in the open air for 
enjoyment. As the time advances beyond the fifth month, the 
amount of exercise and work should be gradually diminished. 

Diet. — The diet should be well regulated. Whatever tends 
in any way to disturb the general health should be strictly avoided. 
Many females, during this period, have a morbid desire for things 
which, if indulged in, would prove highly injurious ; producing 
dyspeptic and other troublesome symptoms, which, beside being 
a source of much suffering to the mother, may seriously affect the 
future health of her offspring. No. specific rules can be laid 
down as to what a pregnant female should eat, because some 
can digest with ease what would produce in others serious gastric 
disorders. Each one, by using a little discrimination, can best 
regulate her own diet. She knows what formerly agreed with 
her, and will soon find out what agrees with her now. All she 
needs is the resolution to refrain from partaking of what she has 
reason to think, or what she has proven to be, injurious to her. 

The diet should be simple, purely nutritious, generous, but not 
excessive ; and everything medicinal or stimulating, such as all 
highly-seasoned food, spirituous, vinous, and fermented liquors, 
strong teas and coffee, should be for the most part discarded. 

It used to be thought necessary, and with some people is still, 
that the bowels should be kept in a loose state during the whole 
period of pregnancy, under the absurd notion that it would make 
labor easier. Just exactly how castor-oil produced this desidera- 
tum, I have never seen stated ; certainly I cannot think that they 
should imagine that oil poured into the stomach would lubricate 
the passage from the womb. However, it matters little : the notion 
is antediluvian, and long ago exploded : no one thinks of following 
such advice now, except the ignorant. 



Although pregnancy is a perfectly natural and perfectly healthy 
condition, yet, owing to the increased activity going on in the gen- 
eral system, we not unfrequently meet with disorders which are 
peculiar to this state. All females are not affected alike ; some 
pass through the whole period of pregnancy without experiencing 
any trouble whatever, while others are not so fortunate. 

"We shall briefly treat of some of the deviations from health 
which are met with during pregnancy. 


This is comparatively of rare occurrence, yet it is occasionally 
met with, and should receive attention. The following remedies 
will usually have the desired effect of arresting the discharge : — 

Cocculus. — When there is severe spasmodic pain low-down in 
the abdomen. 

Crocus. — When the discharge is dark and copious. 

Phosphorus, Platina, and Sulphur are also serviceable reme- 
dies. For their special indication, and also for other remedies, 
see "Painful Menstruation." 


Not unfrequently, pregnant women are very seriously affected 
with giddiness and pain in the head. With these headaches there 
is almost always a sense of dulness, and disinclination to active 
employment ; sometimes there are nausea, dimness of sight, sparks 
before the eyes, palpitations, and nervous tremblings. 

These symptoms are generally caused by nervous irritability, 
and whatever tends to derange the general health of course pre- 
disposes the patient to their frequent visitations. To prevent their 
recurrence, then, it is specially necessary that the patient should 
follow the strictest hygienic rules in diet and exercise, as well as 
avoid, to as great an extent as possible, all mental and physical 
excitement. It is not necessary to take a dose of medicine for 
every little ache or unpleasant sensation that may occur; the 
better plan, a great deal, is to abstain a little from the accustomed 
diet, to take a little more out-door exercise, and avoid excitement 
of every description. 

When, however, this will not avail, and it becomes necessary 
that medicine of some kind should be taken, you can select from 
the following remedies : — 


Headache. — Aconitum, Belladonna, Nux-vomica, Platinum, Pul- 
satilla, Opium. 

Vertigo. — Aconitum, Belladonna, Opium, Nux-vomica, Sul- 

Sparks before the Eyes. — Aconitum, Belladonna, Pulsatilla, 

Sleeplessness. — Coffea, Ignatia, Hyoscyamus, Nux-vomica, 

Sleepiness. — Opium, Pulsatilla, Nux-vomica, Crocus, Tartar- 

Administration op Remedies. — After selecting a remedy, dis- 
solve twelve globules, in eight or ten spoonfuls of water, and take 
of the solution one spoonful every three or four hours. 

For congestive headache, or whenever the pain is very severe, a 
dose may be taken as often as every half-hour, or every hour. 


Nausea. — Most pregnant women suffer more or less from nau- 
sea and vomiting, especially on rising in the morning, and this is 
what is termed " morning-sickness." It is not an actual disease, 
but rather a sympathetic affection, and plainly illustrates the close 
connection existing, through the nervous system, between the 
womb and other organs and functions of the body. When morn- 
ing-sickness occurs at the regular time, and in the usual manner, 
it is of great value as an evidence of pregnancy ; that is, when it 
is combined with other symptoms which look to the same cause. 

This irritability of the stomach may commence immediately 
after conception, but, as a general thing, it sets in about the fifth 
or sixth week, and ceases soon after the third month ; sometimes, 
however, it continues, with but slight modification, to the end of 
pregnancy. The daily attacks, which commonly take place im- 
mediately on rising in the morning, last but a short time, — from 
ten minutes to an hour, — after which the patient completely recov- 
ers, and is able to take her breakfast. Occasionally, but not often, 
they return in the evening. 

It is asserted by some physicians, and with a great deal of plau- 
sibility, too, that when vomiting is entirely absent, gestation does 
not proceed with its usual regularity and activity, because irregu- 
larities in this particular are most generally followed by deviations 
of other kinds. 


Treatment. — Morning-sickness being such a distressing accom- 
paniment of pregnancy, thankful, indeed, might we be, had we the 
remedies to offer that would afford prompt and permanent relief; 
but, as long as the exciting cause remains, we can at best expect to 
offer but temporary relief. In prescribing for these cases, it will 
be found that what will give to one instant relief often entirely fails 
with another. 

Ipecacuanha. — When there is bilious vomiting ; nausea and 
vomiting with uneasiness in the stomach ; vomiting of undigested 
food or of drink ; bowels loose or relaxed. 

Arsenicum. — Excessive vomiting after eating or drinking, with 
attacks of fainting, great emaciation. * 

Nux-vomica. — Nausea and vomiting in the morning ; or for nau- 
sea which comes on while eating, or immediately after eating ; acid 
and bitter eructations ; hiccough ; heart-burn ; sensation of weight 
in the pit of the stomach ; constipation ; irritability. 

Pulsatilla. — When Ipecacuanha and Nux-vomica prove insuffi- 
cient, and especially if the vomiting comes on in the evening, or 
at night ; depraved appetite ; longing for acids, beer, wine, etc. ; 
diarrhoea, alternating with constipation. 

Sepia. — Especially for vomiting of milky mucus. 

When other remedies fail, recourse may be had to Watrum- 
muriaticum, Phosphorus, Petroleum, or Sulphur. Also Kreosote, in 
some cases. 

Administration op Remedies. — Dissolve of the selected rem- 
edy twelve globules in eight spoonfuls of water, and take, for 
severe cases, one spoonful every three hours. For ordinary cases, 
however, it will be as well to take six pills, dry upon the tongue, 
night and morning. 


Pregnancy is frequently accompanied by a sluggish condition 
of the bowels, and especially in persons of a naturally costive 
habit. Constipation long continued gives rise to a train of symp- 
toms, which sometimes prove excessively annoying ; the appetite 
fails ; digestion becomes difficult ; the sleep disturbed ; and the 
patient generally nervous and irritable. 

The only treatment usually necessary to be instituted is a 
change in diet ; a little more of vegetables or fruit ; a little more 
exercise in the open air ; a good drink of fresh cold water on 


rising in the morning, and perhaps two or three times during the 
day. The avoidance of all indigestible food, coffee, and other 
stimulating liquids, is often sufficient to remove the difficulty. 

When, however, other assistance is required, you can resort to 
Nux-vomica, and take one dose night and morning, for three or 
four days. Nux-vomica is especially called for when there is dull 
headache ; heat in the abdomen ; frequent but ineffectual desire 
for stool. This remedy may also be given in alternation with 
Opium, especially where Nux alone fails to have the desired effect. 
Should both these remedies fail, and where constipation has con- 
tinued for a long time, Lycopodium or Sulphur may be taken. 
Bryonia, Alumina, and Sepia are often of service. 

If constipation has lasted three or four days, and there be fre- 
quent urging to stool, but inability to expel the faeces, on account 
of their hardness and size, recourse must be had to the injection 
of tepid water. 

Under no circumstances should cathartics be given, even those 
of the mildest description. See " Constipation." 


Diarrhoea in a pregnant female is an untoward symptom, and 
should be changed as soon as possible ; otherwise, the health of the 
patient may suffer severely. 

Sometimes there is a simple looseness of the bowels, which can 
scarcely be called a diarrhoea, where the movements are more 
loose and frequent than is natural, but not otherwise much altered 
in their appearance. The appetite remains good, and there is no 
general disturbance of the system. Such cases- can generally be 
controlled by a proper regulation of the diet, by avoiding such 
articles as have a tendency to produce relaxation. 

The form of diarrhoea, however, which is foreboding of evil, 
and which prompt measures should be taken to remove, is where 
the stools are liquid, dark-colored, and very offensive ; the tongue 
is coated; there is little or no appetite; bad breath, and disagree- 
able taste in the mouth. In cases like this, the diet must be 
restricted to very small quantities of the very mildest kind of 
food. See " Diarrhoea." 

The remedies called for, are, Lycopodium, Chamomilla, Sulphur, 
Pulsatilla, Dulcamara, Antimonium-crudum, Rheum, and Cal- 


Chamomilla. — Should there be violent colic, with yellow, green- 
ish stools, or resembling stirred eggs. 

Pulsatilla. — "When the stools are watery or greenish, preceded 
by colic, with slimy, bitter taste in the mouth. 

Dulcamara. — When the diarrhoea results from a cold, or get- 
ting wet. 

For further particular indications, and for administration of 
remedies, see " Diarrhoea." 


Itching of the private parts. Perhaps there is no disorder to 
which a pregnant female is liable that causes her so much annoy- 
ance and trouble as this. It takes away all rest and sleep, and 
thus sometimes produces the most extreme debility. Some of the 
cases are, to an unimaginable degree, distressing ; the itching is all 
the time not only constant and severe, but also attended with fre- 
quent exacerbations, during which it is so intolerable that the 
sufferer cannot resist the impulse to scratch, even to the extent of 
seriously wounding the surface.* 

There is some little doubt as to what is the cause of this dis- 
ease ; in most cases, however, it arises from a vitiated condition 
of the mucous secretion of the parts. In others, it depends upon 
an aphthous eruption, or an eruption resembling the thrush of 
infants, when it is accompanied by a burning heat, with dryness., 
redness, and perhaps some swelling. This affection is not con- 
fined to the pregnant state alone, but may occur at any time. 

The chief remedies for this disease are, Conium, Kreosote, Bry- 
onia, Arsenicum, Rhus, Pulsatilla, Silica, Sulphur, Lycopodium, 
and Graphitis. 

After selecting a remedy from the above list, dissolve six pills 
in six spoonfuls of water, and take one spoonful of the solution, 
every four hours ; or the remedies may be taken dry upon the 
tongue, six globules at a dose. Give each remedy used a fair trial 
of three or four days before selecting another. Use the remedies 
in their order as given. 

A very efficacious and simple external application is made by 
dissolving one ounce of borax — biborate of soda — in a pint of 
rose-water, or, if rose-water is not as handy, soft rain-water. The 
parts affected may be washed several times a day with this solu- 

8 * Tracy. 


tion; where the disease extends too far within the body to be 
reached otherwise, a female syringe may be used for applying the 

This wash, in connection with the internal use of one of the 
above-named remedies, will very speedily cure the disease in almost 
every case. 

The utmost cleanliness should be observed, especially in those 
cases where the irritation is produced by a constant oozing of a 
thin, watery secretion. This secretion, when allowed to accumu- 
late, produces an itching which is absolutely intolerable. 


^Pregnant females often experience a great deal of discomfort 
from heartburn and acid stomach. This is often very distressing, 
and frequently commences immediately after impregnation. Nux- 
vomica and Pulsatilla are the principal remedies to regulate these 
derangements. Sometimes a slice of lemon, sugared and kept in 
the mouth, is salutary. Also frequent but small quantities of 
lemonade give relief. One drop of sulphuric acid in a tumbler of 
water is highly recommended. Pleasant sour or sub-acid apples 
and other fruits are often very effectual in this complaint. 

Physicians now-a-days strongly object against using magnesia, 
limewater, charcoal, chalk, prepared oyster-shells, and the like, as 
they often produce other diseases, besides at best but absorbing 
the acid present in the stomach, and exerting no power in pre- 
venting its new formation. See " Dyspepsia." 


Females of a nervous, hysterical, or delicate constitution are 
frequently, especially during the early months of pregnancy, at- 
tacked with fainting, hysteric spells. They are occasioned by 
want of sleep, excessive fatigue, tight-lacing, warmTooins, or a 
disordered digestion. The attack is usually preceded by a con- 
striction about the throat, by sobbing, or repeated attempts at 
swallowing. Then the patient rolls about from side to side, or 
sometimes lies perfectly still and motionless for some little time ; 
then the sobbing becomes violent, or the patient bursts out into 
tears, and the paroxysm then terminates. 

Generally the attack passes over in a short time, without any 
bad consequences. These attacks do not, as far as I have ob- 


served, interfere with the progress of gestation ; cases of prema- 
ture labor, however, are recorded as having taken place during 
these paroxysms. 

The speediest means of reviving a patient from fainting is to 
dash cold water upon the face, admit plenty of fresh air into the 
room, or hold some volatile alkali to the nostrils. When the par- 
oxysm is over, a single dose of CJiamomilla or Coffea — six glob- 
ules — maybe given, and the patient permitted to go to sleep. 
On waking, she will find herself quite restored. 

Where these derangements of the nervous system arise from a 
disordered digestion, of course our attention must be turned to 
the state of the stomach, and JSfux-vomiea or Pulsatilla will be 
found our best correctives. Nux-vomica is best suited to choleric, 
petulant, peevish females ; while the amiable ones, with mild, easy 
dispositions, will be soonest reached with Pulsatilla. 

CJiamomilla. — When the disorder arises from a fit of anger. 

Belladonna and Aeonitum. — When there is much congestion 
to the head. 

Administration of Eemedies. — The remedies may be either 
given dry or in solution. When given dry, put six globules upon 
the tongue, and let them dissolve. When given in solution, dissolve 
six pills in six spoonfuls of water, and give one spoonful at a dose. 
The doses may be repeated every two, three, or four hours, ac- 
cording to the severity of the case. See "Hysterics." 


Palpitation of the heart not unfrequently causes pregnant 
women a great deal of annoyance, and sometimes serious alarm. 
Should this affection occur, for the first time, during pregnancy, 
there is no fear of its being connected with organic disease of the 
heart, and it should therefore cause no uneasiness. It is, however, 
very distressing, and, on that account, requires medical treatment. 

Treatment. — The principal remedies are Coffea, Ignatia, 
CJiamomilla, Nux-vomica, Pulsatilla, Belladonna, Nux-moschata. 

When caused by anger, CJiamomilla ; by fear, Veratrum ; by 
joy, Coffea ; by sudden fright, Opium. For nervous persons, Ig- 
natia, Coffea, CJiamomilla. For plethorio persons, Aeonitum and 

Administration op Eemedies. — Dissolve of the selected rem 
edy twelve globules in twelve spoonfuls of water, and take one 


spoonful of the solution every hour, or oftener if the severity of 
the case demands it. 


This is one of the most common, as well as one of the most 
troublesome, disorders a pregnant woman has to contend with. 
From other aches and pains she seeks relief, but from this there is 
no escape ; she suffers on patiently, to the end, under the im- 
pression, which is so prevalent, that the extracting of teeth is liable 
to induce a miscarriage, or mark the child. Of course, this im- 
pression has not originated with herself; it is the common belief 
of all women, and was furnished to them by physicians. It is 
astonishing, yet, nevertheless, true, that many eminent medical 
men still cherish this opinion. 1 am well aware that there are 
plenty of cases upon record where abortion has followed the re- 
moval of a tooth ; but where is the proof that the simple shock 
of extraction was the sole cause of the mishap ? There is just as 
much proof that the nervous irritation occasioned by decayed 
teeth, is the cause of abortions, as there is, that it is all the result 
of the shock of extraction ; in fact, there is a great deal more. 
I unhesitatingly recommend the removal of decayed teeth the 
moment they induce pain and suffering which a few doses of some 
simple remedy will not allay. It is seldom, however, that a 
homoeopathic physician meets with a case that cannot readily be 
controlled by medicine. I have yet to see the first case where 
abortion has been the result of such practice. On the other hand, 
cases are not wanting, in every physician's practice, where abor- 
tion is the result of nervous irritation, and this irritation, the 
result of decayed or ulcerated teeth. 

It has always been my custom, when pregnant women have ap- 
plied to me for the cure of toothache, to send them at once to a 
competent dentist and let him examine their teeth. If they are 
not too far decayed, I recommend filling, but if they are past 
saving, then the sooner they are removed, the better. I have no 
more hesitation about their being extracted during pregnancy, 
than at any other time. 

Sometimes the pain, though caused by, is not situated in, the 
decayed tooth. This is a sympathetic pain ; great care should 
therefore be taken that the wrong tooth is not removed. The 
dentist, by gently rapping, with a small metallic instrument, upon 


each suspected tooth, will be able to detect the real offender, — 
the real cause of the pain, — as this tooth will be found more sen- 
sitive than the others, and, when extracted, perhaps ulcerated at 
the root. 

Not unfrequently women, whose teeth are quite sound, suffer 
severely" from flying pains through the face, and all the teeth, dur- 
ing pregnancy. These pains are of a neuralgic character, and can 
be easily removed by taking the proper remedies. Sometimes the 
severest form of toothache is instantly relieved, by one of the fol- 
lowing remedies : Sepia, Chamomilla, Pulsatilla, Coffea, Bella- 
donna, Nitx-vomica, Staphysagria, Mercury, Sulphur. 

When the pain is erratic, flying from one tooth to another, Pul- 

For toothache, in carious teeth, Antimonium-c, Chamomilla, 
Niix- -vomica, Staphysagria, Mercurius, Sulphur. 

For violent pain, which comes on in paroxysms, Coffea, Cham- 
omilla, Belladonna. 

For nervous toothache, Ignatia, Coffea, Chamomilla, Hyoscy- 
amus, Belladonna, Sepia. 

Administration of Remedies. — After selecting a remedy, give, 
according to the severity of the pain, at intervals of from one to 
six hours, a dose of six globules, until better. See " Toothache." 


When we take into consideration the increased irritability of the 
nervous system, caused by the new action which is going on within 
the womb during pregnancy, we need not be at all surprised to 
find neuralgic disorders, throughout the whole system, during 
this period. And we do find them, in the abdomen, under the 
short ribs, near the hips ; in the region of the bladder ; in the 
muscles of the limbs, back, and head, — all originating from one 
and the same cause, excessive nervous sensibility. 

One of the following remedies will generally afford prompt re- 
lief : Belladonna, Aconitum, Coffea, Chamomilla, Bryonia. 

Give, according to the severity of the pain, at intervals of from 
one to four hours, a dose of six globules. See " Neuralgia." 


Not unfrequently, women suffer considerably from pain in the 
small and lower part of the back during pregnancy. Occasionally 


there is a deep-seated pain or aching in the right side_ just under 
the ribs. The patient also feels a sensation of heat in the affected 
part. Benefit will be derived from the following remedies : 

For pain in the back, Bryonia, Rhus, Belladonna, Pulsatilla, 

For pain in the side, Aconitum, Chamomilla, Mercurius, Pulsa- 
tilla, Sulphur. If the pain is attended with much heat, Mercurius 
and Aconitum. 

When the pains are of a dull, heavy character, Chamomilla. 

Administration of Remedies. — The same as for Neuralgia. 


Cramps in the calves of the legs, hips, feet, back, or abdomen, 
often torment pregnant women day and night, and very much 
fatigue them, by depriving them of rest and sleep. 

The best remedies for cramps in the limbs are, Veratrum, Colo- 
cynthus, Chamomilla, Nux-vomica, or Sulphur. 

For cramps in the abdomen, Nux-vomica, Belladonna, Colocynth, 
or Pulsatilla. 

For cramps in the back, Ignatia, or Rhus. 

Administration op Eemedies. — The same as for Neuralgia. 

VARICOSE veins, or swelling op the veins, during preg- 

Some women suffer a great deal during pregnancy from dis- 
tention of the superficial veins of the lower extremities. This 
distention is caused by the pressure of the enlarged uterus upon 
the veins within the abdomen and pelvis, thus preventing a free 
return of the blood upward. 

Usually the swelling commences at the ankles, and gradually 
extends upwards toward the thigh. Not unfrequently the swelling 
is confined to the leg below the knee, the veins of the calf of the 
leg alone presenting any unnatural appearance. Both limbs may 
be involved, or the disease may be confined to one. 

When the disease first commences, the veins beneath the surface 
assume a reddish hue ; but, as the distention increases and the 
vessels become knotted and swollen, they change to a dark blue 
or leaden color. The swelling decreases, when the patient is 
lying down, or when the limb is kept in an elevated position, as, 
lying upon a chair when the patient is sitting ; but when the 
patient is compelled to be constantly or a large part of the time 


upon her feet, or when the limb is allowed to hang down, the 
distention is very much increased, and the disease aggravated. 

This condition of the veins, at first, is not painful, and becomes 
so only from actual distension of the vessels. Sometimes the 
swelling is so great, that the veins actually burst, and large quan- 
tities of blood are discharged, either externally or effused beneath 
the skin. 

After delivery, the pressure of the pregnant uterus on the large 
veins of the abdomen and pelvis being removed, the swelling dis- 
appears, and the veins resume their natural size. 

Treatment. — At the commencement of the difficulty, and in 
cases where the swelling is not extensive, nor the pain very severe, 
frequent bathing with cold water, or diluted alcohol, will afford 
relief. But when the veins are large and painful, or when they 
are knotted, the leg requires the careful application of a bandage, 
and rest in the recumbent posture. Few women are able, without 
some instruction, to apply a bandage as it should be ; therefore, 
in all severe cases, it is advisable to consult a medical man, as 
serious consequences often follow neglect or wrong treatment. 

Persons who are constantly on their feet, should constantly wear 
the bandage, or a laced stocking. The stocking or bandage should 
be applied in the morning on rising, at which time there is the 
least swelling, beginning at the toes, and progressing upwards, 
with a moderate and equal pressure. At night, on retiring, the 
bandage should be removed, and the whole limb freely bathed, 
and rubbed upward, with cold water, or water and alcohol, or a 
weak solution of Tinct. Arnica. 

Yaricose veins, though occurring more frequently during preg- 
nancy, are not by any means confined to this state ; they may 
take place at any time in the female, and are not unfrequently 
met with in the male sex. When occurring under any other cir- 
cumstances than those which we have just been considering, they 
are indicative of constitutional debility. 

The remedies which are most to be depended on in this affec- 
tion, are, Arnica, Hamamelis-virg., Pulsatilla, Nux-vomiea, Arsen- 
icum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Oarho-veg. 

Nux-vomica. — When the disease is attended with haemorrhoids, 
constipation, frequent bearing-down pains, enlargement of the 
abdomen, and irritable temper. 

Pulsatilla. — This is the principal remedy for varices, espe- 
cially when there is much swelling of the veins, and of the whole 


limb, with severe pain, and more or less inflammation, or when 
they are of a bluish or livid color, which is imparted to the whole 
limb. ' Should Pulsatilla give some relief, while the swelling and 
discoloration continue the same, Lacliesis may be substituted. In 
some cases, especially where the occupation of the patient compels 
her to be constantly upon her feet, Arnica, given in alternation 
with Pulsatilla, proves very efficacious. 

Arsenicum. —When the swelling is of a livid color, and attended 
with a good deal of burning pain, when the burning continues 
after the administration of Arsenicum, give Garho-veg. 

Lycopodium. — For inveterate cases, after the failure of other 

Administkation of Remedies. — Of any of the indicated reme- 
dies, dissolve twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of water ; give 
a spoonful every four hours for two days ; if no relief is obtained, 
select another remedy. 


Pregnant women are very often subject to piles. Many have 
supposed this disorder to originate from obstructed circulation ; 
but the fact seems to be that the most frequent cause which oper- 
ates in its production, is habitual constipation of the bowels. If 
this is avoided, by the means already pointed out in the article on 
constipation, much suffering and inconvenience will be avoided ; 
but, if it is permitted to exist, and temporary relief only sought 
by an occasional cathartic, the disease will continue throughout 
the whole period of pregnancy, and perhaps throughout the re- 
mainder of the patient's life. The inexperienced can scarcely 
imagine the amount of suffering some females undergo from piles ; 
and the suffering is constant day in and day out. Various exter- 
nal applications have been devised for their removal ; even the 
knife has been resorted to. Against all these we would warn you, 
as they are not only exceedingly painful, but, during pregnancy 
especially, highly dangerous. 

It is very important that a pregnant woman, and especially if it 
be her first pregnancy, should pay strict attention to the state of 
her bowels, not allowing either constipation or diarrhoea to become 
seated, as early attention to either of these derangements will 
cause their prompt removal. 

Treatment. — The appropriate remedies for this disease are, 


Pulsatilla, Nux-vomica, Ignatia, Opium, Sulphur. Also, Arseni- 
cum, Carbo-veg., Belladonna, Separ-sulphur, Natrum-muriat., Ha- 
mamelis-virg . 

Pulsatilla. — When blood and mucus are discharged with the 
fasces, with painful pressure on the tumors, pains in the back, pale 
countenance. Where this remedy proves insufficient, follow it 
with Sulphur. 

Nux-vomiea and Sulphur are the principal remedies against 
haemorrhoids ; Nux-vomica, especially, when there is a burning, 
pricking pain in the tumors ; also, when there is a discharge of 
light blood after each evacuation of the bowels, and a constant 
disposition to evacuate. This remedy may be given at night, and 
Sulphur in the morning. Sulphur is well adapted for all forms 
of piles, and like Nux, is especially called for when there is that 
constant, ineffectual inclination to stool. It is also serviceable 
when there is considerable protrusion of the tumors, so much so 
that it is difficult to replace them. Also, when there are violent, 
shooting pains in the back. 

When these two remedies, after two or three days' trial, fail to 
afford relief, recourse should be had to Ignatia, especially if the 
pains, like violent stitches, shoot upward, or where, after the evac- 
uation, there is painful contraction and soreness, or the rectum 
protrudes at each evacuation. 

Administration of Remedies. — Take ten globules, dry, upon 
the tongue, night and morning ; or, in severe cases, the remedy 
may be repeated every hour until relief is afforded. 

In addition to the internal administration of remedies, much 
benefit may be obtained from a proper use of cold water. When 
the piles do not bleed, cold applications, either as sitz-baths, com- 
presses, or injections, are of great benefit. As evil results some- 
times follow the sudden suppression of the discharge, it is not 
advisable to use cold water where there is much if any bleeding. 
When, however, the bleeding is profuse, to such an extent as to 
cause alarm, cold applications are the best styptic. Warm water or 
steam is preferable when the tumors do not bleed, or when, from 
any cause, the bleeding has ceased and there is considerable pain. 

When, after each evacuation, the bowels, or a small tumor, pro- 
trude, causing great pain, relief may be obtained by gently press- 
ing them up again with the ball of the finger. Injections of cold 
water, when judiciously administered, are of the greatest value ; 
but more harm than good is so often done from the carelessness 


of introducing the injecting tube, that I seldom recommend 

Diet. — As the use of condiments and stimulants of every de- 
scription tends to produce gastric and intestinal derangements, it 
is advisable that, in this disease, they be dispensed with, and the 
patient confine herself strictly to the homoeopathic rules of diet. 
Meat diet should be avoided as much as possible ; some physi- 
cians even recommend their patients, suffering from this com- 
plaint, to eat nothing, for a few days, except bread and water. 


In another place we have spoken at large upon this disease. 
"We shall here merely mention it, because, occasionally, toward 
the end of pregnancy, it sometimes occurs, caused partially, per- 
haps, by mechanical pressure of the distended uterus upon the 
gall-duct, and partially by the sympathetic action going on in the 
liver, in common with the other digestive organs. 

The symptoms of this disorder are, constipation, with whitish, 
almost colorless stools, urine of an orange color, and dry skin, 
with slight remittent or intermittent fever. 

The remedies which may be taken for its removal are, Mercu- 
rius, Hepar-sulphur, China, Lachesis, Sulphur, Nux-vomica, 

To commence, take Mercurius, six globules every three hours 
for three days ; follow this with Hepar- Sulphur or Lachesis, two 
doses of six globules, daily, night and morning. 

'When the disorder arises from a fit of pain, take Chamomilla 
and Nux-vomica in alternation about four times a day ; dose, the 
same as Mercurius. 


This disorder consists in a partial or total inability to retain the 
urine. There is a frequent desire to urinate, which is sometimes 
so violent, that a few drops of urine will escape before the patient 
can reach the vessel. This is one of the most annoying complaints 
that ever befalls a pregnant woman, not only on account of the 
urgent necessity that she should be at all times where she can re- 
lieve herself the moment the inclination overtakes her, but in 
spite of all her care and watchfulness, there will be a constant 
dribbling of urine, which irritates the parts with which it comes 


in contact, producing a degree of inconvenience and actual suffer- 
ing, which the inexperienced can scarcely imagine. 

The principal remedies for this difficulty are, Pulsatilla, Sepia, 
Belladonna, Causticwm, Hj/oscyamus. 

Administration. — Of the chosen remedy, take six pills, dry, 
upon the tongue, once in three or four hours. Commence with 
Pulsatilla; should this prove insufficient, next try Sepia. 


Definition. — These two affections are equally frequent among 
pregnant females. Dysury means, simply, difficulty in passing the 
urine. When there are frequent, painful urgings to discharge 
urine, and it passes off only by drops, or in very small quantities, 
the disease is called strangury. 

The causes which give rise to these diseases are the pressure of 
the extended uterus upon the bladder and urethra ; the irritation 
of the mucous membrane excited by this pressure ; spasms at the 
neck of the bladder ; excesses in eating or drinking ; exposure 
to cold, etc. 

Sometimes the pressure of the enlarged uterus upon the urethra, 
or passage from the bladder, is so great, as to cut off completely 
the discharge of urine, when the patient soon begins to suffer 
from distension of the bladder. 

This state of things should not be allowed to continue for any 
length of time, or serious consequences may be the result. If, by 
placing herself in different positions, especially by reclining, in 
order to relieve the neck of the bladder from the mechanical 
pressure of the womb, the patient cannot relieve herself, a physi- 
cian should be sent for, as it may be necessary to draw off the 
accumulated fluid with a catheter. A catheter is a small, silver 
tube about the size of a goose-quill, and its introduction causes no 
pain whatever. 

Treatment. — The best remedy for this trouble is Pulsatilla ; 
one dose of six globules may be taken every two hours. If Pul- 
satilla is not sufficient, Nux-vomica, will be of service. Aeonitum, 
Belladonna, Cocculus, Cantharides, Phosphoric acid, and Sulphur 
are also valuable remedies, any of which may be taken the same 
as Pulsatilla. 

When this disease arises from cold, or from spasmodic contrac- 
tion at the neck of the bladder, in addition to the above treat- 


ment, great relief will sometimes be afforded by drinking freely 
of linseed tea, watermelon-seed tea, pumpkin-seed tea, gum ara- 
ble water, barley-water, or something else of the same nature. 
This dilutes the urine, and thus renders it less irritating to the 
bladder and urethra. 


Definition. — During the last month of pregnancy, and at the 
commencement of labor, patients are sometimes subject to severe 
attacks of flooding. This arises from the detachment of a portion 
of the after-birth from the surface of the womb, produced, per- 
haps, by a violent shock, such as a fall, or a blow ; or by great 
exertion ; violent straining at stool ; lifting heavy weights ; a 
hearty fit of laughing. 

Symptoms. — The exciting cause may be immediately followed 
by the discharge, or the patient may simply complain of local or 
general uneasiness, dull pain and aching in the back, weight in 
the abdomen, and faintness. At length, with or without pain, the 
discharge commences, varying in amount from a few ounces to a 
quantity sufficient to endanger the patient's safety. 

Treatment. — In the first place, the patient should be placed in 
bed, on a hard mattress, and very lightly covered with bed-clothes ; 
the temperature of the room should be reduced very low, and 
nothing but cold drinks allowed ; her mind should be kept free 
from care, and the greatest quietness preserved in the whole 

Internally, administer the Tincture of Cinnamon ; put two or 
three drops into half a tumbler of water, stir it up well, and 
give a teaspoonful every half hour, or oftener, according to the 
urgency of the case, until you can procure the services of a ho- 
moeopathic physician. If the Tincture of Cinnamon is not at 
hand, a small piece of common cinnamon may be chewed. 

I shall not offer any extended remarks upon this disorder, be- 
cause I do not deem it safe for such a case to be left in the hands 
of a layman. A physician should be immediately sent for, as the 
case may prove serious, although at the commencement no alarm- 
ing symptoms are present. 

The following are the principal remedies which we make use of 
for flowing : Arnica, Ipecacuanha, Belladonna, China, Bryonia, 
Chamomilla, Platinum, Syoscyamus, Ferrum. 



Definition. — By miscarriage, or abortion, is understood the 
expulsion of the foetus from the womb before the sixth month ; 
subsequent to this period, it is called premature labor. 

Although the expulsive action of the uterus may be exerted 
at any period of gestation, it is much more common for it to occur 
at or before the third month, owing, no doubt, to the frail con- 
nection existing between the embryo and the womb at this early 
period. It is also more liable to occur at the beginning of each 
month, corresponding to a menstrual period. 

A woman who has suffered one abortion, is more liable to a 
similar mishap, in subsequent pregnancies, than she who has not 
suffered in this way. There are many women who cannot carry 
their gestation out beyond a certain time ; they always miscarry ; 
why it is so, perhaps it would be difficult, satisfactorily, to ex- 
plain. This accident is always an untoward event, although it 
cannot be considered dangerous, unless it be accompanied by great 
flowing ; and even then it is rarely fatal. In the first two months 
the embryo, which is yet very small, is often expelled without 
pain, or any considerable flowing ; miscarriages at a later period, 
however, are much more serious. 

Causes. — Could you but know the extreme tenuity of the mem- 
branes and vessels which connect the early embryo with the womb, 
you would rather be amazed at its power to live on to its term, 
than surprised at its occasional death and expulsion. The union 
between the embryo and the womb is very- slight ; it may be 
overcome by a sudden jar; the after-birth may become slightly 
detached, and a few drops of blood become insinuated between it 
and the womb, thus little by little separating the connection suffi- 
ciently to destroy the life of the new being. 

Among the more common causes of abortion are enumerated 
blows ; falls ; violent concussions ; excessive or sudden exertions ; 
straining ; lifting heavy weights ; in ascending stairs ; running ; 
dancing ; riding over rough roads in a carriage ; riding on horse- 
back ; severe coughing ; mental emotions of anger, joy, sorrow ; 
good or bad news suddenly told, which may excite contractions 
of the uterus, and expel the foetus from the womb. Lastly, the 
action of drugs, which some women are constantly taking for 
some imaginary trouble ; emetics, cathartics, herb-teas, patent 
medicine, etc. ; the application of blisters, mustard plasters, etc. 

Although we frequently see miscarriages arising from some 


trivial, almost insignificant, cause, such as laughing, coughing, 
3r sneezing, and we do not so much wonder at it, when we come 
to consider the extreme delicacy of the existing link between the 
mother and child ; yet it does excite our amazement to see with 
what tenacity the embryo is sometimes retained by persons of 
delicate constitution, and under very trying circumstances. Thus 
a woman, far gone in consumption, conceives, completes the term 
of gestation, and is delivered of an apparently healthy child. 
And Dr. Mauriceau mentions a case of a woman' who fell from a 
window in. the third story of a house, in the seventh month of 
pregnancy, and broke one of the bones of her arm, dislocated her 
wrist, and bruised herself very much, yet she fulfilled the period 
of pregnancy, and was delivered of a living child. Dr. Davis 
also relates a case of a lady who was thrown from her horse, when 
three or four months pregnant, and much bruised, yet without 
interruption to the gestation. — Churchill. 

Symptoms. — In enumerating the causes of abortion, we should 
have also mentioned, as a prominent one, the death of the foetus. 
Abundant observation has proven that the child is liable to disease 
as well before as after its birth. Numerous cases of measles, 
small-pox, intermittent fever, pleurisy, and a host of other diseases, 
are on record as having existed in newborn children. 

When the embryo dies, it ceases to possess any vital property, 
becomes the same as a foreign body, and, by its irritation, a new 
action is awakened in the womb ; its muscular fibres begin to 
contract, and its whole contents are soon expelled. The signs of 
the death of the foetus are, the cessations of its movements ; the 
flaccidity of the abdomen ; a sensation of dead weight and cold- 
ness in the abdomen ; the shrinking of the before well-developed 
breasts ; the general health becomes bad ; foetid breath, and re- 
peated chills. It is a difficult matter, however, even for the most 
experienced, to decide positively whether the foetus is dead or 

The symptoms of abortion vary with each given case ; most 
patients, however, at first, complain of a sense of uneasiness and 
weariness, with aching or pain in the back ; this is soon followed 
by regular labor-pains, the pain sometimes being even as great as 
those of labor at full term. Occasionally, especially in those females 
who have repeatedly miscarried, the foetus slips out of the womb 
readily, producing hardly any pain, with little or no hemorrhage, . 
and occasioning the patient but slight inconvenience, while in other 


cases very alarming hemorrhage may precede or accompany the 
accident, and reduce the patient to the lowest possible ebb. 

The progress of different cases is so dissimilar, that, without 
making an article too lengthy for such a work as this, it would 
be impossible to make mention of one half the variety of phases 
that these cases sometimes present. Whenever possible, a mis- 
carriage should be placed under the care of a competent physician. 

Treatment. — The first thing to be attended to, on taking- 
charge of a case of abortion, is to see that the patient is placed 
in a proper position. 

In those cases where, from experience, the woman knows that a 
miscarriage will not to her prove a very serious affair, it will be 
only necessary for her to maintain a recumbent position for a few 
days. It will not be necessary even to go to bed; she can lie 
upon a sofa through the day, and take the remedies below recom- 
mended. But, as, in the vast majority of cases, an abortion is far 
more serious than a natural labor, it is important that each case 
be treated with great care and consideration, that all complica- 
tions may be warded off, and the patient secured a good getting- 
up, free from the provoking sequels which are so apt to follow 
these mishaps. 

When a female is threatened with a miscarriage, she should im- 
mediately assume the recumbent posture ; she had better at once 
go to bed ; the bed-clothes should be light, the room cool ; all 
causes of excitement should be removed, and every means be 
employed to insure perfect tranquillity of mind. By this means, 
with the remedies recommended further on, it may be possible to 
arrest the flow, even after the patient has lost many ounces of 
blood, and instead of her miscarrying, pregnancy go on as regu- 
larly as though no accident had happened. 

Should the hemorrhage be severe, producing great paleness and 
weakness, the pillows should all be taken from under the patient's 
head, allowing her to lie upon an absolute horizontal plane. 
Indeed, we not unfrequently elevate the feet of the bedstead four 
or five inches, by placing some blocks under the lower bed-posts. 
Cold should be applied to the vulva by means of a cloth dipped in 
cold water, and suddenly applied. 

After the foetus has been expelled, the hemorrhage generally 
stops, and no further treatment is necessary but the one which we 
have recommended in ordinary confinement. If anything, the 
patient should keep her bed longer than the usual time, in order 


to give the uterus a chance to recover from the shock, and regain 
its natural strength. By this means we shall avoid that large 
class of disorders dependent upon weakness, such as " fallings," 
" leucorrhcea," etc. The diet, for some days, should be bland and 
unstimulating. See " Flooding." 

The following remedies will be found of service for this dis- 
order : — 

Arnica. — If the attack has been brought on by a fall, blow, 
violent concussion, overlifting, misstep, or walking, or great phys- 
ical exertion of any kind. 

Cinnamon. — Should Arnica fail, have recourse to this valuable 
remedy next. 

Secale. — After the miscarriage has occurred, and particularly 
in females who have miscarried more than once, or in those who 
have a weak and debilitated constitution, where there is a dis- 
charge of dark, liquid blood, and the pains are but slight. 

Chamomilla. — When there is excessive restlessness, severe pain 
in the back and loins ; also periodical pains, resembling those of 
labor, and each pain is followed by a discharge of dark-colored 

Cinchona. — For weak and exhausted persons ; also when there 
is spasmodic pain in the uterus, or a bearing-down sensation, with 
a considerable discharge of blood at intervals. This is a most valu- 
able remedy, in restoring the exhausted energies of the patient, 
after the hemorrhage has ceased. 

Hyoscyamus. — For miscarriages, attended with spasms or convul- 
sions of the whole body. 

Ipecacuanha. — In alternation with Secale, if, with flooding, 
there is nausea, and cramps ; profuse and continuous discharge of 
bright red blood ; disposition to faint, whenever the head is raised ; 
chills and heat; cutting pain in the umbilical region. Should 
Ipecac fail, recourse may be had to Platinum. 

Platinum. — When there is a discharge of dark, thick, or clot- 
ted blood, attended with pressing or bearing-down pains. 

Belladonna. — This is a valuable remedy at the commencement, 
perhaps more so than any other that we possess, especially when 
there are great pains in the loins and the entire abdomen ; severe 
bearing-down, as though the intestines would be pressed out ; pain 
in the back, as though it were dislocated or broken ; profuse dis- 
charge of blood. 

Crocus. — This remedy is especially indicated when there is a 


discharge of dark, clotted blood, with a sensation of fluttering or 
moving about in the umbilical region ; an increased discharge of 
blood on the slightest movement. If other remedies fail, this 
sometimes will help. 

Nu-x-vomica and Bryonia — May be given alone or in alterna- 
tion, for the following symptoms : Severe, burning or wrenching 
pain in the loins ; painful pressure downward, with a mucous dis- 
charge. Also, in cases attended with obstinate constipation. 

In cases where there is a disposition to miscarriage, or if the 
patient have previously miscarried, as she approaches again the 
same period, she should lie on the sofa or bed the greater part of 
the day, taking an occasional dose of Sabina, until the period has 

As preventives of this disorder, the principal remedies, are, 
Sabina, Seeale, Lycopodium, Calcaria, Sepia. 

Administration op Remedies. — Dissolve of the selected remedy ' 
twelve globules in twelve spoonfuls of water, give one spoonful 
every fifteen or twenty minutes in severe cases ; in milder ones, 
every two hours, and in the early stages when no danger is appre- 
hended, every six or twelve hours. If relief is not obtained in 
five or six hours, another remedy should be selected. 


A birth, occurring after the sixth and during the eighth month, 
is called a premature birth. It should be treated just the same 
as a labor at full term. See "Labor." 


Young mothers not unfrequently find great difficulty in nurs- 
ing their children, owing to some organic defect, or incapacity of 
the nipple, — the result of carelessness in early life. Not a few 
instances have come under my observation, of young mothers, 
whose nipples were almost entirely obliterated, from compression 
during their girlhood. Perhaps this compression has not been 
relaxed during married life ; and, when, after confinement, the 
nipple is to be put to its natural use, there is nothing deserv- 
ing the name of nipple to be found. This direct pressure from 
tight dresses, stays, etc., affects not the nipple alone, but the se- 
creting structure of the breast itself is permanently injured, and 
the important function of lactation never attains that state of per- 
fection which it otherwise would. The suffering resulting from this 
state of things, to both mother and child, is by no means trifling. 


The breasts of a pregnant woman should he specially guarded, 
as pressure, however slight, when constant, will have an injurious 
effect; they should be effectually protected from any influence 
which will have the least tendency to prevent their free develop- 
ment. In most cases, if the nipples are effectually protected from 
compression by the clothing, they will stand out prominently from 
the breasts ; sometimes, however, in spite of all the care and at- 
tention which you can give them, they will not project sufficiently 
from the breasts, so as to be grasped easily by the mouth of the 
child. In such cases, it becomes necessary to draw them out oc- 
casionally. This may be done with a common breast-pump or 
pipe. The suction at first should be moderate, not sufficient to 
give pain ; after the pump is removed, a ring of beeswax, or the 
common glass nipple-shield should be applied and constantly worn. 
In moderate cases the glass nipple-shield will be sufficient, without 
the pump. This process of drawing the nipple may be com- 
menced any time before confinement,' — if the case be a bad one, 
the earlier the better, — and continued up to the time of delivery, 
once, twice, or more times daily, if necessary. 

If this operation excites, as it sometimes will, abdominal pains, 
it should be immediately suspended, and not again resorted to ; 
because, if persisted in, it may produce abortion. 

Dr. Tracy, in the "Mother and her Offspring," — a work from 
which we have before quoted, — suggests the following method for 
keeping the nipples permanently prominent after they have once 
been drawn out : — 

" It consists in the winding of a bit of woollen thread or yarn two 
or three times around the base of the nipple, previously drawn out 
sufficiently, and tying it moderately tight, but not so tight as to in- 
terfere with the free circulation of the blood. By this means, a 
young mother, a patient of mine, was enabled to keep her nipples 
sufficiently prominent. I can see no objection to its being put in 
operation at any time desirable before confinement, and should 
strongly recommend its trial in cases where the nipple, after hav- 
ing been drawn, if left to itself, soon sinks back again, and be- 
comes imbedded within the breast." 

Retraction, or a want of sufficient development, is not the only 
difficulty to which the nipple is subject. The most common affec- 
tions, perhaps, to which these parts are liable, are excoriations, 
cracks, inflammation, scaly eruptions, and small abscesses. In- 
flammation, excoriations, etc., arise from the extreme sensitive- 


ness of the skin, occasioned by the nipple being kept folded down 
upon the breast by the clothing ; in this way, the skin around the 
base of the nipple, being folded upon itself, becomes very delicate 
and thin, unfitted for the purpose to which it was designed. The 
result is, as we would naturally expect it would be, as soon as the 
child begins to nurse, the skin becomes irritated and inflamed ; 
cracks, fissures, or abscesses form, and the mother is subjected to 
untold misery, every time the child is put to the breast, 

Now, the main object to be attained in preparing the breasts, 
during early pregnancy, for their future important function, is to 
thicken and toughen the skin upon and at the base of the nipple. 
We shall give some of the most important means, which have been 
recommended at different times, to accomplish this desirable end. 
For several weeks previous to delivery, the entire breast and chest 
should be bathed in cold water daily, and afterwards well dried 
and rubbed with coarse towels. Some recommend bathing the 
nipple and breast with brandy, twice a day, for several weeks 
anterior to confinement ; others prefer a decoction of green tea, a 
decoction of oak bark, or of pomegranate. For my own part, I 
should recommend, in preference, the cold water treatment, or sim- 
ply rubbing the parts upon all sides, and in every direction, with 
the palm of the dry hand. This rubbing should be commenced 
soon after the commencement of pregnancy, and repeated two or 
three times a day, till the time of confinement. 

Should there be tenderness, soreness, or slight excoriation, the 

parts may be bathed- in a weak solution of Arnica. See " Sore 


false PAinsrs. 

Definition — Causes. — Previous to delivery — sometimes but 
a few days — sometimes a week or even longer, — women are not 
unfrequently very much annoyed with what is termed spurious, or 
false pains. These pains sometimes so closely resemble true labor- 
pains, that it is exceedingly difficult to discriminate the one from 
the other. From this close resemblance arise what are termed 
" false alarms," the patient and nurse, anticipating that delivery is 
about to come on, make all the needful preparations, perhaps send 
and arouse the doctor from his warm couch, to walk a mile or two 
in the middle of the night, perhaps through a heavy shower or a 
drizzling rain, to be met at the door with, " La ! doctor, the pains 
have all blown over. It was nothing but a ' false alarm.' " 

Now, in view of all this, it becomes quite essential that both 


patient and nurse should, fully understand the difference between 
true and false pains. False pains chiefly differ from labor-pains, 
" in the irregularity of their occurrence ; in being unconnected 
with uterine contraction, and chiefly confined to the abdomen, with 
sensibility to touch and movement, and in not increasing in inten- 
sity as they return." — Laurie. True labor-pains commence low 
down, and are first felt in the lack, extending gradually to the 
front, recurring with regularity, and increasing in intensity with 
each return. 

Spurious pains arise from various causes, such as over-fatigue, 
indigestion, cold, mental emotions, constipation, errors in diet, 
and are, no doubt, occasionally excited by the motions of the child. 

Treatment. — As these spurious pains, when they come on 
early in pregnancy, are liable to bring on premature labor, orj 
when at the full term of gestation, occasion great distress and loss 
of rest, it is always desirable to relieve them as speedily as possi- 
ble. This may generally be done by one of the following reme- 
dies : Bryonia, Nux-vomica, Pulsatilla, Dulcamara, Aconite. 

Bryonia deserves a preference when the following symptoms 
are present : The pains in the abdomen and about the loins, re- 
sembling a dragging weight. 

Pulsatilla. — Similar pains in the abdomen and loins, with a 
feeling of stiffness or lameness ; also when the pains arise from 
indigestion, eating rich or fat food. 

Nux-vomica. — When there is a pain as if from a bruise, in 
the region of the bladder ; constant but inefficient urging to stool, 
and when the exciting cause appears to be constipation. The 
pains occur chiefly at night. 

Dulcamara. — When the pains are sharp and violent in their 
character, or when they arise from taking cold, — the effect of a 
chill. The pains are mostly confined to the small of the back, 
resembling labor-pains. 

Aconitum. — Especially in women of a plethoric constitution, 
with a full, bounding pulse ; head hot ; skin dry. Belladonna 
may be given in alternation with Aconite, especially when the 
head is hot, and the feet are cold. 

Administration op remedies. — Dissolve, of the selected rem- 
edy, twelve globules, in twelve teaspoonfuls of water ; give one 
spoonful of the solution, in severe cases, every half-hour ; in oth- 
ers, every three or four hours, until relief is afforded, or another 
remedy selected. 




General Remarks. — It is not my desire, nor my intention, to 
make practical accoucheurs of all the women who may read this 
work. No ; whatever woman's rights may be, this, certainly, is 
not her mission. Her sympathizing nature is too much alive to 
all the humane charities, and prompt gushings of a tender heart, 
to stand by unmoved, and, with a calm and calculating eye, gaze 
upon the writhing agonies of a difficult or complicated case of 
labor, and there, amid the importunities of anxious friends and 
the shrieks and groans of her suffering patient, calmly to weigh 
the relative value of all the therapeutic agents that may be 
brought to bear upon the case. No ; the heart-promptings of her 
allied nature are better adapted to soothe, sympathize with, and 
encourage her suffering sister than, with unflinching resolve and 
steady hand, to perform the agonizing though necessary operation 
which alone, perhaps, can terminate the patient's sufferings, and 
save the life of both herself and child. 

It is with no selfish hand, that I thus strike from the list of 
woman's rights the duty of an accoucheur. Heaven forbid that I 
should infringe upon her province, or turn a single honest penny 
from her needy purse. And, were it not for a duty which every 
physician owes the community at large, I should have passed the 
subject by unnoticed. 

Do not infer from what has been said, that I would wish to with- 
hold all information in regard to the necessary attendance upon a 
parturient woman. By no means. On the contrary, I consider it 
quite essential that every female should be more or less conversant 
with the necessary duties and cares of a lying-in chamber, for the 
purpose, not of making them poor physicians, but of fitting them- 
to be competent, efficient, and trustworthy nurses, so qualified, that, 
in cases of emergency, they may render intelligent assistance. 


It not ^infrequently happens, especially in quick cases, that your 
medical attendant cannot be had just at the moment when you 
wish him ; how important, then, it is, to know yourself, and feel 
assured that those around you are alike informed, what is neces- 
sary to be done for the safety of yourself and child ! 

Though, as I have before observed, labor is a perfectly natural 
process, and the majority of cases would terminate favorably, with 
none present but an ordinary nurse, yet events may occur, which 
would call for prompt interference, and such interference as none 
but a well-educated and qualified medical man could afford. 

The passage of large ships over the bar, and into the harbor of 
New York is a perfectly natural process ; but who would think of 
trusting a merchantman, heavily laden with a precious cargo, or a 
packet-ship freighted with human souls, to be brought into port by 
any but a well-informed and skilful pilot. Although he may stand 
at the wheel and have apparently little or nothing to do, yet it is 
he that knows the channel, — where the water is deepest ; he has 
in his mind's eye every sand-bar and rock ; he knows what cur- 
rents are capable of deviating the ship from its proper course ; in 
one word, he is aware where every danger lies, and by guarding 
against them in season, can avoid them, with so little effort on his 
part, that you would almost think he was not aware of their exist- 
ence. Now, the duties of a pilot and those of a physician are, in 
many respects, very similar. The well-informed accoucheur, ap- 
preciating the responsibilities of his position, is ever on the alert that 
his precious charge is not exposed to any of the accidents that 
threaten the new life in its passage from the womb to the fond, ex- 
pectant mother's arms. The many little points at which he renders 
you valuable assistance may seem trivial, or even of no account ; 
yet he knows best, and is well acquainted with all the liabilities to 
which you are exposed, and by his timely though slight interfer- 
ence, you escape evils, without so much as being aware of their 
existence. And, in those cases where clanger is obvious to all, he 
may sit by your bedside, apparently unoccupied and unconcerned ; 
but you can rest assured that he is most deeply interested, and 
the consciousness of the abilities he commands will sustain his 
self-possession, and enable him to render the proper attentions at 
the proper time. He well knows that nothing is gained by point- 
ing out to others, or to you, the dangers that lie on this side, or 
the other ; if he can avoid them quietly, as they appear, without 
causing alarm to the patient or her friends, so much the more 
does he show his abilities and fitness for his calling. 


Labor being a perfectly natural process, and its termination 
almost uniformly a happy one, it is somewhat strange, that so 
much fear and foreboding should possess the minds of all parturi- 
ent women. It is not so much the actual pain and suffering, 
which they must necessarily pass through, as it is the anticipation 
of an unfavorable termination. I doubt not, that if you could 
insure a woman that her labor would terminate favorably, and 
without being followed by any unfavorable consequences, the an- 
ticipation of a few hours' suffering would give her but little uneasi- 
ness. Unfortunately, physicians cannot give absolute insurance 
of safety, although we can positively assure them that there is no 
more cause for apprehension of evil in regard to their coming 
confinement, than there is in regard to an excursion by boat or 
carriage. In either case, an unhappy termination may take place, 
but the probabilities are, that, with proper care, the result will be 

If you have lived prudently and maintained proper habits dur- 
ing pregnancy, and have proper attendants during confinement, 
you need apprehend no danger, but may confidently expect your 
sickness to terminate without any untoward circumstance either 
to yourself or child. 


Natural labor generally takes place at the end of the ninth 
month after conception, or two hundred and eighty days from the 
commencement of pregnancy. 

It is not absolutely certain, however, that confinement will take 
place at this precise period, for it not unfrequently happens that 
pregnancy is protracted to the two hundred and ninetieth day or 
even later. Neither is a premature confinement an uncommon 
thing, especially in first cases. Still, in the great majority of 
instances, you can confidently expect your sickness at the expira- 
tion of the two hundred and eighty days. 

The commencement of actual labor is usually preceded by some 
of the following premonitory symptoms : — agitation, nervous 
trembling, lowness of spirits ; irritability of the bladder, with fre- 
quent inclination to urinate ; nausea and vomiting, flying pains 
through the abdomen, followed by an increased mucous discharge 
or flow, sometimes streaked with blood. 

Your preparation for confinement, if not already completed, 
should now be attended to without delay. Your medical attendant 


should be notified as soon as possible, so as to give him an oppor- 
tunity to arrange his other engagements and be in readiness. Your 
female friend and nurse should be sent for. Do not alarm the 
whole neighborhood and call in all the old women of your ac- 
quaintance ; for their presence is not only useless, but often highly 
injurious. Nothing annoys a physician more, when entering a 
lying-in chamber, than to find several women standing around 
whose services will not be needed. 

The physician, nurse, and one female attendant are all that are 
necessary or desirable. 

Your room should be put in perfect order. The clothing for 
yourself and infant should be in readiness, arranged in the order 
in which the articles will be wanted, and placed in some convenient 
position, where, when wanted, they can be had without trouble. 

You should also have convenient a pair of sharp scissors, and a 
couple of short pieces of strong, round cotton cord. 

The occurrence of true labor-pains may soon be looked for, after 
the premonitory symptoms above described. The pains usually 
commence in the back ; sometimes they are first felt at the lower 
and front part of the abdomen, and extend to the loins and lower 
part of the back. They are not constant, but periodical or inter- 
mittent, coming on at regular intervals of longer or shorter dura- 

At the commencement, they are not actual pains, but rather a 
feeling of uneasiness. When active pains first begin, they are 
slight and of short duration, lasting but a few moments and with 
intervals of rest lasting from half an hour to an hour or more. 
By degrees they become more and more frequent, gradually 
increasing in intensity, until labor is completed, which usually 
takes from four to six hours. 

The duration of labor, however, is variable ; some labors are 
short, and others long, from reasons entirely beyond our knowl- 
edge. Anxiety on account of the length of labor should never be 
indulged. If the position of the child is right, protracted labors 
are no more dangerous than short ones. First labors are generally 
longer than subsequent ones. 

As soon as true labor-pains manifest themselves, your medical 
attendant should be called in, and you should now submit yourself 
entirely to his directions, confidently expecting that he will render 
you all possible aid at the proper time. " His attention will proba- 
bly be first turned to inquiries whether your general system is in 


a healthy condition. He may be able to satisfy himself upon this 
point without doing or saying anything that shall indicate that his 
thoughts are turned in that direction ; but he may have occasion 
to feel your pulse, to look at your tongue, and examine the state 
of your skin. He may also have occasion to ask a variety of ques- 
tions relative to yourself. 

" It is desirable that he should know as much about the state of 
your general system as it is possible for him to know, in order that 
he may adopt such measures as are best calculated to preserve you 
from a protracted and severely painful labor, and to render your 
confinement as speedy and easy as possible. 

" It will probably not be long after his arrival before it will be 
advisable for him to make an examination, in order that he may 
know positively the state of the womb, and the actual position of 
the child. It is important that this should be attended to at an 
early period, otherwise he may be the means of much evil by 
remaining an idle spectator while he ought to be acting. When 
he deems it the proper time, he will inform you himself, or will do 
so through your female attendant. 

" In order for this examination, you will lie upon your left side, 
with your back very near that side of the bed which will be at 
your left hand, as you stand at the foot, facing the head-board. 

" Your limbs should be flexed forward upon your body, with the 
knees bent about as they naturally are when you lie upon your 
side, and a small pillow should be rolled up and put between your 
knees. While occupying this position, with the bed-clothing spread 
over you, the examination may be conveniently made without any 
exposure of your person. 

" Now, although he may learn by this means that you will have 
no further occasion for his presence for some hours, perhaps, and, 
therefore, that he may with safety be absent upon other duties 
that may be pressing upon him, and although he may thus relieve 
you also from the tedium of waiting hour after hour, in constant 
and anxious expectation of the completion of your labor, and from 
no trifling amount of solicitude on account of the delay, yet, if 
the parts were never found deformed nor dry, painful and un- 
yielding ; if the top of the child's head was always the part which 
presented itself first at the mouth of the womb ; if the head were 
never too large to pass between the bones of the pelvis ; if neither 
an ear, nor the face, nor the chin, nor the back of the neck, nor a 
shoulder, nor an elbow, nor a hand, nor the back, nor a side, nor 


the belly, nor a hip, nor a knee, or other part except the top of the 
head, were ever the first to present itself there ; if the nmbilical 
cord never came down first ; if the placenta were never attached 
over the mouth of the womb, or very near it, so as to produce dan- 
gerous flooding in the early stages of labor, besides various other 
if s, — this examination might not be considered as absolutely 

" But, inasmuch as each and all of the things above-named, as 
well as many others, are to be looked out for, and guarded against 
or removed, or their evil consequences mitigated, each at the 
proper moment, and in the proper way, I think you cannot fail to 
agree with me, when I say, that no false modesty should be allowed 
to throw the least obstacle in the way of the due performance of 
the one, or of your securing to yourself the services of the 
other." * 

After this examination is completed, if everything is found in 
favorable condition, your medical attendant will have little to do 
except to watch closely the progress of the case. 

To do this, it may be necessary for him to repeat the examina- 
tion occasionally till delivery is accomplished. During these 
examinations, he will frequently be able to render you great as- 
sistance!, relieving your suffering and accelerating your delivery. 

He may not deem it necessary to sit constantly by your side ; 
he may even retire to another room, giving you permission to walk 
about, or sit up in an easy-chair. It is not necessary for you to 
lie in bed, nor for him to remain constantly with you, until near 
the close of labor. 

It is unnecessary for me to say more upon this subject here, as 
I have anticipated you are under the care of a well-educated 
and qualified medical man. Nothing further that I can here say, 
will be of any use to you, but that you submit yourself entirely 
to his direction, confidently expecting that he will do everything 
for you to facilitate your labor, and render you as comfortable 
as possible. 


Now, as I have already said, you may be disappointed in se- 
curing the services of your medical attendant : you may have 

* " The Mother and her Offspring," by Dr. Tracy, — an invaluable little book, and 
one which should be in the hands of every mother. 


neglected to notify him in time ; or he may be away from home, 
or engaged with another case, or, from some other cause, he may 
necessarily be absent. 

I will endeavor to explain, in as brief a manner as possible, 
what is to be done in such an emergency. 

I have already pointed out to you the manner in which the 
pains will, in all probability, commence. At first, though slight, 
they may interfere with your moving around, or even sitting up. 
It is best, however, that you should keep about as long as possible, 
or until you feel a disposition to bear down with every pain, or 
until the pains become so severe that you feel as though you 
must lie down. 

At about this stage of the proceedings it is customary to " make 
the bed," which is done by placing a square of oiled silk over the 
mattress to protect it at that part of the bed which will be occu- 
pied by your hips ; over this are placed the under-blanket and 
sheet, and upon them two or three sheets, folded square, on which 
your hips are to be placed. 

These folded sheets will absorb most of the discharges, and can 
afterwards be removed, without any trouble, leaving the dry bed- 
linen beneath. The oiled silk is allowed to remain for some time 

When you go to bed, your night-dress should be drawn up, 
underneath you, beyond the hips, to escape soiling. You can 
assume any position that best suits your convenience or inclination. 
As soon as there is an involuntary disposition to bear down, you 
can encourage it by active efforts of your own. 

It is useless for you to press or bear down, unless there is present 
an involuntary disposition to do so, for such efforts will greatly 
fatigue you, and not expedite the labor at all. Wait until you 
are obliged to make such efforts, and then they will be useful. 

Between the pains, gain all the rest you can ; if possible, take 
a short nap ; but when they commence, assist them with a right 

When the pains become severe, you will feel a disposition to 
hold your breath, and to press with your feet against the bedstead, 
or any other solid substance. This you may do, and at the same 
time, you can take hold of the hands of your attendants and pull. 
Or, what perhaps is better, you can pull upon a sheet, one corner 
of which has been fastened to the opposite corner of your bedstead. 

During these efforts, the pain in your back, which at times 


becomes very severe, may be relieved by one of your attendants 
pressing hard with the palm of her hand against the lower part of 
your back. At about this period, the sack of waters will become 
ruptured, after which labor will progress with more rapidity. 

Should you become uncomfortably warm, the bedclothes must 
be lightened, and your room all the time should be pleasantly 
cool and fresh. 

Food cannot be taken at an advanced period of the labor, but 
warm drinks, such as whey, gruel, or tea, you can have as often 
as you desire. 

It is not unfrequently the case, that, as labor draws near to a 
close, the patient becomes despondent, and feels as though she 
would never live to see the end of it. Do not indulge any such 
feelings, if you can possibly help it. Show your friends that your 
courage is not to be daunted ; for, rest assured, that, whether you 
encourage it or not, a buoyant hope will soon take possession of 
your flagging spirits ; and, as the pains increase and come in quick 
succession, are more severe and of longer duration, you will have 
a renewed feeling of strength and of ability to help yourself, by 
holding your breath, bearing down, pushing with your feet, and 
pulling with your hands. 

These last throes of nature, as she ushers a new being upon 
earth, you may thank your stars, are of short duration. During 
the last few pains, your best position will be upon your left side, 
and near the edge of the bed, with your knees drawn up and a 
pillow between them. This will be more convenient for your 
attendant, who, as the last pain, which will be a long and a hard 
one, expels the head of the child, will receive it upon her hand, 
and support it, so that its weight will not be sustained by the 

As soon as the head is born, there will be a short interval of 
rest before the recurrence of another pain. Your attendant 
should now ascertain whether the umbilical cord is wound around 
the child's neck ; if it is, she should endeavor to loosen it, and slip 
it down over the shoulders, or up over the head. If this cannot 
be done easily, she should desist from further attempts, resting 
satisfied with having unwound or loosened it sufficiently to prevent 
compression of its vessels. 

The interval of rest coming between the pain which expels the 
head and that which expels the rest of the child, varies in different 
subjects ; in some cases it is scarcely perceptible, while in others 


it is so long, that your attendant may have fears for the safety of 
your child, especially when she observes that it does not breathe. 
The child is exposed to little danger, however, while in this posi- 
tion ; it never yet has breathed, and there is no immediate neces- 
sity for its doing so now, as the circulation is still carried on 
through the umbilical cord and the placenta. 

As soon as the pain which is to expel the body of the child 
commences, your attendant will raise the head upon her open 
hand and convey it downward from your person just fast enough 
to make room for >he advancing body. She need make no draw- 
ing upon it whatever, but simply receive it and carry it away from 
the discharges, and place it in such a position that it will rest 
easy and have no obstruction in the way of its breathing. If the 
child is healthy, and has not suffered long from pressure, it will 
cry as soon as born, and that first cry will be sweet music to your 
now happy ear. 

As soon as respiration is fully established, a ligature should be 
placed around the umbilical cord, at about two inches from the 
navel, and a second one a few inches further on, and the cord 
divided between the two with a pair of scissors. The ligatures 
with which the cord is tied should be of strong, round cotton 
cord ; they should be drawn tightly and tied in a hard knot. 

Some excessively nice people think all this should be done be- 
neath the bedclothes ; but, for my part, I prefer to have the child 
in such a position that I can see what I am going to do. There 
is no occasion for the least exposure of your person, provided you 
lie in the position which I have above recommended. 

As soon as the cord is tied and cut, the child should be wrapped 
up closely in a soft flannel blanket, which has previously been 
well warmed, and then be removed. 

Immediately after the birth, the binder should be applied. This 
may consist of a folded towel, or other broad bandage, placed 
around the whole abdomen and extending down over the hips. It 
should be pinned firmly, but not too tight. Be careful to have it 
smooth, so as to give an even support to the whole surface of the 

Some physicians and many nurses discard the use of this ban- 
dage altogether, or use it, if at all, only for the first few days. I 
believe it is deserving of rather more attention than is usually 
paid to it, especially in feeble women, and, also, when the patient 
suffers faintness immediately after delivery. If properly applied 


at first, it is very useful in maintaining a certain degree of con- 
traction of the uterus, and giving support to the abdominal walls. 
It also assists in promoting a return to the natural condition of 
the abdomen, preventing that loose, flabby state of the abdominal 
walls which so frequently follows confinement. I recommend that 
it should be worn several weeks after getting up. I think it has a 
happy effect in preserving the natural form and dimensions, es- 
pecially of women who have several children in a few years. 

This band may be worn either over or beneath the ordinary 
under-garment, as most agreeable. Care should be taken that it 
is kept well over the hips, for if allowed to work up, and get like 
a string around the waist, it will do more harm than good. 

When the bandage is applied, you can rest awhile before any 
attempt is made to extract the after-birth. In the course of fifteen 
or twenty minutes, your pain will commence for the expulsion 
of the placenta, or after-birth. These pains will not be severe. 
When they come on, you can bear down the same as during labor ; 
usually the second or third pain, sometimes even the first, brings 
it away. If it does not come away spontaneously, let your assist- 
ant make slight traction upon the cord ; great care and gentleness 
must be used, and if it does not come away readily, let it remain. 
It will be better to let it alone where it is than to run any risk 
from its forcible removal, by any but the most experienced ac- 

After the placenta has been expelled, or withdrawn, or if neither 
is accomplished, in the course of half an hour a warm napkin 
should be applied to the external parts, and the binder tightened, 
if necessary. The soiled sheet beneath you may now be removed, 
and your night-dress drawn down, but no further change should 
be made for at least three or four hours, as it is most important 
that you should avoid all exertion and excitement at this time. 
Have the room darkened, and, if possible, take a good nap ; at 
least avoid talking and all other excitement. 

As soon as you are rested and feel able to be dressed, which 
will not be under three or four hours, the napkin should be re- 
moved, and such parts of your person as require it may be washed 
with soft, warm water, to which a few drops of the Tincture of 
Arnica has been added, and another napkin applied. This opera- 
tion should be performed every few hours for the first few days, 
and as often afterwards as may seem necessary for your comfort. 
The Arnica need not be added to the water except during the first 
few days, or only as long as any soreness remains. 


Such of your clothing as has become soiled should now be 
exchanged for other garments which have been well aired and 
warmed. If you are still to occupy the same bed upon which you 
have been confined, the clothing may all be changed upon one 
side while you are upon the other ; then allow your attendants to 
move you to that side. Do not attempt to help yourself even if 
you feel perfectly able to do so ; above all, do not attempt to rise 
up ; but retain your recumbent position for at least five or six 


Light. — Many persons still labor under the antiquated idea, 
that it is necessary to keep a lying-chamber constantly darkened, 
and, in support of the notion, they advance many reasons ; the 
principal one of which is, that the infant's eyes are delicate, too 
sensitive to bear the ordinary light of day. I often wonder they 
do not attempt to dilute the atmosphere we breathe, under the 
pretence that the air supplied by nature is too strong for the 
infantile lungs. What a wonderful improvement some people 
would make upon all created things, if they only had the power ! 
For the first two or three days it is well enough that the light 
should be somewhat modified, but the idea of keeping the room 
constantly darkened for weeks is simply ridiculous ; nay worse, it 
is injurious to the health of both mother and child. You will not 
find a tidy, modem nurse committing this error. She knows that 
light is just as necessary for growth and health as air. Besides, 
her room is always neat and clean ; she is not afraid of the light's 
exposing any of her negligence, and, therefore, has no occasion 
to darken the room upon the absurd pretence of protecting the 
child's eyes. 

Ventilation is another important point which is too frequently 
neglected. Why, not many years ago, it used to be the custom 
to exclude, as far as possible, every breath of fresh air from the 
sick-room, to put sand-bags under the chinks of the doors, to 
nail the window round with lasting, and, by every other possible 
precaution to oblige the inmates to breathe over and over again 
the vitiated atmosphere ! 

Is it any wonder that women in those days suffered more from 
puerperal diseases than they do now ? This pernicious habit, I 


am happy to say, is fast falling into disuse, and as people become 
more and more enlightened, new facts take the place of old falla- 
cies, so that, at this time, almost every one recognizes and ac- 
knowledges the important truth, that nothing is so essential to good 
health as plenty of pure, fresh air. Nevertheless, physicians yet 
have frequent cause for complaint upon this point. Not a few will 
insist upon keeping windows down and doors closed, for fear of 
colds and fevers. A surer method of exciting fever could scarcely 
be adopted. Confine a patient in a vitiated atmosphere, exclude 
the light, feed her upon water-gruel and slops, and then why 
wonder that she has fever, or that she does not have a good get- 
ting up ? 

Do not fall into either of the errors, but be careful that your 
room is constantly well lighted and well ventilated. 

The temperature should be such as will be most agreeable to 
your feelings, and this you will find to range somewhere between 
67° and 73°. It is not only desirable that your room should be 
of a proper temperature, well lighted, and well ventilated, but it 
should also, for the first week at least, be kept entirely free from 
every kind of excitement; visitors and children should be ex- 
cluded. In fact, no persons should be admitted, except those 
whose duty it is to care for you. 

If your labor has been at all difficult, and is followed by gen- 
eral soreness, it will be advisable for you to take an occasional 
dose of Arnica, say six pills once in three hours. In case there 
is much or any local pain or soreness, you will obtain relief from 
the external application of a lotion prepared by mixing about 
thirty drops of the Tincture of Arnica in half a pint of water. 

Should you be troubled with any nervous excitement, which 
sometimes follows delivery, you can take an occasional dose of 
Coffea ; in case this fails to afford relief, you can have recourse 
to Aconitum, especially should there be any febrile symptom 


After the expulsion of the child and after-birth, the uterine 
contractions still continue with more or less force until the uterus 
has resumed the condition which it had before conception. The 
effect of these contractions or after-pains, as they are called, is to 
expel the clots of blood and shreds of membranes which may 
have remained within the cavity of the womb. 


As a general thing, they commence within half an hour after 
delivery, and ordinarily cease within thirty or forty hours, though 
they may continue longer. They vary a good deal in their fre- 
quency, their severity, and their duration ; usually they are not 
accompanied with bearing-down efforts. 

Their operation is, within certain limits, undoubtedly salutary. 
They prevent flooding, diminish' the size of the uterus, and expel 
its contents. Nevertheless, when they occur in an aggravated 
form, and are unduly protracted, which frequently happens in 
females of excitable, nervous sensibility, they should be subdued 
as speedily as possible. 

In many instances, the employment of Arnica, after delivery, is 
sufficient to prevent the excessive development of these pains. 
But, should the pain become severe, the Arnica having proved 
insufficient, and you should feel, nervous and excitable, with great 
restlessness and tossing about, you should take a dose of Chamo- 
milla, — six pills, — and follow it in about an hour with JSTux- 

Pulsatilla is indicated in persons of a mild and gentle disposi- 
tion, when the pains do not return very frequently, but are pro- 
tracted and continue for several days. 

Coffea. — When the pains are intense, or when they are fol- 
lowed by coldness and rigidity of the body, 

Secale. — For pains of a violent description, occurring in females 
who have borne many children. 

Administration of Remedies. — With regard to the dose, you 
may dissolve a few globules in a wineglass full of water, and take 
a table-spoonful of the solution from one, two, or three hours 
apart, according to the severity of the pains ; in many cases a 
single dose will be sufficient. In all cases discontinue the reme- 
dies as soon as relief is obtained. 

As a general rule, females do not suffer from after-pains subse- 
quent to the first confinement. Exceptions do, however, occasion- 
ally occur. 


A certain amount of blood is always lost after delivery ; nor is 
this injurious ; and it is only when it is so great as to produce an 
impression upon the constitution and the pulse, that it is to be 
considered as " flooding." Of course, in all cases it escapes from 
the mouths of the vessels which have failed to contract after the 
separation of the after-birth. 


I presume one of the most frequent causes of hemorrhage after 
delivery is mental excitement. 

The congratulations of friends over her safe delivery will often 
eacite emotions in the fatigued patient, which may prove highly 
injurious. Worriment from hearing other children in the house 
crying ; depression of spirits, on finding out that her own child is 
of a different sex from what she anticipated and wanted ; in fact, 
excitement of any kind, be it either of a sad or joyous nature, is 
almost always certain to produce an injurious result. 

It is, therefore, necessary that all excitement should be relig- 
iously avoided, and sleep — that great restorer of health and 
strength — should be courted. 

Treatment. — The first object is to obtain a firm and steady 
contraction of the uterus. This can be effected by one of the 
following remedies : 

Belladonna. — When there is pressure, as if everything would 
fall out from the private parts. 

Chamomilla. — When the hemorrhage is accompanied with 
pains similar to those of labor. 

China. — In severe cases, attended with giddiness, loss of con- 
sciousness ; sudden weariness ; faintness ; coldness of the extremi- 
ties ; paleness of the face ; or if accompanied by colic. It may be 
given in alternation with Ipecac. 

Ipecacuanha. — When flooding is very copious and long con- 
tinued, with cutting pains through the abdomen ; chills, with 
flushes of heat rising into the head ; great weakness. 

Platina. — Where the discharge is thick and dark, and the 
flooding has been produced by violent mental emotions. 

Pulsatilla. — When the discharge is clotted and appears at 
intervals, ceases and reappears, Pulsatilla may be followed by 
Crocus or iSabina. 

A drop of the tincture of cinnamon in a tumbler half full of 
water, giving a teaspoonful every few minutes, will often prove 
serviceable when other remedies fail. 

Cold water is a valuable auxiliary, and in all severe cases should 
be freely used. Cloths dipped in the coldest water should be 
applied to the abdomen and genitals, and renewed every few 
minutes, or pounded ice, if necessary, may be put in bags, and 
applied in the same manner. Cold drinks are also of service. 

Administration of Remedies. — Of the selected remedy, put 
one drop of the dilution, or twelve globules, in twelve teaspoon- 


fuls of water, and take one spoonful every half hour ; in extreme 
cases every fifteen minutes, until relief is afforded. Lengthen the 
intervals as improvement becomes manifest, and if no improvement 
take place in from three to six hours, change the remedy. 


It will be advisable for you to lie quietly in bed for six or eight 
days after delivery. The length of time, however, will, in a great 
measure, depend upon circumstances ; many women are better 
able to stand upon their feet within six days than others are within 
three weeks. Should your general health be poor, your strength 
gone, or should the flow or discharge called "ioc7wa"be profuse, 
as it sometimes is, amounting to a hemorrhage, and producing 
great debility, you will be compelled to remain in a horizontal 
position for a greater length of time. 

And although you may feel strong and perfectly able to get up 
and help yourself, you had better spend the most of your time, 
for at least nine or ten days, in bed, or in a recumbent position. 
This is the safest way ; besides, it is always better to err upon 
the safe side, and remain in bed a little longer than is absolutely 
necessary, than to get up a little too soon, and, by the indiscretion, 
bring on local displacements, or other serious diseases, from which 
it may take you years to recover. 

After the first nine or ten days, you may get up, and be seated 
in an easy-chair for a short time every day; do not, however, 
attempt to stand upon your feet, or walk about, under twelve or 
fifteen days at least. After this period, if you feel pretty strong, 
you can walk about your room ; but do not leave it before the 
expiration of the second week, and do not by any means attempt 
to go up or down stairs until the end of the third week after 

No woman should consider herself entirely recovered from her 
confinement until after the expiration of the sixth week. 


By a strict and well-regulated regimen during confinement, you 
will be able to ward off a great many accidents. As I have, in a 
previous article said, the first thing to be attended to after con- 
finement, or rather, after you have had a short season of rest, is a 
proper regulation of your clothing ; everything about yourself or 


bed, that has been soiled, or is at all damp, should be removed, 
and replaced by other articles which are dry. Care should be 
taken to dry and warm thoroughly every article, before using it. 

Great care should be taken, that the utmost cleanliness is pre- 
served ; such parts of your person as require it, should be washed 
at first with soft, warm water ; afterwards the temperature of the 
water may gradually be reduced ; never, however, using it en- 
tirely cold. 

This operation, for the first few days, should be repeated every 
few hours, and, afterwards, as often as seems necessary for your 
comfort. The linen should be changed at least every twenty-four 

Your food should be of easy digestion, moderate in quantity, 
and not stimulating. It is not necessary, nor advisable that you 
should starve yourself ; only be careful that your diet is light, and 
easy of digestion. It may consist of gruel, panada, farina, toast, 
bread, black tea, broths, and other articles of a similar kind. Af- 
ter the third day, or when the milk-fever has passed, you can have 
a little soup two or three times a day, and gradually the quantity 
and kind of nourishment may be increased, until the usual mode 
of life can be resumed again without danger. 

Ales, wines, coffee, and stimulating drinks of every description, 
which are used to promote the secretion of milk, should be avoided 
as injurious. Most of these preparations predispose to fevers, and 
not unfrequently give rise to night-sweats. Coffee especially de- 
ranges the nervous system of both mother and child,, and produces 
numerous diseases of the digestive organs. 

As a drink, you can use black tea, cold water, either pure or 
with a little strawberry or raspberry syrup. A few drops of claret, 
added to cold water, make a good beverage for a woman in con- 
finement. Some women are very fond .of alkathrepta, or pre- 
pared cocoa ; you can procure it at any homoeopathic pharmacy. 

As regards the restoration of strength after confinement, I do 
not know as any particular treatment is required ; if no serious 
derangement has taken place, it will soon return, by means of a 
good diet, and rest. Sleep is an excellent restorer of strength in 
cases of confinement ; should nervous excitement prevent you 
from getting as much sleep as you need, take an occasional dose 
of Coffea. Should this fail, and there be any febrile symptoms 
present, Aconite will usually suffice. Chamomilla is another ex- 
cellent remedy, especially when there is great restlessness and 
tossing about. 


If you should have become exhausted and debilitated by night- 
sweats or flooding, you may dissolve six or eight globules of China 
in twelve teaspoonfuls of water, and take a spoonful of the solu- 
tion once in three hours. 


The discharge of blood which accompanies delivery, continues 
for several days afterwards, doubtless from the mouths of the ves- 
sels exposed by the separation of the after-birth. After three or 
four days the character of this discharge changes, and, instead of 
continuing a mere escape of blood, it takes on the character of a 
secretion. This discharge is called the " lochia." For the first 
three or four days, it continues of a 'red color, but much thinner 
and more watery than blood ; it then sometimes becomes thick and 
yellow, but more frequently it maintains its watery consistence, 
and changes its color successively to greenish, yellowish, and lastly 
to that of soiled water. 

The duration of the lochial discharge varies considerably in 
different females- ; in some it is thin and scanty, and ceases in a 
few days, while in others it continues for several weeks, and some- 
times so profuse as to almost amount to a hemorrhage. 

As this secretion is necessary to health, its sudden suppression 
is generally attended with evil results. Frequent washings, with 
soft, warm water, should be practised as long as it continues. 


The causes of lochial suppression may be either exposure to 
cold, errors in diet, or sudden mental emotions. 

The symptoms accompanying a suppression are generally chilli- 
ness, fever, thirst, headache ; sometimes delirium, pain in the 
back, limbs, etc. 

Treatment. — Bryonia will be of service when there is accom- 
panying the suppression, fulness and heaviness of the head, with 
pressure in the temples, throbbing headache, pain and aching in 
the small of the back, and scanty discharge of urine. 

Pulsatilla, — however, is the principal remedy for sudden sup- 
pression, either from mental emotions, exposure to dampness, or 
any accidental cause, particularly if it is followed by fever and 
headache, coldness of the feet, and frequent desire to pass water. 

Dulcamara and Pids. — may be taken in alternation, when sup- 
pression arises from exposure to cold. If suppression is followed 


by diarrhoea and colic, take Chamomilla. For suppression conse- 
quent upon some mental emotion, take Platinum. Warm com- 
presses around the abdomen, warm hip and foot baths are also of 

Administration op Remedies. — Pulsatilla said Dulcamara may 
be taken in alternation every two hours. Of the selected remedy, 
dissolve twelve globules in twelve spoonfuls of water, and take one 
dessert spoonful of the solution from one to four hours apart, ac- 
cording to the necessity of the case. 


When the lochial discharge is too profuse, or continues too long, 
one of the following remedies should be taken. 

Aconitum. — Is indicated in profuse lochial discharges of a deep 
red color. Should Aconitum prove insufficient,' take Oalcaria- 
carb ; but, as a general thing, Aconitum will be found sufficient 
to check it in two or three days, without the assistance of other 

China and Ipecac. — In alternation, if the discharge takes place 
in paroxysms, with nausea, vertigo, fainting, coldness of the ex- 
tremities, paleness of the face, and debility. 

Crocus. — Is indicated, when the discharge is dark-colored, black, 
and of a viscid or sticky consistancy, with a feeling in the abdo- 
men as of something alive. 

Rhus. — In cases where the lochia return after they once had 

Administration of Remedies. — Of the selected remedy, take 
six globules once in four hours until better. 

Tepid hip-baths are valuable assistants, and in all severe or 
obstinate cases should be freely made use of. 

Complete rest and good nourishment are indispensable to cor- 
rect this disorder. 


About the third or fourth clay after confinement, you may ex- 
pect your breasts to become distended with milk, and at the same 
time you may experience something of a chill, followed by more 
or less fever and headache. This is called the " Milk Fever." 

The appearance of this secretion, though ushered in with some 
fever, is seldom attended with sufficient disturbance to call for 


medicinal interference, especially when you nurse your own in- 
fant, and the milk can he drawn off as soon it commences to 

If, however, you do not nursa your infant, this fever may "become 
complicated with other ailments, which it is necessary to prevent. 
For this purpose, you will find one of the following remedies 
sufficient : Aconite, Arnica, Bryonia, Belladonna, and Pulsatilla. 

Aconitum. — If there is much fever, with hot skin ; violent 
thirst ; breasts hard and knotted ; restlessness ; anxiety, and dis- 

Arnica. — Given internally, and applied externally to the breast 
as a lotion, will be found useful, when there is much distension, 
hardness, and soreness. 

Bryonia. — When the symptoms have been partially removed 
by Aconitum, or if the breasts become much distended by the 
milk, with painful oppression of the chest. 

Belladonna. — After, or in alternation with Bryonia, when the 
latter has not been sufficient to remove the symptoms entirely ; 
or if head-symptoms set in, with stupefying headache, glistening 
eyes, delirium, etc. 

Pulsatilla. — "Will be found particularly useful in severe cases, 
especially when caused by taking cold, and when there is great 
distension of the breasts, with soreness and rheumatic pains, ex- 
tending to the muscles of the chest, abdomen, and arms. " A 
timely administration of this remedy will, in many instances, pre- 
vent a threatened attack of childbed-fever." — Hering. 

External applications are of little use during a milk-fever, ex- 
cept perhaps the Arnica Lotion, which I have already mentioned. 
Some physicians recommend bathing the breasts 'with hot lard, 
to which has been added a little diluted Arnica Tincture, and then 
covering them with raw cotton. The milk should be drawn out 
as soon as possible, either by the child or by the nurse. 

Administration op Remedies. — Dissolve twelve globules of 
the selected remedy in twelve teaspoonfuls of water, and of the 
solution take one spoonful every two hours in severe cases ; in 
other cases, every four hours, until relief is obtained. 

Diet. — During the continuance of this fever, none but the 
lightest articles of diet should be partaken of; such, for instance, 
as gruel, boiled rice, toast, toasted crackers, and black tea, homce- 
pathic cocoa, or other equally light articles. 



The secretion of milk being a natural function, its sudden 
suppression not unfrequently produces sudden disorders, such as 
internal or local congestion and inflammation, determination of 
blood to the head, chest, or abdomen, and the usual train of 
symptoms which constitute childbed-fever. The circumstances 
which cause a suppression of the milk are numerous and variable. 
The most prominent, however, are, exposure to cold or dampness ; 
errors in diet ; sudden mental emotions ; nervous excitement, and 
diseases in other parts of the system. 

The evil effects of a suppression of this secretion are frequently 
of so serious a nature, that the slightest diminution in the quan- 
tity of milk should excite your apprehension, and place you upon 
your guard ; for in the great majority of cases, when this difficulty 
first manifests itself, the administration of Pulsatilla will be found 
sufficient to check the disorder at the outset, and restore the flow 
of milk. If any unpleasant symptoms still remain, after the use 
of Pulsatilla, they will, in most cases, yield to the administration 
of Calcaria-carb. 

Should active febrile symptoms set in, such as hot, dry skin, 
thirst, etc., take Aconite at short intervals until a favorable impres- 
sion is made. Where there is excessive restlessness, in addition 
to the fever, you may alternate Aconite and Ooffea, especially if 
mental emotion has caused the trouble, and there is great nervous 

Belladonna and Bryonia will be found serviceable when there is 
congestion of the head or lungs, with fever, pain and aching in 
the limbs, and especially if these symptoms have been preceded by 
a chill. 

Administration of Kemedies. — Dissolve of the selected remedy 
twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of water, and of the solu- 
tion take one dessert-spoonful every two or four hours, according 
to the necessity of the case, for twelve hours. If the symptoms 
become favorable, diminish the frequency of the doses, but continue 
the remedy for twenty-four or forty-eight hours longer. Should 
any unpleasant symptoms remain, take Zincum-metal., four doses, 
at intervals of twelve hours between the doses. 


It sometimes happens that the secretion of milk is too abundant 
causing painful distension of the breasts, and involuntary emis 


sions of milk, which is not unfrequently followed by emaciation 
and debility, or nervous and inflammatory disorders. In cases of 
this description, Calcaria-carb. or Phosphorus will generally afford 

At first, commence by dissolving six globules of Calearia in 
twelve spoonfuls of water, and take one spoonful every six hours. 
If this does not afford relief, prepare and take Phosphorus in the 
same manner. 

When febrile and congestive symptoms arise from over-disten- 
tion of the breasts, Aconitum and Belladonna, will be found useful. 
They may be taken singly, or in alternation from three to six 
hours apart, according to the urgency of the case. 

For involuntary emissions of milk, where the parts are kept 
constantly wet, and thus rendered more liable than usual to cold, 
upon slight exposure, either one of the foregoing remedies may 
be taken, as above, a dose every twelve hours ; or, for debilitated 
persons, from loss of fluids or other causes, China ; and, for fe- 
males of mild, easy dispositions, Pulsatilla may be administered in 
the same manner. 

In all cases, it is advisable to make an external application of 
cotton-batting. This tends to reduce the swelling and mitigates 
the pain. 


It appears to be natural for the bowels to remain inactive for 
several days after delivery, the secretion' from the intestinal tube 
being wholly or partially suspended ; and this is not to be won- 
dered at, when we take into account the great changes going on 
at this time within the female organism, whereby a great quantity 
of liquids is discharged from the womb and breasts. This, 
together with the vicarious action of the skin, demonstrating itself 
by the increased perspiration, amply compensates for the tempo- 
rary inactivity of the alimentary canal, and, by this provision of 
nature, the balance of the system is kept up. 

We cannot, therefore, too strongly condemn the use of aperient 
medicines in these cases : they only tend to promote irritation, 
which is indeed but the stepping-stone to inflammation. And, 
besides, the relaxation thus produced always interferes with the 
proper secretion of the milk. 

It used to be the custom, and in fact is yet, to a great extent, 
among the Allopathic fraternity, to give a mild cathartic on the 



second or third day after delivery. This was considered essential, 
and by many physicians recommended, even though the bowels 
had previously been freely moved. Of what use it was, I am 
certain I do not know. 

I once inquired of an elderly physician why he always gave 
Castor-oil the second day after delivery. He hesitated a moment, 
and then said, "It is to carry off the impurities." A very definite 
answer ; but, nevertheless, I ventured to suggest that perhaps it 
was a provision of nature, that the bowels should remain in a 
torpid state for the first five or six days, so as not to disturb 
the patient, but to let her remain quiet until the uterine organs 
had time to regain their natural form and position. 

He did not coincide with my view, but thought constipation a 
state which, if not speedily removed, would be productive of 
many evils. 

I have frequently known cathartics, when administered under 
these circumstances, to produce most serious results ; but I have 
yet to see the first case where any trouble has arisen from this 
temporary inactivity of the bowels. In fact, I am of the decided 
opinion, that this state of torpidity is a wise provision of nature 
for woman's comfort, safety, and convenience. I would, therefore, 
advise you to eschew Castor-oil, and all other cathartics, no matter 
how innocent they may appear, or how strongly they may come 

As a general thing, upon the fifth or sixth day the bowels will 
move spontaneously ; however, should they fail to do so, and you 
complain of uneasiness or pain in the bowels, with fulness of the 
head, a dose or two of Bryonia — six pills — will usually afford 
relief. Should this prove insufficient, take one dose of Nux-vom. 
in the afternoon, and a dose of Sulphur the following morning. 

In obstinate cases, which, by the by, are seldom met with, where 
it appears necessary to afford mechanical assistance, you can make 
use of an injection of lukewarm water, to which you have added 
a little Linseed-oil. 


Diarrhoea during confinement is to be looked upon as a highly 
dangerous condition, and prompt means should be at once taken 
for its speedy removal. 

. As a general thing, the occasion of this disorder is cold, errors 
in diet, or the abuse of aperient medicines. 


When arising from checked perspiration, produced by chills, 
from exposure to cold or dampness, Dulcamara will be the appro- 
priate remedy. 

Rheum or Antimonium-c. — For watery and exceeding offensive 
evacuations, Rheum, especially if the stools smell sour and fetid, 
with much pain and straining after each evacuation. Antimo- 
nium, when the tongue is coated white, and there are frequent, 
bitter eructations, diarrhoea worse during the night and early in 
the morning. 

Syoscyamus. — For painful and almost involuntary evacuations. 

Pulsatilla. — When the diarrhoea occurs mostly at night, and is 
accompanied by inefficient straining; the evacuations are small, 
sometimes only a little mucus passing, accompanied with severe 
pain in the anus. 

For obstinate and protracted cases, when the evacuations are 
watery, painful, and almost involuntary, take Phosphorus. Should 
this fail to afford relief, try Phos-ac. 

For diarrhoea with clay-whitish, curdled, or sour-smelling, musty 
evacuations, accompanied with nursing sore-mouth, take Nux-v. 
and Hepar-s. in alternation every three hours. 

Administration of Remedies. — Of the selected remedy, dis- 
solve twelve globules in twelve spoonfuls of water, and take one 
dessert spoonful from two to four hours apart. Or, if you prefer 
it, you can take the medicines dry, upon the tongue ; five or six 
pills for a dose. 



It not unfrequently happens, especially after severe labor, that 
the neck of the bladder and the whole tract of the urethra become 
extremely sensitive, causing painful emissions, and sometimes 
even entire retention of urine. 

This sensitiveness arises from the great amount and long-con- 
tinued pressure to which the parts have been subjected. 

Retention of the urine, when it lasts for any considerable length 
of time, is to be held as a dangerous affection, because, if relief be 
not obtained, if the pressure on the inner surface of the bladder 
be not relieved by the removal of the accumulated water, inflam- 
mation must necessarily follow. Fortunately, complete retention 
is seldom met with, and the painful and difficult emissions of 


urine which are frequent, as a general thing, yield readily to the 
following treatment : — 

Arnica should be the first remedy taken, as it is especially 
indicated in cases like the present, where the difficulty arises 
from mechanical injuries. Should Arnica fail, and there be con- 
siderable fever, with burning heat in the region of the bladder, 
take Aconitum. 

Belladonna. — When there are darting and pricking pains, ex- 
tending from the lower part of the back to the bladder ; also 
when there is great agitation and colicky pain. 

Camphor is indicated when the retention arises from spasmodic 
contraction of the neck of the bladder. 

Nux-vomica and Pulsatilla are also valuable remedies. Nux- 
vomica, especially, if there is also constipation. 

The application of warm fomentations to the parts will some- 
times prove of valuable assistance, or sitting over a pan which 
contains warm water will often have the desired effect. 

Administration op Remedies. — Of the- selected remedy, dis- 
solve six pills in twelve teaspoonfuls of water, and take one tea- 
spoonful of the solution every two hours until relief is obtained, 
and if no relief is afforded in the course of eight or ten hours, 
proceed to select from the other remedies. 


This frequent and exceedingly annoying complaint, may, in the 
large majority of cases, be prevented, if proper care of the breasts 
is taken previous to confinement. Of this we have spoken at 
large, under the head of " Preparation of the Breasts," which 

There appears to be a constitutional tenderness of the skin in 
some females, which predisposes it, upon the slightest occasion, to 
the development of cracks and sores of a most distressing nature, 
and which at times prove most obstinate to heal. Wherever a 
tendency of this kind exists, the utmost care should be taken to 
avoid the least irritation or abrasion of the skin, either by your 
clothing, by the shield, if you use one, or by the breast-pump. 
When a shield is made use of, it should with care be frequently 
removed, and the parts bathed with a weak lotion of Arnica Tinct. 
or brandy and cold water. This will obviate the otherwise cer- 
tain result of tenderness and consequent excoriation. 

Do not spare any pains or labor to do all in your power to pre- 


vent a siege of sore nipples ; for I can assure you, if women are to 
be believed, the pain is of a most intolerable kind ; and, indeed, 
we cannot doubt it, if one may judge from the appearance of the 
mother, down whose cheeks tears are seen to flow as she submits 
to the torture of nursing her infant. 

There is no doubt that many cases of broken breasts owe their 
origin to the reluctance of the mother to encounter the pangs of 
suckling her infant while these cracks and fissures remain un- 

The most frequent form of sore nipples consists of a long, nar- 
row ulcer, about as wide as a horse-hair, and varying in length 
from the sixteenth of an inch to the whole circumference of the 

The chief difficulty in healing sores of this nature, you will 
readily observe, arises from their being constantly torn open afresh 
by the efforts of the child in nursing. It is, therefore, very im- 
portant, especially where the fissures are deep and gape open, that 
some means should bo devised to keep the edges pressed together. 
This can be accomplished with a narrow bit of adhesive plaster, or 
you can spread some adhesive salve upon a piece of narrow rib- 
bon ; the latter, on account of its pliability, I have found to answer 
the purpose better than the common adhesive plaster. I have also 
used arnicated collodion, in the same manner, with great success. 
This, as well as the other application, will admit of the child's 
nursing without tearing the fissures open afresh. 

In all cases, as soon as the child has left the breast, the nipple 
should be washed with cold water, to which a few drops of Arnica 
Tinct. have been added, and should then be thoroughly dried. 
Then, taking the nipple between the thumb and first two fingers, 
gently compress it. This is done for the- purpose of disgorging 
the small vessels that have become distended by the suction of 
the child. As soon as you have rendered the nipple soft and flex- 
ible, cover it over thickly with powdered wheaten starch or Gum- 
Arabic. " Pulverized white sugar," says Dr. Hering, " makes an 
excellent application," 

Should the above precautionary treatment, which we have ad- 
vised, prove inefficient, and the nipple crack become sore and 
refuse to heal in spite of all your care and attention, you will 
then have to resort to the administration of internal remedies, to 
counteract or remove the constitutional taint to which the disease 
generally owes its origin. 


Sulphur seems particularly indicated for most cases of this 
affection, especially when the nipples are sore and chapped, with 
deep fissures around the base, which bleed and burn like fire. 
When these fissures are large, bleed easily, and prove obstinate to 
heal, you will generally find them to contain little granulations of 
proud flesh. To all such cases I apply burnt Alum, or pulverized 
Tobacco-ashes, and then join together the edges as before directed. 
In cases where Sulphur fails to afford relief, Calcarea-carb. will 
generally prove beneficial. 

All cases of sore nipples, however, do not present themselves in 
the form above-described ; sometimes the nipple becomes abraded 
or excoriated, and even suppuration occasionally takes place. I 
saw a case, not long ago, where from abrasion of the end of the 
nipple inflammation was excited, which extended down the milk- 
tubes into the substance of the gland ; suppuration followed, and 
apparently the whole interior of the nipple sloughed out, leaving 
a large cavity. This case was readily cured by the administration 
of Mercurius and Silicea. The only external application made 
use of was pulverized white sugar, with which the cavity was 
occasionally sprinkled. 

In all cases of soreness or excoriation of the surface, the parts 
should be frequently laved with Arnica Lotion, and Arnica at the 
same time should be taken internally. 

Chamomilla will be found of service when the nipples are very 
much swollen and inflamed. 

Nux-vomica. — For soreness of the nipples with excoriation of 
the adjacent parts. 

For obstinate and severe cases of every description, where the 
above remedies fail to answer the purpose, recourse may be had 
to one of the following medicines : — Mercurius, Silicea, Lycopo- 
dium, Crraphitis, Sepia. 

A very important point in the successful treatment of these 
cases is, to keep the parts perfectly dry. This can best be accom- 
plished, as I have already said, by wrapping the nipple in pulver- 
ized Starch or Gum- Arabic. 

Numerous domestic remedies, in the form of powders, salves, 
and lotions, have been used with various results. Borax, dis- 
solved in mucilage of Slippery Elm, makes a pleasant wash, 
which often proves of service. Powdered Potter's Clay, sprinkled 
upon the parts, often acts like a charm. Keliance, however, can- 
not be placed upon any form of treatment, especially in severe 


cases, except the internal administration of appropriate remedies. 
In all cases where external applications of any description have 
been made use of, the nipple should be carefully cleansed with a 
little warm milk and water before presenting it to the child. 

Administration op Eemedies. — After selecting a remedy, dis- 
solve twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of water, and take 
one spoonful of the solution every six hours. If you prefer the 
dry pills to the infusion, you can take six pills dry, upon the 
tongue, three times a day, morning, noon, and night. 


To make perfectly plain and intelligible the nature and impor- 
tance of this disorder, I shall first give a brief anatomical descrip- 
tion of the female breast. 

Beneath the skin on the front of the chest, there lies — one on 
each side — a large secretory organ, called the mammary gland. 
It is composed of milk-tubes, nerves, arteries, veins, and lym- 
phatics, the whole being inclosed by a fibrous investment, which 
also sends out prolongations through the glands, dividing it into 
numerous lobes. Between these frequent membranous divisions, 
especially near the skin, exist numerous small cells in which fat is 
deposited, giving to the surface its beautiful, soft, smooth, hemi- 
spherical form. 

The nipple is but a bundle of milk-tubes, nerves, and blood- 
vessels, gathered together, and covered with a thin derm or skin. 

The milk-ducts or tubes, resembling little canals, vary from ten 
to fifteen in number. When distended, they are about the size of 
a small goose-quill. Starting from the extremity of the nipple, 
they enter the breast, soon become divided and subdivided, be- 
coming finer and finer as they go inward, until each minute tube 
terminates in a small hollow globule or granule, about the size of 
a mustard-seed, from the inner surface of which the milk is 
secreted. The number of these little granules it would be impos- 
sible to count. 

If you should take a small syringe and inject each of these ten 
or fifteen distinct milk-tubes from the nipple with different colored 
substances, thus, filling one canal with yellow, another with green, 
a third with violet, and so on, until the whole breast was com- 
pletely distended, you would see no amalgamation of colors, no 
uniting or coalescing of tubes, but each injection would follow 


its own canal, through all its divisions and subdivisions, to its gran- 
ular termination. 

Thus, you observe, we can trace the course of each milk-tube 
from its exit at the nipple, through all its divisions and diverg- 
ences, to the actual minute milk-producing granule, just as we 
can trace a river upon the map, from the broad Atlantic where it 
empties, to the very springlets among the distant mountains where 
it has its origin. 

The quantity of milk that a given gland will produce at one 
time does not so much depend upon the size of the organ as upon 
its secretory power. "With a breast-pump some women can draw 
out a half pint from one breast at one sitting ; not that it was 
actually all present in the breast when she began, but was se- 
creted, as it were, upon demand, — the flow of milk only ceasing 
when the secretory power of the gland becomes exhausted, and 
then a period of rest is demanded. To carry on this process of 
milk-secretion, it is necessary that the organ should be supplied 
with a large amount of blood and nerve-power. Accordingly, we 
find numerous branches from large arteries distributed through- 
out the breast, while, by a great number of nerve-fibres, it is inti- 
mately connected with the two great nervous systems. 

During lactation, the breasts are in a high state of activity, 
which, together with their intimate connection with the rest of the 
system, renders them exceedingly liable to partake of any disorder, 
either physical or mental, which happens to affect a woman while 
nursing. Thus we shall find ague in the breast, as it is called, 
arising from cold, from a chill, from fright, anger, fear, grief, etc. 

Gathered breasts not unfrequently arise from a too tardy appli- 
cation of the child to the breasts, or from sudden cessation of 
suckling, occasioned either by the death of the child, or an un- 
willingness on the part of the mother to encounter the pangs* of 
nursing the infant, consequent upon sore nipples. 

When the breasts become distended with milk, and all of their 
little milk-tubes are filled and crowded against one another, you 
will often find it incompressible, and its sensibility so greatly in- 
creased, that the least handling produces great pain. Now, unless 
this tension is speedily reduced, as a natural consequence, inflam- 
mation must necessarily follow, or fever soon arises, ushered in by 
rigors, or severe chills. 

The treatment is, of course, to take out the milk : as soon as 
this is done, the breasts become cool and flaccid, and the freest 
handling produces no pain. 


Do not let the breasts become distended ; apply the child often, 
— as often as the breasts become filled, if it is every five minutes 
in the day. 

The principal remedy for this affection, especially at the com- 
mencement, "when the breasts become distended, hard, and feel 
heavy, with shooting pains, dry skin, thirst, and other febrile 
symptoms, is 

Bryonia, either alone, or in alternation with Belladonna. 

Belladonna is especially indicated, where, in addition to the 
above symptoms, there is redness of the skin, resembling erysipe- 
las, with shooting, tearing pain through the breasts, and headache. 
These two remedies will generally, if the breasts are kept well 
drawn, be sufficient to effect a cure. When, however, some degree 
of hardness still remains, Mercurius should be taken, and repeated 
once in six hours. 

Where hard lumps or cakes are felt deep down in the breast, 
you must, by some means or other, soften them, and extract the 

These lumps, or cakes, as they are commonly called, are caused 
by the milk-tubes becoming clogged up, or rather, they become 
distended, and crowd against each other, until they are so com- 
pressed, that the flow of milk is obstructed, and thus one division 
of the gland becomes caked, while the rest remain open. 

Nurses make use of all sorts of embrocations and hot applica- 
tions to scatter the cakes, which simply means, to soften and relax 
these particular tubes, so that the milk can flow. And this must 
be done, or inflammation, followed by suppuration, will be the 

A chill acts in the same manner, or at least is productive of the 
same results ; the breast increases in size from congestion of its 
blood-vessels, and consequent obstruction of the milk-tubes, and 
the result, if not prevented by prompt interference, as before, will 
be inflammation and suppuration. 

When the breasts become swollen and very tender, Belladonna 
or Bryonia should be taken, at least once in two hours; and, at 
the same time, you will do well to apply externally flannel cloths 
wrung out from hot brandy. 

Should the swelling and tenderness subside, but still there 
remain lumps or cakes in the breast, you will find relief from 
applying a plaster made of beeswax and sweet-oil. 

The great art in preventing gathered breasts is to keep the 



breasts well drawn ; if the child is unable to do it, then you 
must resort to nipple glasses, the breast-pump, or, what is better 
than either, the lips of the nurse, or some other adult person. 

You will seldom find a nurse who will acknowledge that ever 
such a thing as a broken breast did occur to a patient of whom 
she had the entire charge ; but all such assertions it is as well to 
take with a few grains of allowance, for in spite of all precautions 
the breast will sometimes gather and break. 

When suppuration is about to take place, you will know it by 
the throbbing pain in the breast, accompained by chills ; then take 
Hepar- Sulphur until it breaks. 

In the early stages of this disorder, it is best to abstain from 
applying warm poultices, as it has a tendency to involve a still 
larger part of the breast within the suppurative sphere. But as 
soon as the gathering points, or when it becomes evident that it 
must soon break, it should be hurried along as fast as possible ; 
and if you employ a physician, he will at this period undoubtedly 
lance it. Ground flax-seed makes the best poultice ; it should be 
applied warm, and changed about once in three hours. 

When the abscess has opened, and the matter has been dis- 
charged, the breast should be compressed, either by strips of 
adhesive plaster, or a bandage. This, you will find, will facilitate 
the process of healing. 

Where there is a profuse discharge of matter, you should take 
Phosphorus alone, or in alternation with Hepar-sulphur. 

Silicea. — In cases where the discharge becomes watery, fetid, 
and when it proceeds from several openings, which do not seem 
disposed to heal. 

Sulphur. — In obstinate cases, and where there is a profuse dis- 
charge of matter. 

Arnica. — In all cases where the disease arises from external 

Should the above remedies fail to produce a cure, you can have 
recourse to (xraphitis or Ualcarea-carb. 

During all the time that the breasts have been gathering, and 
still after the abscess has broken, the infant should be permitted 
to nurse ; for you must recollect, that milk is secreted by that 
portion of the gland which is not involved in the abscess, and it 
must be withdrawn. If the infant cannot, or refuse to do it, you 
must resort to artificial means. 

Administration of Eemedies. — When, at the commencement 


of an attack, you wish to take Belladonna or Bryonia, you should 
dissolve twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of water, and take 
of the solution one spoonful every hour ; if taken together, alter- 
nate them every hour. But the other remedies, after preparing 
them in the same manner, need not he taken oftener than once in 
three hours, — from that to six hours ; and along toward the close of 
the case, when you are taking Sulpur or Calcarea,one dose, night 
and morning, will be sufficient. 

Diet. — The diet should be plain and nourishing, but not stim- 


I shall not enter into any detailed description of this disease, be- 
cause I do not deem it safe for any but an experienced physician 
to attempt its treatment. I shall, therefore, but briefly give its 
nature and characteristic symptoms, together with such remedial 
means as will be adapted to the premonitory symptoms and first 
stages of an attack. 

Definition. — Child-bed fever, or Puerperal Peritonitis, as it is 
technically called by physicians, is an inflammation of the peri- 
toneum, or serous membrane lining the abdomen and covering the 
bowels. It is not unfrequently complicated with inflammation of 
the womb and its appendages. 

Causes. — Among the exciting causes of this disease, may be 
enumerated, violence during delivery, taking cold, diarrhoea, irri- 
tation of the bowels, induced by cathartic medicines, severe men- 
tal emotions, suppressed secretion of milk, and so on. 

Symptoms. — Child-bed fever is generally "preceded or attended 
by shivering, and sickness or vomiting, and is marked by pain in 
the belly, which is sometimes very extended, though in other cases 
it is at first confined to one spot. The abdomen very soon be- 
comes swelled and tense, and the tension rapidly increases. The 
pulse is frequent, small, and sharp ; the skin hot ; the tongue 
either clean, or white and dry ; the patient thirsty ; she vomits 
frequently, and the milk and lochia usually are obstructed. These 
symptoms often come on very acutely, but they may also approach 
insidiously. But whether the early symptoms come on rapidly or 
slowly, they soon increase ; the belly becomes as large as before 
delivery, and is often so tender that the weight of the bedclothes 
can scarcely be endured ; the patient also feels much pain when 
she turns ; the respiration becomes difficult, and sometimes a 


cough comes on which aggravates the distress ; or it appears from 
the first to be attended with pain in the side, as a prominent 
symptom. Sometimes the patient has a great inclination to belch, 
which always gives pain. The bowels are either costive, or the 
patient purges bilious or dark-colored fasces. These symptoms are 
more or less acute, according to the extent to which the perito- 
neum is affected. They are, at first, milder and more protracted 
in those cases where the inflammation begins in the uterus, and in 
such the pain is not very great nor very extensive for some time. 
In fatal cases, the swelling and tension of the belly increase ; the 
vomiting continues ; the pulse becomes very frequent and irregu- 
lar ; . . . the extremities become cold, and the pain ceases rather 
suddenly. The patient has unrefreshing slumber, and sometimes 
delirium, but she may remain sensible to the last." — Gardiner* & 
Medical Dictionary. 

Teeatment. — Aconitum in the majority of cases is the first 
remedy called for, especially if the disease commences with a 
chill, and is succeeded by a dry, hot skin, thirst, clean tongue, 
accelerated pulse, and attended with anxiety, forebodings of 
evil, etc. 

Belladonna. — Especially should there be deep-seated pains in 
the abdomen, with dragging downwards ; throbbing pains in the 
head ; face at times flushed and full ; glassy appearance of the 
eyes ; delirium ; spasmodic eructations, mostly bitter ; retention of 
urine ; distention or excessive tenderness of the abdomen, some- 
times with shooting and digging pains ; painful pressure on the 
genital organs. 

Bryonia. — Sensitiveness of the abdomen ; constipation, with 
shooting pain in the abdomen ; high fever, with great thirst. 
This remedy may be given in alternation with Aconitum. 

Pulsatilla. — In patients of a mild and gentle disposition, where 
the attack is mild in the beginning; great pressure downwards, 
with frequent inclination to pass water ; suppression of the lochia ; 
tendency to diarrhoea. 

Other remedies applicable to this disease are, — Apis-mel, Ar- 
nica, Arsenicum, Chamomilla, Hyoscyamus, Nux-vomica, Rhus, and 

Administration and Dose. — In the commencement of an at- 
tack of child-bed fever, your safest treatment will be to give Aco- 
nitum and Belladonna in alternation, every one, two, three, or 
four hours, according to the urgency of the symptoms. Give ten 
or twelve globules at a dose. 


I have given you the above outline of symptoms and brief form 
of treatment, for the purpose of enabling you to prescribe for a 
patient, in cases of emergency, or until the services of a physician 
can be obtained. 


Definition. — Milk-leg is the common name given to a peculiar 
form of disease which sometimes affects women during confine- 
ment. As the name implies, it was once supposed that the milk 
had fallen into the woman's leg. I cannot say that physicians 
ever took this view of the disorder, but certainly the people did, 
and it is no uncommon occurrence to meet with persons who still 
insist that the milk has gone into the leg, because the limb is 
swollen and looks white ; and, besides, the milk has in part or all 
disappeared from the breast. All the reasoning in the world will 
not make them believe otherwise. But it is the sheerest nonsense 
tq say the milk has fallen into the woman's leg ; for such a thing 
is impossible. 

Physicians, now, who know anything about the disease, call it 
Crural Phlebitis, which name signifies an inflammation of the 
veins of the leg ; and this is the true seat and nature of the dis- 
ease. The swelling of the limb is due to the effusion of lymph 
and serum from the blood into the cellular tissue. 

Causes. — The exciting cause is generally the impression of 

. Symptoms. — The ordinary premonitory symptoms of an attack 
of this disease often resemble and are not unfrequently mistaken 
for after-pains. There is uneasiness or pain in the lower part 
of the abdomen, extending along the brim of the pelvis through 
the hips. The patient is irritable, depressed, and complains of 
great weakness. 

Often, however, there will be no precursory symptoms, — the 
patient being suddenly seized with pain in the groin or calf of the 
leg, and not unfrequently the patient will complain of pain in 
the hip-joint, calling it neuralgia, or rheumatism. 

As soon as the inflammation is fairly set in, the region about 
the groin becomes tumefied ; and in a short time — twenty-four or 
forty-eight hours — the thigh becomes swollen, tense, white, and 
shiny. The swelling, which sometimes increases the limb to the 
size of a man's body, or an elephant's leg, may be confined to the 
thigh, or it may extend down to the foot. 


When the pain commences in the calf of the leg, the swelling 
is first observed there, and gradually extends itself up the leg and 
thigh. The temperature of the limb is generally increased, al- 
though, in some cases, it falls below the natural standard. 

Along the course of the inflamed vein, although there is great 
tenderness, there is neither redness nor other discoloration. In 
most cases, the vein may be traced from the groin down the thigh, 
feeling hard, and rolling under the finger like a cord. 

" Either leg may be affected, though the left appears to be more 
frequently attacked, and it not unfrequently happens that the 
sound leg participates in the disease before the disease is perfectly 
removed, and then the disease runs a similar course a -second 

Treatment. — The treatment of this disease should be under- 
taken only by an experienced physician. I shall simply enumerate 
a few remedies, which may be employed at the commencement 
of an attack. 

Aconitum. — If the disease has an acute character, with high 
fever, heat all over, and violent pains. 

Arnica. — If phlebitis sets in after tedious labor, or after an 

Belladonna. — This seems to be the better remedy in the com- 
mencement of most cases, especially when there are sharp, stitch- 
ing pains, as with knives ; heaviness in the thighs and lower part 
of the abdomen ; creeping in the limbs ; violent fever, with burning 
thirst ; great sensitiveness to touch or motion. 

Bryonia. — When there are drawing or lancinating pains from 
the hip to the foot, with copious sweat, and excessive tenderness 
to touch or motion. 

Pulsatilla. — If Belladonna or Bryonia effected no improvement. 
Other remedies recommended for this disease, are Rhus, Sulphur, 
Nux-vomica, Arsenicum. 

Administration op Eemedies. — Of the selected remedy, take 
six globules, dry, upon the tongue, once in two hours. 


In this disease, the soft part and sometimes the whole interior 
of the mouth becomes very reel, and so sensitive and tender, as to 
render it almost impossible for the patient to partake of any solid 
food whatever. This is quite a different disease from what is 


generally called canker sore mouth. In some females, it appears 
to be constitutional. 

As I have before remarked, the breasts are intimately connected 
with the whole nervous system ; you will not be surprised, therefore, 
to learn, that this form of sore mouth arises from the peculiar irrita- 
tion which the act of nursing produces upon the digestive organs. 

If not properly treated, it sometimes becomes so severe, and is 
attended with so much suffering and debility, that the weaning of 
the child becomes absolutely necessary. 

The weaning of the infant has a magical effect upon this disease, 
— the whole of it vanishing as soon as nursing is discontinued. 

In the majority of cases, this disease can readily be controlled 
by some one of the following remedies : — 

Mercurius. — This is a prominent remedy, and may be given in 
alternation with Nux-vomica or China. With China, especially, 
when there is great debility and exhaustion. 

Should this fail, Borax may be used ; and in severe and obsti- 
nate cases, recourse must be had to Nitric-acid or Sulphur. 

Sometimes an exhausting diarrhoea accompanies Nursing Sore 
Mouth. When such is the case, and evacuations are sour, curdled, 
or musty, Nux-vomica and Hepar-sulphur may be taken in alter- 

Administration of Remedies. — Of the remedy chosen, dis- 
solve twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of water, and take 
one spoonful of the solution at a dose, from four to six hours 
apart. Or, if jou prefer, you can take a dose of six globules dry, 
upon the tongue, once in from six to eight hours. The repetition 
of the dose should be governed by the severity of the case. 

When Nux-vomica and China are used in alternation, the dose 
may be repeated as often as once in four hours. When taking 
Sulphur, a dose night and morning will be sufficient. 

Diet and Regimen. — The diet of a woman suffering from 
Nursing Sore Mouth should be generous and nourishing, but not 
flatulent. Whatever articles of food are found to disagree should 
be strictly avoided. 

Exercise in the open air will be found beneficial. 


The increased perspiration, which takes place immediately after 
delivery, and continues for several days, acts, as I have before 


remarked, as a substitute for the ~ suspended mucous secretion, 
and consequent inactivity, of the alimentary canal. 

Therefore its sudden suppression from exposure to cold, or a 
sudden chill, is unavoidably followed by some injurious result, not 
unfrequently gathered breasts, diarrhoea, or child-bed fever. 

When sudden exposure to cold, especially dampness, has caused 
the suppressed action of the skin, Dulcamara will be found the 
most efficient remedy to bring about a renewed action. A dose 
of six pills may be taken every four hours, until four doses have 
been taken, when the interval between the doses may be length- 
ened. Should this remedy fail, and there be great excitability 
and restlessness, with colic and relaxation of the bowels, take 
Chamomilla and Mercurius in alternation. 

Belladonna. — Should lateral headache occur, with pain in the 
back of the neck. 

Bryonia. — Will be found serviceable when the suppression is 
followed by chills, or severe pain in the head and limbs. Should 
there be much fever, Aconitum may be given in alternation with 
Bryonia. In some cases Sulphur or Nwxr-vomica may be called 

Administration op Remedies. — The remedy can be taken dry, 
or in solution. When taken dry, place six globules upon the 
tongue, and let them dissolve. When in solution, dissolve twelve 
globules in twelve spoonfuls of water, and take one spoonful every 
three or four hours, according to the urgency of the case. 


Excessive perspiration, besides causing great debility, predis- 
poses to other disorders, by the high susceptibility of taking cold 
which it occasions. As a general thing, a few doses of China will 
be all that is necessary for its removal, unless it be occasioned by 
the too high temperature at which your room is kept, in which 
case, the remedy is obvious. When it still remains, after the 
proper regulation of the temperature of your room, and the re- 
moval of all superfluous clothing, you can take an occasional dose 
of Sambucus. 

Sulph.-aoid. — Especially, when the perspiration is profuse 
while lying still, but diminished by moving about. 

Administration. — Of China take six globules, dry, upon the 
tongue, once in every three hours. The other remedies the same. 




Let us now return to the infant, which, you will remember, we 
left wrapped in a warm flannel blanket and laid one side while 
the bandage was being applied and the mother otherwise cared for 
or attended to. If the infant appears feeble, and its respiration 
not well established, the skin having a leaden hue instead of the 
healthy pink or rose color, it should be permitted to remain un- 
disturbed, for some little time, until it is better able to undergo 
the fatigue of being washed and dressed. But if it appears strong 
and cries lustily, it may be washed and dressed as soon as conven- 
ient. Some people use cold water to wash the child with, even 
for the first ablution, under the absurd impression that this early 
introduction to the vicissitudes of temperature will invigorate 
and harden the child, and thus make it less liable to the injurious 
effects of sudden atmospheric changes. I hope Providence has 
endowed you with more sense than to imagine that any such 
happy results follow this barbarous practice. 

For the whole period of its uterine existence, the infant has 
experienced a uniform temperature of 98° ; now to wash it with, 
or to put it into, a basin of cold water, must give it a shock which 
cannot fail to prove highly injurious. I would about as soon 
think of putting the child into a kettle of boiling hot water. In 
my estimation, the temperature of the water in which the child is 
first washed should be as high as 90° at least ; and this, you will 
observe, is still eight degrees below the temperature to which, till 
within a short time, it has been accustomed. It is not necessary 
that you should stand with a thermometer in one hand and a ket- 
tle of hot water in the other, and thus temper your bath to the 
fraction of a degree. All that is necessary is, to be certain that 
the water is warm and soft, instead of cold and hard. 

The white, caseous substance, which, to a greater or less extent, 


covers the body of every new-born infant, and which sometimes 
adheres with great tenacity, can best be removed by rubbing 
those parts to which it adheres, freely with hog's lard, or sweet 
oil, until the two substances become thoroughly mixed, and then 
wash with soap and water. 

Owing to the extreme sensibility of the infant skin, you should 
use none but the finest quality of white soap, and a soft flannel 
wash-cloth. This is important, for a slight abrasion of the cuticle, 
or even the least irritation, may cause troublesome sores. After 
the child has been well washed, it should be wiped perfectly dry 
with a soft, fine napkin. 

It is the custom, as soon as the child is washed and dried, to 
dust it over with some kind of powder, especially about the neck, 
armpits, and joints, or wherever the skin is folded upon itself. I 
would advise you to get along without this if you possibly can, 
because the powders that are sold for this purpose are most of 
them highly injurious, and if your child is properly washed and 
dried, you will have but little call for them. If, however, you 
think you must use something of the kind, pulverized starch is 
the best. 

Both the washing and dressing of infants should be done as 
expeditiously as possible, and with the greatest care, so as neither 
to hurt nor fatigue them. 

The author of " Letters to a Mother on the watchful Care of 
her Infant," in speaking of the daily washing of children, makes 
the following remarks, which are no less philosophical than prac- 
tically true : — 

" During this daily process of washing, which should not be done 
languidly, but briskly and expeditiously, the mind of the little 
infant should be amused and excited. In this manner the time 
of dressing, instead of being dreaded as a period of daily suffer- 
ing, instead of being painful, and one continued fit of crying, will 
become a recreation and an amusement. 

" In this, treat your infant, even your little infant, as a sensitive 
and intelligent creature. Let everything which must be done be 
made a source, not of pain, but of pleasure, and it will then be- 
come a source of health, and that both of body and of mind, — a 
source of exercise to the one, and of early discipline to the other. 
Even at this tender age, the little creature may be taught to be 
patient, and even gay, under suffering. Let it be remembered, 
that every act of the nurse toward the little infant is productive 


of good or evil upon its character as well as health. Even the 
acts of washing and clothing may be made to discipline and 
improve the temper, or to try and impair it, and may, therefore, 
be very influential on its happiness in future life. For thus it 
may be taught to endure affliction with patience, and even cheer- 
fulness, instead of fretfulness and repining at every infliction upon 
the body and health of the little child. 

" The parent and the nurse should, therefore, endeavor each to 
throw her own mind into her duties toward the tender offspring. 
And in her intention of controlling her infant's temper, let her 
not forget that the first step is to control her own. How often 
have I observed that an unhappy mother is the parent of unhappy 


Most nurses and many physicians have fanciful notions in 
regard to dressing the navel. Some think nothing will do but a 
piece of scorched linen ; others want a flannel, either scorched or 
well besmeared with grease. I am acquainted with one old nurse, 
who always keeps a box of powdered cobweb, a little of which she 
sprinkles over the navel before doing it up with a piece of scorched 
linen. Now this is all useless ; the simplest way is the best, and 
that is, to take a folded piece of soft, plain cotton or linen cloth, 
about six inches long and three wide ; cut a hole in the centre, 
and pass the cord through. The cord should then be laid up 
toward the child's breast, and the lower end of the linen or mus- 
lin folded up over it. Over this place a compress, made of several 
thicknesses of soft muslin, about the size of a silver dollar, or 
perhaps a little larger. The whole is to be kept in place by the 
belly-band, which should always be made of a. strip of fine flannel 
of four or six inches width. This band should be applied smoothly, 
so as to give even support to the whole abdomen ; pin it just tight 
enough to keep it in place. For the first few days, the condition 
of the navel-cord should be carefully examined, to see that the 
child's movements have not disturbed it nor caused it to bleed. 
In the course of six or seven days it will become separated from 
the child, when you can remove it. The parts are now to be care- 
fully washed and the compress re-applied. If the parts around 
the navel are not properly washed and dried, and perhaps dusted 
with a little starch-powder once or twice a day, they are apt to 
become red and sore. In case of soreness, or inflammation of the 


umbilicus or navel, after the falling off of the ligature, or even 
before, you had better give an occasional dose of Sulphur. Should 
this fail to accomplish a cure, or produce no amelioration, you 
should then exhibit Silicea ; a dose — two globules — night and 

In case there is an evident tendency to rupture of the navel, 
after the ligature has dropped off, great care should be taken to 
apply a proper bandage, and this bandage should be worn some 
time after the cure, as a precautionary measure against its return. 
See " Umbilical Hernia." 


I presume it will be entirely useless for me to say one word in 
regard to the infant's dress. Fashion dictates here, as well as 
almost everywhere else, frequently to the detriment of the child, 
and always to the great inconvenience of the mother. But this 
has ever been the case, and I presume always will be. However, 
I would have you remember, that the power of generating heat 
at this early period is very feeble indeed, and the child up to 
this time has been confined in a temperature of 98°, and at the 
same time most perfectly protected from the possibility of atmos- 
pheric changes. 

You will, therefore, see the necessity of clothing the infant 
warmly. Flannel should always be worn next to the skin for 
various reasons: first, it is warmer, — being a bad conductor of 
heat, — and, what is very important, it is much lighter than cot- 
ton goods ; besides, it is a bad conductor of electricity. The 
flannel should of course be light, soft, and of the finest texture. 

In my opinion, if your child's clothing were all made of this 
material, it would be far preferable to any other ; you would then 
have a warm, light dress ; whereas, should you use cotton, it will 
require a much greater weight than of flannel to obtain the same 
amount of warmth. Besides, cotton or linen goods do not pro- 
duce upon the skin that healthy degree of friction which flannel 

No doubt you will object to flannel frocks, and say they do not 
look as pretty as nice tucked and ruffled muslin ones do. Well, 
I will not say they do ; but then I think health and comfort should 
be consulted in preference to appearances. 

Another important item in an infant's dress is looseness ; the 


clothes should be so adjusted as to admit of the freest motion of 
the chest and limbs. The imperfectly developed organization of 
the child, you will bear in mind, is liable to compressions and dis- 
tortions from the most trivial causes ; many of the bones are as 
yet but mere ligaments, and as easily bent as the twig of a tree ; 
the ribs, from the slightest pressure, may become crowded from 
their natural position, making the child pigeon-breasted, or de- 
formed in other ways. 

In a few preliminary remarks to the chapter upon " Diseases of 
the Respiratory Organs," I have spoken more at large upon the 
subject of dress. In order that you may be fully assured, how- 
ever, that the views above expressed are those entertained by the 
best medical authorities, permit me here to present you with a 
few extracts from the writings of celebrated physicians : — 

" The essentials of the clothing of children," remarks Willis, a 
"writer of the last century, " are lightness, simplicity, and looseness. 
By its being as light, as is consistent with due warmth, it will 
neither encumber the child, nor cause any waste of its powers ; in 
consequence of its simplicity, it will be readily and easily put on, 
so as to prevent many cries and tears, while, by its looseness, it 
will leave full room for the growth and due and regular expansion 
of the entire form, — a matter of infinite importance for the secur- 
ing of health and comfort in after life." 

" With regard to clothing " says Dr. Tracy, in his " Mother and 
her Offspring," " I do not wish to dictate to. your taste, further 
than is necessary to secure to your child that which shall be 
warm, light, and loose." . ..." It must at once be evident 
to you that short sleeves and low-necked dresses are never to be 
named as suitable for children." 

" To leave," says Dr. Condie, " the neck, shoulders, and arms 
of a child nearly or quite bare, however warmly the rest of the 
body may be clad, is a sure means of endangering its comfort and 
health ; violent attacks of croup, bronchitis, or even inflammation 
of the lungs, are often induced by this irrational custom, and it 
is not improbable that the foundation of pulmonary consumption 
is often thus laid during childhood. It is an important precau- 
tion, therefore, to have the dress worn by children so constructed 
as to protect the neck, breast, and shoulders, and with sleeves long 
enough to reach the wrist." — Diseases of Children. 

" It is certainly a most inconsistent practice, to expose the 
breast and arms during the weak and tender age of infancy and 


childhood, and yet to deem it necessary to keep these parts care- 
fully covered after the system has acquired firmness and its full 
power of vital resistance, by a more mature age. 

" Croup, inflammation of the lungs, catarrh, and general fevers 
in cold seasons of the year, and bowel-complaints in the summer, 
are often the consequence of this irrational custom, and the foun- 
dation of pulmonary consumption is often thus laid during the 
first years of life. It ought, therefore, to be immediately aban- 
doned as one of decidedly injurious tendency." — Bberle. 

" The young of our species, like those of all animals, require 
the aid of external warmth to keep up the requisite amount of 
animal heat. 

" This important principle in physiology and its hygienic deduc- 
tions, are not appreciated, certainly not enforced, by physicians as 
they ought to be." — Bell. 

" I believe, myself, from what I have seen in this city (Phila- 
delphia) during the last eleven years, that the most frightful 
causes of bronchitis, and also of pneumonia, inflammation of 
the lungs, croup and angina in early life, is the style of dress 
almost universally used for young children." — Meigs, "Diseases 
of Children." 

But " Fashion," as Dr. Dewees, in his work on " Diseases of 
Children," truly says, " has exerted a baneful influence over the 
best feelings of the mother, for she has become willing to sacrifice 
the health and well-being of her offspring to its shrine. The 
preposterous and unsightly exposure of the arms and limbs of 
children cannot be too loudly reprehended, since it has neither 
convenience nor beauty to recommend it, yet it is attended by the 
most serious and manifest injury to the child." 

Dr. Meigs, in his work on " Diseases of Children," remarks : 
" How constantly do we see the strong and fully developed man 
comfortably enveloped in a warm, long-sleeved, flannel shirt, 
woollen or cotton drawers, and cloth pantaloons, vest and coat, in 
the same room and in the same temperature with the little, puny, 
pale, and half-naked child. But it is almost impossible to make 
people understand that children need as much clothing as them- 
selves. They always insist upon it that as the child passes the 
greater part of the day in the house, it cannot require as much 
clothing as the adult who is obliged to go out and face the weather ; 
forgetting or refusing to see, that the former wears less than one- 
half, or probably not more than a fourth as much covering as the 


latter, and that the adult, when in the house and in the same 
rooms as the child, finds his one-half, or three-fourths warmer 
clothing not at all superabundant or oppressive." 

Such is the testimony of medical writers as to the danger to 
children, from wearing short-sleeved and low-necked dresses ; and 
every work upon infantile diseases, that I have looked over, bears 
testimony to the truth of the above quotations. 

In our first debut upon the stage of life, fashion assumes su- 
preme command, and her mandate regulates our every article of 
dress, in every act throughout the drama ; our costume is changed 
to suit her imperious will, and, finally, when we make our exit, 
she dictates the cut and color of our burial-dress. 

It almost seems that vanity, as Dr. Dewees intimates, is a 
stronger passion, at this day, in our country, than parental love, 
at least with a majority of our mothers. 

The above remarks in regard to dress are particularly applicable 
to the first stages of childhood, but they apply with gradually 
decreasing force to the growth of the child up to adult age, 
" because the power of generating animal heat is lowest at the time of 
birth, and gradually increases with the advancing age of the indi- 
vidual till past the period of childhood.'''' 

See General Remarks on Diseases of the air passages and lungs. 


It sometimes happens, after severe or protracted labor, that the 
new-born infant presents all the appearance of being dead ; it does 
not breathe ; the blood does not seem to circulate, and there is no 
apparent motion. This may be termed the first danger to which 
the infant is subject on its entrance into this world of trouble and 

Cases of this kind demand the immediate and energetic atten- 
tion of the physician and nurse ; for, if means be not speedily 
taken to revive it, the child may never recover from this suspension 
of vitality. 

The first thing to be done is to place the child in such a posi- 
tion that there will be no impediment to the circulation through 
the cord, then wrap the body and limbs in warm flannel cloths, 
and rub the hands and feet with soft, warm flannels, or with — 
what perhaps is better — the warm, naked hand. Ordinarily, this 
will be sufficient to reestablish the circulation ; the pulsation in 


the cord will soon manifest itself, the action of the heart will be- 
come apparent, breathing will soon follow, and nothing more will 
be required. When the infant has fully recovered, the cord may 
be tied and divided. 

Now and then cases do occur, however, which do not yield so 
readily, but we must not be easily discouraged in our efforts, for 
infants have been restored after laboring with them for two or 
three hours ; we should, therefore, persevere, as our efforts may 
ultimately prove successful. 

If, after rubbing the infant with warm flannels, the naked hand, 
or with some stimulant, for five or ten minutes, still no pulsa- 
tion can be felt in the cord, the cord should be tied and cut, and 
the infant be immersed in a warm bath. While in the bath, con- 
tinue the friction of the skin ; rub and press the chest ; also dip your 
hand in cold water or spirits, and rub the breast ; or, as recommended 
by some physicians, let a stream of cold water from the spout of 
a teapot fall upon the chest from a height of two or three feet. 

If, in the course of ten or fifteen minutes, there is no sign of 
returning animation, or when there is but feeble pulsation of the 
cord, the limbs relaxed, or if the face is purple and swollen, place 
one or two globules of Tartar Emetic upon the tongue, or dissolve 
six globules in six spoonfuls of water, and moisten the tongue 
with a few drops of the solution. If this produces no change in 
ten or fifteen minutes, prepare and give Opium in the same manner. 

When everything else fails, artificial inflation of the lungs 
should be tried. This may be done, by placing the mouth over 
the child's mouth and blowing gently, so as to inflate the lungs, 
at the same time closing the child's nostrils between the finger and 
thumb, so as to prevent the air from passing out through the nose. 
After the lungs are filled, the chest should be compressed gently 
with the hands. Care must be taken not to force too much air into 
the child's lungs, lest you injure them. 


It is quite common for the head of the infant to be swollen and 
elongated immediately after birth, and especially when the labor 
has been difficult or protracted ; sometimes the head is so drawn 
out or swollen as to be shockingly deformed ; and to the unini- 
tiated, its appearance not unfrcquently causes great alarm. In 
most cases this is but a trifling affection, and generally disappears 


of its own accord. In case the swelling be extensive, or does not 
disappear in a day or two, repeated washings with cold water or 
a weak solution of Tincture of Arnica, — three or four drops to a 
teacup of water, — will hasten its removal, and at the same time 
perhaps it may be advisable to give a dose or two of Arnica in- 
ternally. Should this fail to remove it in the course of a day or 
two, you can give Rhus. 

Should the fontanel be long in closing, — that is, the uniting of 
the bones on top of the head, — you had better give Calcarea-carb., 
two globules once in six days. 


Sometimes at birth, or immediately after, the breasts of in- 
fants are found inflamed and swollen. I ^o not know what causes 
it ; but certainly it is only a simple inflammation of the gland, and 
as such it should be treated. Our first endeavor should be to 
reduce the swelling ; and to accomplish this, we generally cover 
the breast with a piece of lint, or soft linen, dipped in sweet oil. 
This is all the application that I have ever found it necessary to 
make. Sometimes, when there has been considerable inflamma- 
tion I have deemed it advisable to give a little Belladonna, or 
or (Jhamomilla, or both, — a dose of two pellets, once in three hours. 

Authors speak of a propensity on the part of the nurses to 
squeeze the breasts, under the absurd impression that there is milk, 
or some matter, in them, which should be pressed out. I never 
have had the misfortune to meet with such ignoramuses ; but, 
nevertheless, I can easily conceive how they might do a great 
amount of injury by exciting an inflammation which would end 
in the suppuration and disorganization of the whole breast, and 
thereby in females destroy its usefulness forever. 


The first evacuation from the infant's bowels consists of a dark, 
bottle-green substance called the meconium. Nurses are never 
contented until the infant has had a free evacuation of the bow- 
els ; and, to make sure of an early movement, they upon its first 
arrival give the little stranger a good dose of some laxative trash. 
I have often wondered, if an infant had the use of its reasonino- 

J O 

faculties, what would be its first impression of the inhabitants of 



this world, where the ladies in attendance, without even saying 
" By your leave, sir," just open its mouth, and force down a tea- 
spoonful of molasses, or perhaps the same quantity of some nau- 
seous compound. It must think it had come into a strange land. 

Now, this does seem to me to be the most absurd thing in all 
the world. Suppose the large intestines are full of meconium ; 
have not they been in the same condition for a long time ? What 
is the great haste to get rid of it ? Will it kill the child if it re- 
mains there a few hours longer ? Nature, who is wise in all her 
dealings, will take just as good care of the bowels as of the brain 
or lungs. In fact, she has already made provision for the expul- 
sion of this bugbear, in the kind and quality of the milk secreted 
in the mother's breast. But, it is a fact, that some people, in their 
self-conceit, imagine themselves wiser than their Creator, and, at 
the very threshold of life, commence marring the truly beautiful 
frame of God's image. 

Although it may seem perfectly rational that the early contents 
of the bowels, called the meconium, should be purged off, you 
should never forget that nature has made wise provisions for tins 
very want. 

As soon as the mother feels herself sufficiently recovered to per- 
mit it, the infant should be placed to the breast, where it will 
obtain just the quantity and quality of medicine necessary for its 

The generally received opinion, I am aware, is, that at this early 
period there is no milk secreted ; and this is true ; but every phy- 
sician knows, and it is high time that mothers and nurses were 
aware of the fact, also, that there is secreted within the mother's 
breast, long before the birth of the infant, a fluid, technically 
called colostrum, exactly fitted for, and containing the properties 
to produce, just the necessary amount of mechanical action in the 
alimentary canal, to assist in the expulsion of the meconium. All 
artificial assistance is, therefore, entirely superfluous. 

If the mother is able to nurse her child, absolutely nothing 
should be allowed to enter its mouth, for the first few days, at 
least, but what it gets from her, except perhaps a little cool water, 
which all children should have. 

The colostrum furnished by the breast does not act like physic, 
producing a succession of stools, but more slowly, so that it may 
take two or three days for all the meconium to pass away ; but 
when the work thus is once done, it is well done. 


Mothers need be under no apprehension, should a temporary 
delay occur in the passing of the meconium ; far greater evil re- 
sults from the violent method taken for its expulsion, than could 
possibly occur from its continuance in the alimentary canal, for a 
longer period than natural. 

Should, however, an unusually long period elapse, and the child 
appear costive, uneasy, and restless, a few teaspoonfuls of warm 
sugar and water may be given to it, which will generally have the 
desired effect. Sometimes it may be necessary to give a dose or 
two of Niix-vomica or Bryonia. 


" That every healthy and well-organized woman should support 
her child from the natural secretion of her own bosom is the dic- 
tate both of nature and of reason." 

In support of the above assertion we present the following quo- 
tations from several authors, with whose opinions, in this respect, 
we perfectly coincide : — 

" In all cases where the mother can nurse her child with safety, 
she should certainly do so, as the mortality among infants thus 
nourished is far less than among those who are brought up by 
hand." — Guernsey. 

" It is difficult to estimate the evil which may result from de- 
priving the infant of this its natural nourishment, as no artificial 
food, however carefully prepared, can fully supply its place." 
— Small. 

" Reasons of the most urgent nature only should prevent a 
mother from suckling her infant." — Pulte. 

" No mother should deprive her infant of the nourishment 
which nature seems to have destined for it, except in case of abso- 
lute necessity. No animal refuses to nurse its young ; it is only 
among the human species that we find mothers cruel enough to 
deprive a new-born infant of its natural food. If this is done 
from wilful neglect or indifference, mothers often pay dearly for 
such violations of nature's laws." — Jahr. 

" The first nourishment which the child should receive, when 
there is no insurmountable obstacle to it, should be drawn from 
the mother's breast ; for that which is therein contained is pre- 
pared to answer to the demands of the infant's digestive organs, 
and no nourishment supplied by art can answer equally well. 


" If the baby is allowed to nurse as soon as it seems hungry, 
and the mother has obtained rest, there will be no need of giving 
any other laxative or cathartic, such as molasses, castor-oil, etc. ; 
for nature has made all the provision in this direction which is 
necessary. For the last twelve years I have not given, in a single 
instance, any form of laxative medicine to new-born infants, aside 
from that nourishment provided in the mother's breast ; and I am 
satisfied that children do much better without than with such 
articles as are frequently given to them to move the bowels. The 
nearer we follow nature, the better. If the infant is fed a few 
times before nursing, it often loses the faculty of nursing, and it 
is in such cases, exceedingly difficult to induce it to nurse." — Dr. 
John Ellis. 

Nor does the child alone suffer from its not being allowed to 
nurse. " As a further inducement," says Conquest, in his " Out- 
lines of Midwifery," " it should be remembered, that medical men 
concur in their opinion, that very rarely does a constitution suffer 
from secreting milk, whilst the health of many women is most 
materially improved by the performance of the duties of a nurse. 

" Unless very peculiar, urgent reasons prohibit, a mother should 
support her infant upon the milk she herself secretes. It is the 
dictate of nature, of common sense, and of reason. Were it oth 
erwise, it is not probable that so abundant a supply of suitable food 
would be provided to meet the wants of an infant when it enters 
upon a new course of existence. 

" But few mothers, comparatively, are to be found, who, if wil- 
ling, would not be able to support their infants, at least for a few 
months. Parental affection and occasional self-denial would be 
abundantly recompensed by blooming and vigorous children. 

" By this commendable practice, nursing, the patient is generally 
preserved from fever, from inflamed and broken breasts, and from 
the distressing and alarming consequences resulting from these 
complaints." — Conquest. 

regimen during mntsrKTG. 

It is of the utmost importance that nothing should occur to the 
nursing mother, that may interfere with or arrest the secretion 
of milk, or alter and diminish its nutritive qualities. The impor- 
tance of this will be realized, when we remember how far short 
we fall of supplying anything to take its place ; of all the aliments 


that human ingenuity has ever yet concocted, none has been 
found which can fully supply to the tender infant the want of 
this natural secretion. 

Nature always provides for her new-born, and the fountain of 
life which she has opened within the mother's bosom would ever 
give forth a bounteous supply of pure and healthy nourishment, 
were it not for our follies, sins, and fashionable dissipations. 

Mental and moral emotions, improper diet and irregular habits 
have a decided and deleterious effect upon both the quantity and 
quality of the milk. This is a point which it seems almost super- 
fluous to discuss, but, nevertheless, in the face of all the proofs 
which can be brought in support of this fact, there are still in 
existence persons who wholly ignore the idea that mental emo- 
tions affect, in any way whatever, the lacteal secretion, and very 
much doubt that errors in diet ever produce any very marked 
changes in the quality of the milk. 

Now, it is a well-attested fact, substantiated by incontrovertible 
evidence, — a fact, too, admitting of the easiest demonstration, — 
that errors in diet and irregular habits may and do change the 
milk of the mother, from a source of nourishment, into a most 
injurious substance to the infant. Who has not seen children 
suffer from indigestion, attended with vomiting, colic, and diar- 
rhoea, in consequence of the mother's having indulged in a very 
rich diet ? Some nursing mothers cannot partake in the least of 
fruit or vegetables, without the nurslings suffering, to a greater or 
less extent, in consequence. I would not be understood to assert 
that all nurses should abstain from fruits and vegetables, or even 
live on a very simple diet, because we not unfrequently meet with 
women who live upon the richest kind of diet, and eat abundantly 
of all kinds of fruits and vegetables, without the infant's suffering 
in the least ; but these are exceptions to the general rule. 

We all know that butter, made from the milk of a cow which 
has fed upon garlic, will contain more or less the flavor of this 
plant. Dr. Draper, in his work on " Physiology," says, " There 
are many facts, which show that the identical fat, occurring in the 
food, is actually delivered by the mammary gland with many of 
its qualities unchanged. Thus, if by chance cows should eat the 
tender shoots of pine trees, or wild onions, or other strong-smelling 
herbs, the milk is at once contaminated with the special flavor of 
their oils. The same, too, takes place where turnips are intro- 
duced into their diet. If half the allowance of hay for a cow is 


replaced by an equivalent quantity of linseed-cake, rich in oil, the 
cow maintains herself in good condition, but the milk produces a 
butter more than usually soft, and tainted with a peculiar flavor 
derived from the linseed oil." 

The worst case of colic, I think, that I ever saw in an infant, 
was produced by the nurse eating unripe fruit. I am acquainted 
with a lady, who cannot eat the least thing that is at all sour, 
or acid, but that her nursing infant is sure to have an attack 
of colic. 

Almost every one can call to mind similar instances. It is, 
therefore, unnecessary for me to bring forward further evidence 
in support of the assertion that errors in diet do materially 
affect the quality of the milk. 

It therefore follows from what has been said, that it behoves 
a nursing mother to be especially careful in the choice of her 
nourishment in order to impart to the milk such properties only 
as will make it a wholesome and nutritive agent. Plain, wholesome 
food, as a general thing, will produce wholesome milk, while a diet 
of highly seasoned and fancifully cooked dishes, served perhaps at ir- 
regular hours, and accompanied with tea or coffee, is almost certain 
to impart something to the milk which will prove injurious to the 

If, after a proper regulation of the diet, the milk still proves 
unwholesome, you may rest assured that there is some consti- 
tutional difficulty resting with the mother, which will have to be re- 
moved by internal medication. 

The diet should be simple and nourishing, not too rich nor too 
stimulating ; bread, fruit, and vegetables may be freely used, while 
meats should be partaken of in moderation. 

The mother's own wishes will generally point out what kind 
of food is most wholesome for herself and child. A little expe- 
rience will soon teach her what does, and what does not, agree 
with her infant, and if she be a true mother, she will be willing 
to sacrifice some of her choice dishes, her coffee and tea and any 
other little luxuries, which she finds to disagree with her child. 
Regularity in eating is of the utmost importance. 

As I have already observed that a stimulating diet is, under no 
circumstances, advisable, it may be well here to make a few re- 
marks upon the popular beverages, such as ale, porter, and the 
like, so extensively made use of for the purpose of increasing the 
flow of milk. 


It has been asserted, " that no idea can be more erroneous than 
that women, during the nursing period, stand in need of stimu- 
lants to support their strength and increase the flow of milk." 
When you come to look into the subject a little, you will find that 
this is true. 

A great ado was made not long ago by the citizens of New 
York, because the dairymen from the country and suburbs of the 
city insisted upon supplying them with swill-milk, or milk secreted 
by a cow constantly fed upon swill. Now, if people are so opposed 
to using swill-milk themselves, why will they insist upon manufac- 
turing it for their children ? I take it, that no one doubts but 
what swill-milk is unwholesome. In the first place, as it has 
already been asserted, the milk contains more or less of the prop- 
erties of the substance from which it is manufactured. Now, if 
you manufacture milk by passing swill through a cow, — the udder 
acting simply as a filter, — you, of course, get more or less of the 
properties of the swill, whatever they may bo. In the second 
place, a cow fed upon swill soon becomes diseased, and of course 
gives diseased milk. You will now readily observe, that the milk 
which you get, in addition to containing more or less of its original 
properties, as affected by swill, is still further contaminated by 
being drawn from a sick cow. 

Now, it is just the same with a nursing woman fed upon ale and 
porter ; not to so great an extent, it is true, because her diet is 
not exclusively confined to one unwholesome article, but the milk 
which she produces is unhealthy, and therefore not a proper nour- 
ishment for the infant. Drugs enter largely into the composition of 
all malt liquors, wines, and brandies, and to a far greater extent, 
too, than is generally supposed. Milk, impregnated with either 
of these drugged articles, can scarcely fail to engender obstinate 
and formidable chronic diseases both to mother and child. 

Dr. William B. Carpenter, the most celebrated English phys- 
iologist, in his prize essay on the " Use and Abuse of Alcoholic 
Liquors," says: — "The regular administration of alcohol, with 
the professed object of supporting the system under the demand 
occasioned by the flow of milk, is ' a mockery, a delusion, and a 
snare.' For alcohol affords no single element of the secretion, 
and is much more likely to impair than to improve the quality of 
the milk." 

In regard to the use of fermented liquors, after detailing a case 
in which the use of a single glass of wine, or a tumbler of porter, 


per day, was followed by a speedy and great improvement in the 
condition both of mother and child, he says : " But it may be 
questioned whether the practice is in the end desirable, or whether 
it is not, like the same practice under other circumstances already 
adverted to, really detrimental, by causing lactation to be perse- 
vered in, without apparent injury at the time, by females whose 
bodily vigor is not adequate to sustain it. 

" Such certainly appeared to be the case in the instance just 
referred to ; for the system remained in a very depressed state for 
some time after the conclusion of the first lactation, and on sub- 
sequent occasions it has been found absolutely necessary to dis- 
continue nursing at a very early period of the infant's life, owing 
to the inadequacy of the milk for its nutrition, and the obvious 
inability of the mother to bear the drain. Hence it may be 
affirmed with tolerable certainty that the first lactation, although 
not prolonged beyond the usual period, and apparently well sus- 
tained by the mother, was really injurious to her, and the inability to 
furnish what was required without the stimulus of alcoholic liquor 
was nature's warning, which ought not to have been disregarded." 

Considering, then, that lactation may be put an end to at any 
period, should it prove injurious to the mother, the writer is dis- 
posed to give his full assent to the dictum of Dr. Macnish, " that 
if a woman cannot afford the necessary supply without these indul- 
gences, she should give over the infant to some one who can, and 
drop nursing altogether. The only cases," continues Dr. M., " in 
which a moderate portion of malt liquor is justifiable, are when 
the milk is deficient, and the nurse is averse or unable to put 
another in her place. Here, of two evils we choose the least, and 
rather give the infant milk of an inferior quality than endanger its 
health by weaning it prematurely, or stinting it of its accustomed 
nourishment." Now, upon this the writer would remark, "that a 
judicious system of feeding gradually introduced from a very 
early period in the life of a child, will generally be preferable to 
an imperfect supply of poor milk from the mother, and that, if the 
mother be so foolish as to persevere in nursing her infant when 
nature has warned her of her incapacity of doing so, it is the duty 
of the medical man to set before her, as strongly as possible, the 
risk — the almost absolute certainty — of future prejudice to her- 
self. The evils which proceed from lactation, protracted beyond 
the ability of the system to sustain it, may be to a certain degree 
kept in check by the use of alcoholic stimulants ; but the writer is 


convinced from observation of the above and similar cases, that 
its manifestation is only postponed. Under no circumstances, 
therefore, can he consider that the habitual or even occasional 
use of alcoholic liquors, during lactation, is necessary or bene- 

Dr. Condie, in his work on " Diseases of Children," says : " The 
only drink of a nurse should be water, simply water. All fer- 
mented and distilled liquors, as well as strong tea and coffee, 
she should strictly abstain from. Never was there a more absurd 
or pernicious notion than that wine, ale, or porter, is necessary 
to a female while giving suck, in order to keep up her strength, or 
to increase the quantity and improve the nutritious properties 
of her milk ; so far from producing these effects, such drinks, 
when taken in any quantity, invariably disturb more or less the 
health of the stomach, and tend to impair the quality, and dimin- 
ish the quantity of the nourishment, furnished by her to the 

Another medical writer, speaking in regard to the use of such 
beverages, says : " The constitution of each is stimulated by them, 
beyond what nature ever intended it should be. The laws which 
govern the animal economy are positively infringed, and it is 
impossible that mother or infant should escape the penalty of that 
infringement. Both will suffer to a certainty, in some shape or 

other, if not immediately, at some future period 

Thousands of infants are annually cut off by convulsions, etc., 
from the effect of these beverages acting upon them through the 

Professor Small, of Philadelphia, while remarking upon this 
subject, says : " The relief afforded by such stimulants, if indeed 
it can be called relief, is of very short duration ; it is invariably 
followed by a greater degree of weakness and depression, demand- 
ing a repetition of the same, or of more powerful stimulants, 
which destroy the tone of the stomach, deteriorate the quality of 
the milk, rendering it altogether unsuited to the delicate organism 
of the tender infant." 

From the preceding argumentative facts, we therefore conclude, 
that, when the mother does not furnish a sufficient supply of milk 
for the wants of her child, instead of resorting to ale or porter, 
to alcoholic or fermented drinks, of any description, it is better 
that a wet nurse be obtained, or the child be immediately 




It is just as important that a nursing mother should pay strict 
attention to the state of her mind, as it is that she should pay 
strict attention to her diet and general health. No other secre- 
tion so evidently exhibits the influence of the depressing emotions 
as that of the breast. 

The infant's stomach is a very delicate apparatus for testing the 
quality of the milk, far exceeding anything which the chemist can 
devise. How a mental emotion can affect the quality of the milk, 
perhaps it would be difficult to demonstrate, and what that change 
in the character of the milk consists in, no examination of its 
physical properties by the chemists can detect ; but, nevertheless, 
we are well aware that after severe fits of anger, some change takes 
place in the milk, which alters it from a healthy nutritive agent to 
an irritating substance, which produces griping in the infant, and 
a diarrhoea of green stools. 

Inasmuch, therefore, as the quality of the milk is very liable to 
be injuriously affected by any sudden or unpleasant excitement of 
the feelings, or other causes producing a constant and continued 
state of unhappiness, it is desirable that the most assiduous care 
should be taken to keep the mind in as quiet and happy a state 
as possible. It may not be possible for nursing mothers to avoid 
all occasions of getting angry or sad, but it certainly is possible to 
avoid all violent and artificial excitement. All serious business, 
exciting amusement, novel-reading, theatre-going can and ought 
to be strictly avoided. 

Grief, of course, is an emotion which we cannot entirely control, 
and it is not an uncommon occurrence for the loss of a relative or 
friend to have such a depressing effect upon a nursing mother as 
to cause an almost total suppression of milk. 

It is not unfrequent, either, for a child to suffer from griping 
pains, and green, frothy stools, while sick with some other disease, 
and yet there be no connection between the two complaints. We, 
as physicians, can readily understand it, but the mother little 
apprehends that it is all owing to her own anxiety. 

Terror, which is sudden, and great fear instantly stop the secre- 
tion of milk. 

Sir Astley Cooper, in his work upon the breast, says : " The 
secretion of milk proceeds best in a tranquil state of mind, and 
with a cheerful temper ; then the milk is regularly abundant, and 


agrees well with the child. On the contrary, a fretful temper 
lessens the quantity of milk, makes it thin and serous, and causes 
it to disturb the child's bowels, producing intestinal fever and 
much griping." 

The necessity, therefore, is plain, that if you would have healthy, 
quiet, and good-natured children, you should always yourself be 
calm, cheerful, and happy. 

It is not well for a woman to nurse her child soon after having 
suffered from fright, passion, etc. ; she should wait until she is 
perfectly composed, and perhaps it would be as well to draw 
off a portion of the milk before the child is again applied to the 


Perhaps it is a hobby of mine, but I certainly am of the most 
decided opinion, that nothing in this world is so productive of in- 
fantile diseases, as the early resort to artificial feeding. As I have 
already said, over and over again, the infant's stomach is not in- 
tended to receive or to digest anything except its mother's milk. 
And, with those who understand this fact, it is most certainly 
amusing to see with what avidity some nurses and most mothers 
hasten to have something prepared for the child, — a little cracker 
and water, or molasses and water, — immediately upon its arrival 
in this vale of tears. I presume they think, that as the child has 
been nine months within its mother's womb, without a mouthful to 
eat, it certainly must be hungry. Thus, at the very threshold of 
life, the seeds of disease are sown, and in the large majority of 
instances, they take root, and produce a plenteous crop of stom- 
ach, or intestinal diseases. Other children are more fortunate, 
and escape this early infliction ; few, however, pass the first six 
months of their existence, without suffering more than one attack 
of colic or diarrhcea, produced by the hand of the very mother 
who feels so much love for her darling babe. She early com- 
mences the process of weaning, even before the infant has cut a 
tooth, arguing, that by the time the child is able to do without 
the breast, it will have become so accustomed to other diet that 
the change will scarce be noticed. This argument always reminds 
me of the Irishman, who thought he could accustom his horse to 
live without eating, and so commenced gradually to deprive him 
of his food. He got him down to one straw a day, when the poor 
horse died ; and the failure simply convinced Pat that the ex- 


periment had not been conducted with sufficient care. Thus it is 
with mothers ; one child is born, fed upon trash, sickens, suffers, 
and dies ; another one appears, the experiment is repeated with a 
like result, and so it goes on. While, during the whole process, 
physicians stand by, entering their protests, adducing facts and 
statistics, offering arguments and illustrations, sufficient to con- 
vince any jury of men, " that until the child is at least eight 
months old it should receive no food, except what it gets from the 
breast, providing the mother or nurse has a sufficiency for it." 
But this will not satisfy women, at least it has not as yet ; for they 
still persist in giving the child a bone to suck, a little bread and 
milk, or mashed potato to eat ; in fact, whatever the infant sees 
that others eat, it wants, cries for, and usually gets. 

This is the process, so they tell us, by which the child's digestive 
apparatus is prepared for the great change of weaning. But a 
more erroneous idea never entered the head of any mortal, the 
Irishman's, in regard to his horse, not excepted. 

This, however, is exactly the process by which the digestive ap- 
paratus is ruined. Some children suffer from dyspepsia before 
they are six months old ; before they have cut a single tooth ; 
and, as soon as the teeth do come through, they are blackened over 
and decayed by the corroding influence of gassy eructations, aris- 
ing from the fermenting stomach and deranged bowels. 

It seems to me, that had our Creator intended that our diet 
should consist of solid animal and vegetable food from the first of 
our existence, we would have been provided, at birth, with teeth 
for its proper division and mastication. 

" The child comes into the world with toothless gums, and in- 
stinctive powers, adapted, in the most perfect manner, for drawing 
its nourishment from the maternal breast. It is not furnished 
with teeth, because neither the mode by which its appropriate 
nourishment must be taken, nor the character of the nourishment 
itself requires such organs." — Teacy. 

As the office of the teeth is to divide and masticate the solid 
portions of our food, one would very naturally suppose that their 
appearance and growth might be taken as a fair index of the de- 
velopment of the child's digestive organs, and of the capabilities 
and powers of the stomach, as well as of the demands of the gen- 
eral system, in regard to nutriment. 

If we take the protrusion and growth of the teeth as a guide, by 
which we are to regulate the diet of the infant, we shall find that 


some children may be weaned far earlier than others ; so that it is 
impossible to name any definite age at which all children may be 
entirely deprived of the breast. 

We find that the eruption of the temporary teeth commences 
at or about the sixth or seventh month, and is complete about 
the end of the second year, — those of the lower jaw preceding the 

The temporary teeth appear in the following order : At about 
the seventh month the two inferior cutting or incisor teeth pro- 
trude through the gums ; in the course of from four to six weeks, 
the two corresponding upper front teeth make their appearance ; 
then, after a few weeks, the two lateral incisors of the lower jaw 
— one on either side of the two first — cut through the gums; 
and these are, after a few more weeks, followed by their corre- 
sponding lateral incisors of the upper jaw. 

The first lower molars, or double teeth, are cut from the twelfth 
to the fourteenth month ; the two lower canine, or stomach teeth, 
from the eighteenth to the thirtieth, and the upper molars and 
canine, or eye-teeth, soon after. See " Teething." 

Now, until the first two teeth have made their appearance, or 
say till between the seventh and eighth month, the child's diet 
should consist solely of what it nurses from its mother, provided 
its mother has a sufficiency for it. But, soon after the first two 
teeth have cut themselves through, the use of other food of an 
appropriate nature may be advantageously commenced, and by 
the time the first eight or ten teeth have attained an equal length 
above the gum, that is to say, from the time the child is from 
twelve to eighteen months old, we can safely conclude that the 
digestive organs have acquired sufficient tone and activity to ena- 
ble them to digest without difficulty an appropriate, artificial 
diet, — one of a more nourishing nature, and better adapted to 
the advanced state of the organization than the less substantial 
aliment derived from the mother. 

This, then, should be the general rule for weaning children ; 
namely, soon after the evolution of the first ten teeth. To this rule, 
as to all others, of course, there must necessarily be some excep- 
tions, but of these we shall speak further on. 

Some physicians have laid it down, as a general rule, that 
weaning should not take place till after the completion of first 
dentition. Few mothers, however, are able to nurse their children 
as long a time as this. 


From a careful consideration of the whole subject, and after 
giving a fair hearing to all that has been said and written upon it, 
pro and con, we have concluded that the period above stated, 
namely, soon after the child has ten teeth, is as near correct as 
any that it is possible to arrive at. This rule is founded upon 
purely physiological principles, and is in accordance with the plain 
indications of nature. It is, therefore, necessary that we should 
pay strict obedience to it, unless we wish to compromise the best 
interest of the child, because, wherever nature's laws are broken, 
the penalty is sure to follow. 

Having settled the question as to when the child should be en- 
tirely deprived of the breast, the next question that presents itself, 
is, hoiv shall weaning be accomplished ? Shall we accustom the 
child to artificial feeding gradually, or shall we deprive it of the 
breast without any such preparation ? 

"We have already seen that the protrusion and growth of the 
teeth is a sure index of the development and capabilities of the 
digestive apparatus ; therefore, soon after the first teeth have 
made their appearance, we conclude that a few articles of a bland 
and nourishing nature may be advantageously given, because the 
stomach now begins to digest without difficulty other food than 
the milk of its nurse, and it is as well to habituate it to the change 
which is soon to take place. For extended remarks upon the diet 
of young children, the reader is referred to page 136, article " Sup- 
plementary Diet- op Infants." 

We would here simply remark, that it is desirable to increase 
both the quantity and nutritious quality of the food, keeping pace 
with the gradual development of the teeth, yet being careful never 
to permit the child to swallow solid animal food until the process 
of first dentition is completed. 

By this means you will gradually bring the infant up to the 
period where it is desirable to deprive it entirely of the breast ; the 
change to the child will be insensible, and the trouble to yourself 
not worth mentioning. 

We will now proceed to notice some of the reasons why it is 
not always possible to follow the rule which we have laid down. 
Various circumstances in connection with the mother may render 
it impossible for her to nurse her child the full period. Owing to 
fever, or some acute or chronic disease, the milk may sponta- 
neously " dry up," in spite of the utmost care ; or it may be, that, 
during the whole life of the mother there has been a latent ten- 


dency toward consumption, scrofula, or even cancer, •which the 
excitement during pregnancy, or the nervous shock of confine- 
ment may have brought into activity, and either of which diseases 
would so contaminate her milk as to render it highly injurious to 
the child's health if she continue to nourish it at the breast. 

Again, some mothers are unable to support this constant drain 
upon their system more than six months, without becoming pale, 
weak, and emaciated ; their milk becomes thin and watery, and 
does not contain sufficient nutriment to support the child. In 
this case, as in the above, recourse should be had to a wet nurse, 
or the child must be weaned. 

The return of the menses during the period of nursing, some- 
times, but not always, produces a decidedly prejudicial effect upon 
the mother's milk ; but, as a general rule, it does not render it 
necessary to wean the child, and never, so long as the milk agrees 
with it. The same is true, if pregnancy should occur while the 
child is too young to wean, especially if the mother is strong and 
healthy ; but it is not well, perhaps, to continue the nursing longer 
than three or four, or at most five months, in any case after the 
commencement of pregnancy. 

On the other hand, there are various reasons why it is advisable 
to protract the term of nursing beyond the ordinary period. In 
the first place, the child may be a delicate, weak little thing, with 
feeble digestive powers ; or it may be suffering from some disease 
consequent, perhaps, upon teething, or any other temporary cause. 
You would, therefore, naturally wait till the sickness had passed 
off before you changed its food. Again, it would be hardly pru- 
dent to wean a child during the hot months of summer. The 
months of March, April, May, September, October, and November, 
may, all other things being equal, be regarded as the most favora- 
ble for weaning children. Some persons are very particular that 
weaning should take place during a certain phase of the moon ; 
but this is all moonshine. 

It would hardly be advisable to wean a child during the preva- 
lence of an epidemic among children ; because the morbific influ- 
ence prevailing produces a strong disposition to diseases. 

Caution upon the points which we have here glanced at, may be 
the means of preventing a severe fit of sickness, or even of saving 
the life of your infant. 



It is unnecessary for me to reiterate the importance of every 
mother's nursing her own infant. See article on " Nursing." 

It is a well-ascertained fact, that the mortality among infants 
" brought up by hand," as it is termed, is far greater than among 
those who are not deprived of their natural food. 

" I am convinced," remarks Dr. Merriman, " that the attempt 
to bring up children by hand proves fatal in London, to at least 
seven out of eight of these miserable sufferers ; and this happens 
whether the child has never taken the breast, or, having been 
suckled for three or four weeks only, is then weaned. In the 
country the mortality among dry-nursed children is not quite 
so great as in London ; but it is abundantly greater than is gen- 
erally imagined." 

However, it not unfrequently happens that mothers, owing to 
some constitutional defect, or from debility, ill-health, or from 
mental emotions, have not a sufficient secretion of milk to supply 
their children, and are thereby necessitated to employ a wet nurse, 
or resort to artificial feeding. 

Artificial feeding we are opposed to in all cases, except where it 
is absolutely necessary for the welfare of the child. It will be 
understood, therefore, that in all cases where we recommend the 
administration of food to young children, it is because of the non- 
secretion of milk by the mother, or where the milk is of an un- 
healthy nature, or from some other extraneous cause, which makes 
it impossible for the child to nurse. 

It often happens that a mother > though perfectly able and wil- 
ling to nurse her child, fails to supply a sufficient quantity of milk 
for its nourishment, while the child does not thrive, but becomes 
lean and emaciated, is cross and fretful, simply from 'hunger. In 
such cases it becomes necessary to give it some additional nutri- 
ment. And it is desirable that the aliment which the child re- 
ceives in addition to the mother's milk should approach the latter 
in quality as nearly as practicable ; and from chemical analysis we 
find that, by adding a portion of loaf-sugar and water to cow's 
milk, we obtain a substitute nearly resembling breast-milk. 

Dr. Tracy, in writing upon this subject says : " The food which I 
would recommend in most cases where it can be had, may be pre- 
pared by taking newly-raised cream from the milk of a cow that 
has a young calf, together with a little of the top of the milk. 


" A young, healthy cow should he selected, that gives rich milk, 
— milk that will not look bluish after skimming it, and her milk 
alone should be used. 

" At first, after the meconium has ceased to appear in the stools, 
you may take one table spoonful of this cream, and add to it twice 
that quantity of soft, warm water, and sweeten it with loaf-sugar ; 
of this enough should be used to make it about as sweet as breast- 

" This preparation will do very well, and may be fed to your 
babe in such quantities as are necessary to satisfy its natural de- 
sire for food. As the age of the child advances, you may use a 
larger proportion of the cream, and may also take more of the 
top of the milk with the cream. This is an excellent food for 
babes, and many will thrive nicely upon it without any breast-milk 
at all." 

This advice is all very fine for persons residing in the country, 
where cows are plenty, and milk " with cream on it," is cheap. 
But here in the city each individual cannot " select a young, 
healthy cow " whenever he chooses, and keep her for his own 
special use. No ; we receive our milk from Orange county ; al- 
ways, of course, perfectly pure, but milked from several cows ; 
some with old calves, and some with young ones ; thoroughly 
mixed, however, by the railroad churning which it receives be- 
fore it reaches our doors. 

I have not the least doubt but that perfectly pure, fresh milk 
from one cow, sweetened with loaf-sugar, and diluted at first with 
two-thirds water, reducing the water after a week or two to one- 
half, and so on, until the child is four or five months old, — when 
it might be given pure, — would make the best possible diet for an 
infant. But the diabolical concoction obtained by filtering distil- 
lery swill through sick cows, which is peddled through our streets 
in wagons bearing the stereotyped lie of " Orange County Milk," 
and " Dry Feed Dairy," I unhesitatingly pronounce to be unfit for 
man or beast, — far more for tender infants and feeble children. 

I am aware that physicians of observation, and writers upon 
diseases of children, to a man, agree that among the most perni- 
cious kinds of nourishment for a young infant, may be named 
those miserable compounds of flour and milk, crackers, or bread 
and water, or oatmeal and water, which are fed to children under 
the names of pap, panada, and water-gruel. 

" Let the child's stomach be once or twice filled during the 



twenty-four hours with gruel, or any of the ordinary preparations 
prepared by nurses for this purpose, and the chances will probably 
be as ten to one, that acidity, vomiting, colic, griping, and jaun- 
dice will supervene." 

True, Dr. Eberle; but of two evils choose the least. Now, 
which would you prefer, " swill milk," or water-gruel ? Besides, 
I do not believe that it is the panada, the bread and cracker, 
or the water-gruel, that produces all the evil here spoken of; but 
rather, I take it, a combination of them all, and an over-feeding 
of the same. No doubt but that loading the infant's stomach with 
these, or a number of any other articles, would produce gastric 
derangement. I am thoroughly convinced, from close observation, 
that it is not so much the article given, as it is the state or quantity , 
in which it is given, that produces the trouble. For instance, you 
will find that the gruel prepared for children, is made from meal 
ground very coarse, and containing a great deal of feculent matter, 
as is also the case with panada, crackers, or bread and water, etc. 
Now, at best, this substance is unfit for the delicate stomach of a 
tender infant ; but how much more so is it, when you come to feed 
it after it has been prepared two, three, or perhaps more hours ; 
and, though not actually sour to your sense of perception, it has 
undergone some change which renders it unwholesome to the in- 
fant, occasioning the colic, and the gastric derangement, which 
writers attribute to the kind, instead of the quality of the food. 

Experience also teaches us that we as frequently injure children 
by over-feeding them as we do by feeding them unwholesome food. 
We ourselves are not unfrequently reminded, by fits of indiges- 
tion, that we have indulged our appetite to too great an extent. 
Some mothers look upon every cry of their offspring as an indica- 
tion of hunger, and every time the child worries or frets a little, 
it must be fed. By this means, the stomach is kept constantly 
distended with food, and the inevitable result of such a course, 
indigestion, will speedily follow. 

"As a general rule, a healthy child from one to three weeks 
old, requires &pint of breast-milk, or other food equally nutritious, 
during the twenty-four hours. At the end of the first month, 
and in the course of the second, the quantity usually taken by the 
child increases gradually to about a pint and a half or a quart." 

After thoroughly sifting the subject and coining it over, I have 
come to the conclusion that in cases where the mother does not 
furnish a sufficient supply of milk for the wants of her child, 


finely-ground rice or barley flour makes the best supplementary 

The flour, "which comes in pound packages, though intended 
for, and no doubt is, when first put up, a superior article, is not 
as pure as that which comes loose, like ordinary meal ; you will 
almost always find it impregnated with pepper, cloves, cinnamon, 
or some other spice, of course not by design, but simply, I pre- 
sume, from contact with these articles while upon the grocers' 

The following is the method by which these articles should be 
prepared for children's diet : For an infant take one table-spoon- 
ful of the flour, — more, of course, for an older child, — and 
moisten it with cold ivater, being careful to have it well stirred, so 
that it shall contain no lumps ; then add a little salt, and a suffi- 
cient quantity of hot ivater, and boil it for ten minutes, during 
winch time it should be constantly stirred to keep it from burn- 
ing. After it has been removed from the fire, you should add 
a sufficient quantity of loaf-sugar to make it about as sweet as 

The quantity of water which you should put to a spoonful of 
flour, will, of course, depend altogether upon the consistency you 
wish to give it. If it is to be fed through a nursing-bottle, it will 
have to be quite thin ; if from a spoon, as will be advisable, when 
the child is old enough to take it thus, it can be made quite 
thick, — as thick nearly as an ordinary farina pudding. 

For those children whose bowels are habitually inclined toward 
constipation, you will find the barley flour better adapted, as it 
has a slight loosening tendency. On the contrary, for those whose 
bowels are inclined to be lax, or tend in that direction, you will 
find the rice flour preferable. 

You will observe, that I advise that the flour should be cooke'd 
with water, and not with milk. I do this, not specially on ac- 
count of the impossibility to obtain pure milk here in the city, 
but because I have observed that when a child is taking breast- 
milk, other milk seldom agrees, the two having an antagonism to 
each other, and always managing to cause some disturbance. 

When the mother does not supply any nourishment for the child 
from her breast, I would recommend you to add a portion of pure 
milk to the flour and water. 

These two articles of diet, in addition to the milk furnished by 
the mother, are all the child will need or ought to have, and a 


strict adherence to this simple diet, with as few variations as pos- 
sible, except in case of sickness, until after the first teeth have 
made their appearance, you will find more conducive to the gen- 
eral health, comfort, and happiness of the child than any other 
you can adopt. 

If it is perfectly true, that whatever is taken into the system 
and digested is assimilated by the vital forces, and goes to make up 
the tissues of which the body is composed, is it not important that 
we, who have the selection of the warp and woof, should be par- 
ticular as to the material from which the thread of life is spun ? 
Experience has taught observing mothers, as well as physicians 
and nurses, after having made a proper selection of food for the 
infant, the importance of adhering to one plain, simple course of 
diet, and not to be constantly flying from one thing to another, 
giving the child cracker and water to-day and panada or gruel to- 

I have chosen the rice-flour and barley because I have found it 
to agree with the infant's digestive apparatus better than anything 
else ; and I recommend it as a constant diet, with the exceptions 
which have already been mentioned, until after the period of first 

After the fifth or sixth month, the food may be made of a more 
solid or substantial nature. At first it is but a simple gruel, and 
should be fed from a nursing-bottle ; but as the infant increases in 
age, the food should be made thicker by the addition of a larger 
proportion of flour ; it will then become necessary to feed it from a 
spoon. The nursing-bottle you will find to be a perfect pest, which, 
in spite of the " complete and thorough scalding and washing " 
which the nurse gives it, will get sour. You will, therefore, as 
many a one before you has done, be resorting to all sorts of con- 
trivances to induce the child to take its food from anything hut a 
nursing-bottle. It is a difficult matter to feed a young child from 
a spoon ; but, if you can induce the youngster to take a sufficient 
quantity of food in this way, it will be quite as well for the child, 
and a great deal easier for you than to make use of a bottle. 

The better plan, however, I think, for feeding an infant is as 
follows : Procure a silver tube about six inches in length, having a 
flattened, oblong mouth-piece ; then place your food in a cup and 
let the young gent take it as his " pa " would a " sherry cobler." 
But whenever a nursing-bottle is made use of, " particular care 
should be taken to keep it perfectly clean and sweet. It should be 


well washed, botli inside and out, with hot water every morning 
and evening. . 

" After the child has satisfied his appetite, no new supply of 
nourishment should be added to what may have been left. Any 
that remains should be emptied out, and the bottle well rinsed, 
before more is put into it. 

" The same food should not be allowed to remain in it more 
than three or four hours. When kept too long, even if not per- 
ceptibly changed in taste, it becomes injurious to the child's 
stomach and bowels. 

" By these means, the food will always be sweet and free from 
offensive and irritating qualities. You will probably be able to 
obtain a bottle made for this express purpose at any druggists." — 
Dr. Tract. 

The mouth-piece, or artificial nipple, which is attached to these 
bottles, should immediately after the child is done nursing, be 
taken off and put in a cup of cold water, and there left until again 
wanted. These nipples will not last a great while, take as good 
care of them as you please ; they will get sour. You must therefore 
exchange one for another as often as it is necessary to keep it sweet. 

Dr. Tracy, from whom I have quoted above, says : " When the 
child is taking its food, whether from the breast, the bottle, or the 
spoon, it should be supported in an easy, semi-recumbent position, 
upon the arm or lap of the person feeding it, and should be kept 
quiet for at least thirty or forty minutes after having received its 

" Rest is particularly favorable to digestion, because the diges- 
tive organs require a concentration of the vital energies upon 
themselves, to enable them to perform this important function 
with due rapidity and ease. 

" Both experience and experiments upon the. lower animals have 
shown that the process of digestion is particularly liable to be im- 
peded by strong mental or corporeal exercise, or agitation, after a 
full meal. The practice, therefore, of dandling or jolting infants 
soon after they have taken nourishment is decidedly improper. 

" You will notice that all lower animals, as well as your babe, 
manifest a disposition to this quietness and repose after eating." 

In order, however, that you should have the advice of others, as 
well as myself, upon this important subject, I will, in addition to 
what I have already quoted, give you a few extracts from several 
eminent authors. 


Dr. Meigs, in his w<?rk upon " Diseases of Children," recom- 
mends, especially for children of weak and irritable digestive 
organs, and those residing in large cities, where pure milk cannot 
be had, the following preparation : — 

" It is made by dissolving a small quantity of prepared gelatin, 
or Russian isinglass, in water, to which is added milk, cream, and 
a little arrow-root, or any other farinaceous substance that may be 

" The mode of preparation and the proportions are as follows : 
a scruple of gelatin — or a piece, two inches square, of the flat 
cake in which it is sold — is soaked for a short time in cold water, 
and then boiled in half a pint of water until it dissolves, — about 
ten or fifteen minutes. To this is added, with constant stirring, 
and just at the termination of the boiling, the milk and arrow-root, 
— the latter being previously mixed into paste with a little cold 
water. After the addition of the milk and arrow-root, and just 
before the removal from the fire, the cream is poured in, and a 
moderate quantity of loaf sugar added. 

" The proportions of milk, cream, and arrow-root must depend 
upon the age and digestive powers of the child. For a healthy 
infant, within the month, from three to four ounces of milk, half 
an ounce of cream, and a teaspoonful of arrowroot, to a pint of 
water, is usually directed. 

" For older children, the quantity of milk and cream should be 
gradually increased to a half or two-thirds milk, and from one to 
two ounces of cream. I seldom increase the quantity of gelatin. 

" In cases of sick children, it ought sometimes to be made even 
weaker for a while than in the first proportion mentioned. 

" It not unfrequently happens," remarks Dr. Ellis, " when the 
mother is not able to nurse her child, that it is impossible for the 
parents to obtain a wet-nurse, and there remains no resource but 
to bring it up by hand. If it is very important to select a proper 
wet-nurse, as it certainly is, it is even more important to select proper 
nourishment for the child when we are obliged to feed it. As 
neither goat's nor ass's milk, which is often used in Europe, is 
usually accessible in our country, cow's milk is generally used ; and 
it is true beyond question, perhaps, that this is the best food we 
can select until the child is at least six months' old. In cases of 
sickness, other articles may sometimes be required to take the 
place of milk for a temporary period ; but a physician who is 
acquainted with all the circumstances, in a given case, is alone 


qualified to judge when this is necessary, and what substitute 
should be chosen. But there are many points to be attended to in 
the selection and use of cow's milk, which it is very important, for 
the welfare of the child, should not be neglected. In the first 
place, it is very important that the milk should be taken from a 
single cow, and not a mixture of several. Then it is important, 
for a young infant, that the cow should not have been giving milk 
less than two or three weeks, or more than three or four months, 
if this can be well obtained. Cow's milk should be slightly alka- 
line ; but it sometimes occurs that it is slightly acid, in which case 
it is very apt to disagree with children. Hence, in selecting a cow 
from which to obtain milk for an infant, it is always well to test 
the milk by means of blue litmus-paper. Hold the end of a strip 
of this paper in fresh milk for a short time, and if it changes it to 
a red color, the milk is acid, and not suitable for a young child, but 
another cow should be selected. Good milk will change red lit- 
mus-paper to blue after some minutes' contact. Litmus-paper can 
be obtained at the druggists'. If milk which is being used dis- 
agree with a child, or cause disturbance of the stomach and bowels, 
it should be rejected, and the milk from another cow tried ; but 
test the milk, as above directed, before using it. For an infant, it 
is important to use the milk which is first drawn, as it is much 
weaker than the last which is obtained, and will not require dilut- 
ing with water, which may impair its quality. The first-drawn 
milk need not be diluted, but should be sweetened a little with 
sugar of milk, or, in case that is not handy, a little white sugar. 
Milk which has been boiled is not as easily digested as unboiled 
milk, and it is generally better only to heat it to the right tem- 
perature for drinking ; and it is best that this should be done in a 
water-bath ; that is, by setting the dish containing the milk into a 
vessel of boiling-hot water." — Dr. John Ellis's Avoidable Causes 
of Diseases. 


It not unfrequently happens that a mother, either owing to 
some constitutional defect, or to some extraneous cause, is pre- 
vented from nursing her own offspring, and therefore it becomes 
necessary that some other means must be provided by which 
the child can receive its nourishment. We are left to choose 
between a wet nurse and artificial feeding. 

That the nurse's milk is the best substitute for the mother's 


niilk, we presume will not be questioned. Should any, however, 
be sceptical enough to doubt it, we have only to refer them to 
these children who have been "brought up by hand," in com- 
parison with those who have had a nurse. The healthy appear- 
ance of the one beside the emaciated condition of the other 
offers proof stronger than any argument that we can adduce. 

Inasmuch as the child will undoubtedly be influenced, to a 
greater or less extent, both by the moral and physical condition 
of the nurse, it is highly important that we should use great 
care and discrimination in selecting the person to whom we 
give the entire charge of the infant. It is true we are seldom 
left much margin for a choice ; oftener we consider ourselves for- 
tunate, indeed, if we are able to find a female with a breast of 
milk who is willing to give her whole time to the care and nursing 
of another's infant. But, in your eagerness to secure the object 
of your search, you should not accept the first that offers, irrespec- 
tive of her general health or moral character, or else, in after 
years, when, perchance, your child developes a cross and sour 
disposition, or is afflicted with some ugly humor, you may have 
the unpleasant recollection that perhaps it took it from its nurse, 
and then forever blame yourself for what you can never, though 
you would fain, remove. 

We have already seen, in a previous article, that errors in diet, 
moral and mental emotions, etc., have a decided and deleterious 
effect upon the milk, changing it from a source of nourishment 
to a substance which seems to act like poison on the infant. If, 
then, the delicate organism of the infant is so sensibly affected by 
these changes in the milk, — changes which the most delicate tests 
of the chemists are unable to detect, — perhaps our imaginations 
can catch an inkling of the manner in which the whole consti- 
tution of the infant might become radically changed ; the whole 
moral and physical disposition, as inherited from the mother, 
becoming supplanted, or at least obscurated and superseded by 
the peculiarities of the moral and physical organization of the 
nurse in whose hands the infant has been placed. 

Humanity, in the first flush of its tender existence, both in 
its moral and physical aspect, is not unlike the potter's clay ; 
and, like the potter, he who has the handling of it can fashion 
it into almost any form he pleases. 

I have watched a hen as she came forth with her first brood 
of ducklings, and wondered where they received their aquatic 


instructions, as the web-footed little rascals paddled off into the 
water to the amazement and consternation of the clucking hen 
that hatched them. The " swim " was born in them, and all 
the chicken argument in the world could not convince them that a 
green sward was to be preferred to a dirty puddle. " What is 
bred in the bone cannot come out in the flesh," and therefore I 
say that the child can be fashioned into almost any form of dispo- 
sition. I do not contend that you can take a child of perverse 
and stubborn disposition, one who has had wickedness distilled 
into its veins through generations back, and can implant within 
him an obedient, kind, and loving disposition,— although to a great 
extent even that can be accomplished. He can be so brought up 
as to see the wickedness of wrong-doing, and, though ever sinning," 
be constantly endeavoring to do that which is right, and persever- 
ingly fighting against " the wrong that is within him." However, 
k is a great deal easier to make a straight sapling grow crooked, 
than it is to make a crooked one grow straight. There is a 
natural tendency in us all toward evil, and you soon find, if you 
have not already found, that the evil traits of your child's char- 
acter, like the weeds in your flower-garden, will grow quite as 
fast as is desirable, without any cultivation ; in fact, you will find 
that it will require your constant attention to keep the weeds from 
entirely choking out your flowers. You would not be content to 
trust a bed of choice flowers to a gardener, who, though he would 
not keep the ground mellow and support the tender stems against 
the rude storms, would solemnly swear not to sow a weed among 
them ? No, indeed ! 

Now, I contend, and I do not think you will oppose me, that a 
child of kind and loving disposition, one that is confiding, and 
easily persuaded to do another's bidding, is very apt to be led 
astray by an unprincipled or careless nurse, while a child who is 
perverse and shows a preternatural disposition to wrong, would, 
in such hands, be ruined beyond all hope of future redemption. 
At no period of life is a child so susceptible of being influenced 
by the unamiable qualities of a companion, as during the early 
months of infancy. It will not do simply to refrain from sowing 
cockle-seeds in your bed of flowers ; weeds will spring up of their 
own accord, and from whence came the seed it would be a useless 
waste of time to inquire; your work, — which the sooner you 
begin, the better, — is to eradicate them, to see that they do not 
take root and multiply. Children take to wrong-doing just as 


naturally as ducks do to water. The seeds of wickedness are 
innate within them, and I tell you it will not suffice to have a 
nurse who simply refrains from setting them bad examples, or 
from cultivating their wayward inclinations ; she must take every 
opportunity to impress upon them the difference between right and 
wrong, to cultivate by tender words of approbation and encourage- 
ment all these good qualities. "As the twig is bent, the tree's 

These little " dew-drops in the breath of morn," as some one has 
beautifully called them, are but human twigs of tender growth ; 
their susceptibilities are of the finest nature, and with a thread, 
as it were, we can lead them in any direction. But we should 
•constantly add " line upon line, precept upon precept, here a little 
and there a little," of judicious care and culture, until they have 
passed through that period of life around which so many gilded 
lures of temptation, by the thoughtless and by the wicked ones 
of earth, are flung. 

The impressions made upon an infant at this early period are 
not simply transient, as most persons are apt to think, but they 
sink deeply into the mind, and do seriously affect, either for good 
or evil, the whole future character of the subject of them. And, 
therefore, I would earnestly impress upon the minds of all parents 
the importance of early attention to the moral education of chil- 
dren. If there is anything in this world that a child does inherit 
from its parent or nurse, it is fretfulness, ill-humor, and the whole 
category of such like amiable qualities. Now, if the nurse, in 
whose society the child is constantly kept, possesses a genial dispo- 
sition, the prominent points of which are cheerfulness, contentment, 
gratitude, hope, joy, and love, don't you suppose that as the child 
becomes developed, as each mental petal of that mind unfolds to 
the influence of surrounding objects, the impressions it receives 
are quite different from what they would have been had the nurse 
possessed all of those little satanic embellishments which we call mo- 
roseness, ill-humor, selfishness, envy, jealousy, hatred, revenge, 
and the like. I am pretty certain you will see in whose hands it 
is best to place the infant, especially when you come to remember, 
or if you do not already know, to learn, that " the feelings consti- 
tute an ever-acting source of bodily health or disease, and also a prin- 
cipal source of our enjoyments, as well as of our sufferings ; and 
upon their proper regulation most of the happiness and true value 
of human life depends." — Tracy. 


Plutarch, in his advice to those mothers who are unable to nurse 
their own children, remarks, " Such mothers should at least be 
cautious to choose carefully the nurse and attendants of their chil- 
dren, — not taking the first that offers, but selecting the best that 
can be had. These, in the first place, should be Greeks in morals ; 
for it is not more attention that the body of man requires, from 
the period of his birth, to insure the growth of his limbs in 
strength and symmetry, than does his mind, in order that to his 
moral qualities may be imparted the same firmness and perfection 
as to his physical. " 

As yet I have said nothing, or at least next to nothing, in regard 
to the physical diseases that a child may inherit from its nurse. 
In fact, it seems to me that this part of the subject is so palpable 
to the perceptions of all, that it is unnecessary for me here to oc- 
cupy the time or space with its elucidation. 

The main object I have in view in this article is to impress upon 
the minds of parents the importance of using great care in the 
selection of a nurse to whom you are to entrust your child. I 
would advise you never to engage a wet-nurse, however favorably 
you may be impressed with her appearance, until your family phy- 
sician, in whom you put implicit confidence, has first examined 
her. In fact, upon his decision should the question rest; es- 
pecially as far as her physical condition is concerned. If there is 
any disease about her, he will be able to detect it. 

In conclusion, that you may know what the good points in a 
nurse are, permit me to call your attention to the following ex- 
tracts : — 

" The best nurses are those who possess all the evidence of good 
health ; the tongue clean ; teeth and gums sound, indicating 
healthy digestion ; the breath free from unpleasant odor ; the sur- 
face of the body free from eruptions, and the insensible perspira- 
tion inoffensive ; the breast smooth, firm, and prominent ; the v nip- 
ples well developed, rosy-colored, and easily swelling when excited. 
The milk should flow easily, be thin, bland, of a bluish tint, and 
of a sweet taste, and, when allowed to remain in a cup or other 
vessel, be covered with considerable cream." 

" It is said that women of a brownish complexion generally have 
an abundance of milk, and of an unusually rich quality ; and that 
those of a fair complexion have less substantial nourishment, 
which tends oftentimes to keep the bowels relaxed." — Stewart. 

" Let the nurse, from whose breast the child is to derive its 


nourishment, be a healthy woman, free from any discoverable ten- 
dency to chronic diarrhoea, about the same age or younger than 
the mother, and delivered at least within a few months of the same 
time ; let her complexion be clear ; skin smooth and healthy ;. 
eyes and eyelids free from any redness or swelling. She should 
be of an amiable disposition, not irritable, nor prone to anger or 
passion ; of regular habits, not indulging in any of the forms of 
dissipation ; naturally kind and fond of children." — Small. 

" The nurse should be perfectly healthy ; hence she should not 
be afflicted with eruptions, ulcers, leucorrhcea, whites, syphilis, 
fetid sweat of the feet, foul breath, decayed teeth, bad digestion, 
glandular swellings, scrofula, epilepsy, or any other disease ; for it 
might entail years of suffering or a sickly constitution on the in- 
fant. The psoric dyscrania — ill-habit — which manifests itself 
in subsequent years, frequently dates from this period ; it is sucked 
with the mother's milk, and rankles in the recesses of the organ- 
ism which it often prematurely destroys." — Hartman. 

The nurse should make it her duty to guard the child as much 
as possible against diseases. This she will be best able to do by 
paying strict attention to her diet and her general mode of living. 
A nurse who loves children, will cheerfully deny herself the pleas- 
ure of eating or drinking any articles whatever which injuriously 
affects her milk. She should, by all means, avoid all heating or 
spirituous beverages, spices, flatulent food, or food that is very salt. 
In a word, her diet should be simple and easily digested, consist- 
ing of a proper proportion of animal and vegetable food. As little 
change as possible should be made from her former mode of liv- 
ing, lest the change should affect her health and thus disturb the 
child, causing flatulence, colic, diarrhoea, constipation, or some 
other of children's many ailments. For more extended remarks 
upon this subject, see " Diet during Nursing," page 124. 


It may be taken for granted, that infants do not cry, — that is, 
have frequent and long-continued fits of crying, — without there 
being some occasion for it. What that occasion is, can usually be 
ascertained upon careful examination. A fit of crying is not un- 
frequently caused by some mechanical irritation ; the child's dress 
may be wrinkled, or so adjusted as to be uncomfortable, or a pin 
may be displaced and pricking into the flesh. 


Perhaps the most frequent cause of crying in infants is derange- 
ment of the stomach and intestines, such as cramps, colic, griping 
pains, and so forth. These are indicated by writhing of the body, 
drawing up of the legs, and diarrhoea. 

Occasional crying of infants should cause no uneasiness in the 
feelings of the mother, because this is the only method by which 
the child can manifest its wants. It may cry or worry from hun- 
ger, or from lying too long in one position ; but, when attention 
to these and other particulars, which will suggest themselves to 
every thoughtful parent, has been given, and the infant still refuses 
to be pacified, the following remedies may be employed : — 

Chamomilla. — Especially when there is colic, griping pains, the 
child draws its feet up and contracts its body, and when there is 
diarrhoea with green evacuations ; also, when there is reason to 
think the child has headache or earache. May be given alone or 
in alternation with Belladonna, and especially with Belladonna 
when the child starts suddenly out of sleep and begins to cry vio- 

Rheum. — For violent griping pains and sour-smelling diarrhceic 

Veratrum. — Colicky, abdominal spasms, with or without vom- 
iting and diarrhoea ; eructations of gas. 

Nux-vomica. — When there is constipation and flatulent colic, 
accompanied by sudden fits of crying. 

Consult " Diarrhoea," " Colic," " Teething," or other diseases 
which might occasion the disturbance. 

Restlessness and wakefulness, like crying, is not a disease, but 
simply a symptom of some derangement of the system. It is not 
always possible to say just exactly what causes the child to worry 
and prevents it from sleeping. We can often trace it to flatu- 
lency, and often to an overloaded stomach ; but quite as often we 
are in the dark as to its cause. v 

Chamomilla. — When flatulency and griping pains are the cause ; 
also when the child starts suddenly and jerks its limbs ; great sen- 
sitiveness and irritability of the nervous system ; feverish heat and 
redness of one cheek. 

Ipecac, or Pulsatilla. — For restlessness arising from an over- 
loaded stomach. 

Belladonna. — When the child is drowsy, but cannot sleep, or 
when the child can sleep but a few minutes at a time. Should 
Belladonna fail, try Chamomilla or Pulsatilla. 


If, without any apparent cause, the child is fretful and cannot 
sleep, give Coffea and Belladonna in alternation. Should these 
prove insufficient, give Opium. 

Should all the above remedies fail, try Stramonium, Hyoscya- 
mus, Nux-vomica, Phosphorus, or Lachesis. See " Colic " and 

As the difficulty is sometimes occasioned by the condition of the 
mother's milk, it being in some way unwholesome, it will be occa- 
sionally necessary to prescribe for the mother, as well as to make 
some restrictions or regulations in her diet. 

Administration of Remedies. — Of the remedy selected, dis- 
solve twelve globules in as many spoonfuls of water, and of the 
solution thus made, give one spoonful every half hour, hour, or 
two hours, according to the urgency of the case. Frequently 
there is some difficulty in getting the child to take the medicine in 
solution; in such case, put two or three globules dry upon the 
tongue, and let them dissolve. 




General Remarks. — When taking into consideration the alarm- 
ing prevalence of diseases of the air passages and lungs, especially 
among young persons and children, half-grown maidens and tiny 
infants, together with the large percentage of deaths caused 
thereby, one would naturally suppose that, if those who had 
given this subject its due attention could devise any method by 
which these numerous affections could be warded off or prevented, 
their advice would be eagerly sought for, and implicitly followed. 
But no, it is not till grim disease, in the shape of some appalling 
epidemic, wrapped in a malarious robe, mounts his chariot and 
comes sweeping over fair sections of our country, spreading dis- 
may and desolation on every side, snatching from a circle here upon 
the right, or there upon the left, a bud, a blossom, or perchance a 
full-blown rose, that the oft-repeated advice of the family physician, 
though listened to with marked attention, is actually heeded. 

Every time a physician is called upon to prescribe for a patient, 
he is reminded of the necessity of administering a short lecture 
upon the general laws of health, including dress, diet, and the 
like. It is a noticeable fact that sick persons are very penitent, 
sorry for past transgressions, willing observants now of the deca- 
logue, anxious beyond measure to obey implicitly every wish of 
the physician. But no sooner does the first glimmer of health 
irradiate their sickly forms than their self-reliance and indepen- 
dence returns : 

" God and the doctor they alike adore, 
But only when in danger ; not before : 
The danger o'er, both are alike requited ; 
God is forgotten, and the doctor slighted." 

The subject of dress, in connection with the class of diseases 
that we are about to consider, is a very important one. The 


majority, nay, perhaps I should be justified in saying, all diseases 
of the air-passages are caused by sudden chilling of the body. 
Our climate, with its sudden vicissitudes of heat and cold, together 
with the exquisite method of our American mothers of dressing, 
or rather, I would say, of undressing, their children, the low neck 
to show the beautiful contour of shoulders and of bust, the half- 
pants, exposing the knee of small boys, — yet what beauty there is 
in a boy's knee I never could ascertain, but I presume they must 
be charming, or certainly they would not be left bare, — all these 
add their quota toward the full development of throat and lung 

The universal, deplorable ignorance or inattention, or both, in 
regard to the subject of dress, is astonishing, and cannot be too 
frequently brought before the minds of those who have the special 
care of young children. 

Prevention is in all cases better than cure, and certain it is that 
by careful and wise attention to the physical education of young 
children, you can ward off such diseases as croup, bronchitis, 
laryngitis, pneumonia, and the like, even in those who have shown 
a predisposition, or a liability to them. Undoubtedly one of the 
most important means to be made use of is the adoption of a 
proper dress, and this, in cold weather, should be one that will 
cover the whole body. 

You can see, at any time, ladies wearing warm and comfortable 
dresses with high necks and long sleeves, sitting in the same room 
with their children who are almost naked. The dear little crea- 
tures, their arms and necks must not be covered up, they look 
" so cunning " and " so sweet." Their dresses are made so low 
and loose about the neck that the whole chest, down even to the 
waist, is virtually exposed. Yet, mark you, as soon as the chil- 
dren grow older and therefore become stronger, and better able to 
bear exposure, they are dressed warmer. What inconsistency ! 
Is it any wonder that children are more liable to diseases of the 
air-passages and lungs than adults ? 

Fashion ! thy potent sway fills many an infant grave ! 

A distinguished physician, who died some years since in Paris, 
declared : "I believe that during the top3nty-six years I have prac- 
tised medicine in this city, twenty thousand children have been 
carried to the cemeteries a sacrifice to the absurd custom of expos- 
ing their arms and necks." 

1 would not wish to dictate to any parent how she should dress 


her children, at least any further than is necessary to preserve 
their health by protecting them against the evil effects of sudden 
transitions of temperature. 

Children should never be dressed with low neck and short 
sleeves, except in the heat of summer. I am well aware that it is 
the custom so to dress them, even in mid-winter, but you your- 
self would be uncomfortable, to say the least, clothed in this 
manner, and how much more so must they be with their extreme 
sensibility of skin. 

But, you may argue, the child, especially the infant, is never 
exposed ; the nursery is always warm and they seldom go out of 
it, why be so particular to cover the neck and arms ? That is 
true, the rooms are always warm and in the vast majority of cases 
they are almost too warm, but the doors are being continually 
opened and shut, subjecting the child to a constant fanning. 

Now the nursery or room where children are kept should be 
large, airy, and well ventilated. Plenty of cool, fresh, and pure 
air should be constantly admitted for the purpose of respiration. 
The temperature, while the children are well, should never exceed 
seventy-two degrees, and generally speaking from sixty-seven de- 
grees to seventy degrees will be found sufficient to be comfortable 
provided the children are properly clad. 

I am aware that you will frequently be told, and that too by 
those who ought to know better, that early exposures harden the 
children and make them robust. Would you expect to harden a 
tender plant by exposing it to chilling winds, or to the cold and 
biting frost of a winter's night ? Would you expect your flowers 
to grow, your roses to bud and blossom without the genial warmth 
of a summer's sun ? No, indeed. Neither can you harden your 
children by allowing their little shoulders, arms, legs, and feet 
to be cold ; and you will often see them so cold that they are 
fairly blue. 

It is cruel ; and you may rest assured, that, if these children do 
not suffer in infancy, they will, as they grow up, be more liable to 
diseases of the air-passages and of the lungs than those who have 
been properly cared for. 

Croup is a rare disease among the Germans : they are very par- 
ticular in regard to children's dresses, taking great care to have 
the throat and chest well protected. 

Delicate children should invariably wear a flannel under-shirt, 
or a shirt made of some woollen material, next to the skin, made 


high up about the neck, and with sleeves to come below the elbows. 
Then put on the accustomed under-clothes, — and even these had 
better be made of woollen, not only on account of its warmth, but 
because it is lighter than other goods, — and over all a stout mus- 
lin, or a light woollen, dress. 

The stockings should also be of woollen, and come high up, 
always above the knees. The old way of tying a garter around 
the leg, to hold the stocking up, is open to many objections. In 
the first place, it spoils the beauty of the leg, by preventing a full 
development of the calf, by cutting off, or at least retarding, the 
circulation. This alone would be sufficient reason to condemn it ; 
but, what is of more consequence, it also produces cold feet, and 
causes congestion of the veins, making them knotty and uneven. 
An elastic strap, going from a button upon the outside of the top 
of the stocking to a button upon the waistband of the drawers, will 
answer every purpose, and be quite as convenient. 

As I have before stated, in a previous article, all children should 
be accustomed to cold bathing. For puny, weak, and delicate chil- 
dren, subject to croup, catarrh, and cough, in fact, taking cold 
upon the slightest exposure, I have found bathing always, in con- 
junction with warm clothing, of valuable assistance in strengthen- 
ing the child, — giving a good healthy tone to the system, and 
thus protecting it from many diseases to which it would otherwise 
have fallen a prey. 

Our city houses are generally warmed — no, heated, that is the 
word — with furnaces, another prolific source of disease. The 
children are virtually parboiled, or, rather, baked, while in-doors, 
and, consequently, when they are taken out, the first draught of 
air that strikes the tender little hot-house plant produces a shock, 
drives the blood from the surface to the delicate membrane lining 
the throat or lungs, and thus produces some one of the innumera- 
ble diseases of the air-passages so prevalent in our midst. 


Definition. — This disorder, which consists of an inflammation, 
and consequent thickening-up, of the mucous membrane lining the 
nasal passages, occurs as a distinct disease ; but it is also frequent- 
ly connected with inflammation of the lungs, with measles, but 
more particularly with scarlet fever. 

It attacks all, indiscriminately, both old and young. In the 


older children, it is of but little account, never injuring the general 
health by its own action ; but in the infant it is quite a different 
thing, and becomes a serious, even a dangerous, disease. In 
these little sufferers, who are unable or unwilling to breathe other- 
wise than through the nose, it is quite an impediment to respira- 
tion, especially after the first few days, when the head, and nose 
become completely filled with a thick, tenacious secretion, which it 
is impossible to remove. Being prevented from breathing through 
the nose, the child, when nursing, is obliged to frequently relin- 
quish the nipple in order to obtain breath, which makes it cross 
and fretful. 

When coryza exists in connection with other diseases, it of 
course adds to their severity. 

Causes. — As a general thing, cold is the exciting cause. 
Children, when put to sleep, should never lie with their head 
toward or near a window, or in any other position where there is 
the least liability of a draught of air, however slight, blowing 
upon them. A person takes cold much more readily while asleep 
than awake. 

Nurses are apt to cover the child's face with a little blanket 
after it has been put to sleep. This, by confining the breath, in- 
variably produces perspiration. Children covered in this way 
always waken with their head dripping with sweat, and, when 
taken up in this condition, are very liable to become chilled, and 
snuffles is the result. Do not cover the face. 

Symptoms. — All are acquainted with the symptoms of an ordi- 
nary cold in the head. It usually commences with shivering, some 
little fever, sneezing, obstruction, and dryness of the nose. This 
dryness is soon followed by a discharge, more or less profuse, with 
watering of the eyes, pain through forehead, and temples, as well 
as about the root of the nose. Of course, the little infant does not 
complain of this pain ; but the older children do : therefore we are 
led to infer that all suffer more or less from it. 

The secretion from the nose interferes with respiration, and, 
when the passage from the head is completely filled, the patient is 
compelled to breathe through the mouth; and this soon causes 
dryness and stiffness of the tongue and throat. 

Treatment. — For the premonitory symptoms of coryza, with 
shivering and headache, Camphora is the best remedy ; and, if 
administered promptly, a few doses will, in the vast majority of 
cases, be sufficient to effect a cure. Three globules may be given 


every two hours ; or dissolve twelve globules in twelve spoonfuls 
of water, and give of the solution one spoonful every two hours. 

In case you have nothing but the ordinary spirits of camphor 
convenient, you may put one or two drops of that upon a lump of 
sugar, and then dissolve the sugar in a tumbler half full of water, 
and give according to the directions above. 

Arsenicum. — This is a prominent remedy for the disorder. 
Therefore, if Camphor fails to arrest the first sysmptoms, and the 
difficulty increases, administer Arsenicum, and especially if the 
following symptoms are present : obstruction of the nose, with, at 
the same time, a discharge of watery, acrid mucus, and burning 
heat in the nose ; the discharge from the nose producing excoria- 
tion and swelling of the adjacent parts ; also when there is red- 
ness and watering of the eyes. When this remedy affords but 
partial relief, recourse may be had to Ipecac. 

Nux-vomica. — This is another important remedy for coryza. I 
have cured a great many cases with it alone, especially in young 
infants at the breast. I always use the 200th potency of Nux and 
Arsenicum in this disease. Unlike Arsenicum, it should be given 
when there is obstruction, with little, if any, running from the 
nose, or, if there is running, it is in the morning, with dryness at 
night. It is also indicated when there is oppressive heaviness in 
the forehead, heat in the face, confusion of the head, constipation, 
and a sensation of weariness. 

Chamomilla. — When the difficulty arises from checked per- 
spiration ; shivering, with heat and thirst ; heaviness of the head ; 
obstruction and watery discharge from the nose, producing excoria- 
tion and soreness ; swelling of the face ; redness of one cheek ; 
redness and inflammation of the eyes ; the eyelids often closed 
with mucus ; the child cross and fretful, and wants to be carried 
in the arms all the time. 

For all ordinary cases of coryza, one of the above remedies will 
be found sufficient ; however, there are forms of the disease which 
at times prove obstinate, and call for other remedies .than those 
enumerated. I will mention a few others, with the particular in- 
dications calling for their use. 

Belladonna. — Swelling, redness, and burning of the nose ; pain 
in the nose, aggravated by touch ; throbbing pain in the head, ag- 
gravated by motion ; coryza of one nostril ; offensive putrid smell. 

Samlucus. — When there is an accumulation of thick, tough 
mucus in the nose ; wheezing and hurried breathing. 


Mereurius. — Profuse discharge of acrid mucus, producing 
soreness of the parts with which it comes in contact ; swelling and 
redness of the nose ; tearing headache ; pain even in the bones ; 
scabs form in the nose ; restlessness and feverish heat, with shiver- 
ing ; especially when the difficulty arises from suppressed perspi- 
ration. 3fercurius may be given in alternation with Nux-vomica ; 
especially in cases of alternate chills and fever. 

Mepar-Sulph. — Particularly when but one nostril is implicated ; 
boring headache, especially about the root of the nose, which is 
made worse by the slightest movement ; swelling of the nose, with 
pain, as from a bruise, when touched ; inflammation of the eyes 
and eyelids, with nightly agglutination. Hepar is especially in- 
dicated, when Mercurius affords but partial relief, or when Mercu- 
rius, though indicated, fails to afford relief. 

Pulsatilla. — Thick, green, or yellowish discharge from the 
nose, which is very offensive ; frequent sneezing ; confusion of 
the head ; pain in one-half of the head ; loss of smell and taste ; 
dry coryza, worse at night ; relieved in the open air ; painful pres- 
sure at the root of the nose ; also, if there should be flying pains 
from place to place, or drawing pain, extending into the ears and 
side of the head ; roaring in the ears. 

Sulphur — may in some cases be of service, and particularly in 
obstinate cases, and where there is a profuse discharge of purulent 

Euphrasia. — Especially when the eyes are red and watery. 

Silicia. — For chronic coryza, with severe pains in the bones of 
the nose ; also, to eradicate a disposition to colds in the head. 

It is sometimes advisable, when the secretion becomes suppressed, 
or before it has commenced, when the nose is hot and dry, to ap- 
ply, with a feather or camel-hair pencil, a little almond-oil, or cold 
cream to the interior of the nose, or let the vapor of hot water 
pass up the nostrils. Goose-grease rubbed upon the bridge of 
the nose in any quantity, is of no earthly use. 

Administration op Remedies. — Where the directions have not 
already been given, you may dissolve, of the remedy chosen, 
twelve pills in twelve spoonfuls of water ; give one spoonful of the 
solution at a dose, every hour, second, or third hour, according to 
the severity of the case. In chronic cases a dose every evening, 
or every second evening will be sufficient. 



Definition. — At the outset, let me state that cough is not a 
disease in itself ; but rather a symptom denoting an abnormal con- 
dition of the lungs or throat. Cough " is a violent and sonorous 
expulsion of air from the lungs, preceded, rapidly followed by, or 
alternating with quick inspirations." — Copeland's Medical Dic- 

This, in fact, is but an effort on the part of nature to remove 
some obstruction, or to throw off some accumulation which dis- 
ease has created. During the course of an inflammation of the 
lungs, there is always more or less mucus secreted ; and, were it 
not for these forcible and violent expirations, the air-passages 
would become clogged up, and respiration materially interfered 

This is but one of Nature's ways to rid herself of an offending 
substance ; she has many. You will see an illustration of this 
parental care exhibited in. the young infant ; the child, not know- 
ing how to eject air violently through the nose for the purpose of 
clearing that organ, has been provided with a " sneeze." 

Cough is often combined with cold in the head, both originating 
from the same cause ; namely, exposure. In the majority of cases, 
cough is but a slight inflammation or irritation of the throat or 
upper part of the wind-pipe, accompanied with more or less fever. 
A little Bryonia or Nux-vomica will be found sufficient to remove 
all the difficulty in a few days. 

Sometimes, where cough originates from a high state of inflam- 
mation, the soreness in the throat, the fever, in fact all the acute 
inflammatory symptoms will have passed away, and the cough, 
though diminished, still remains. Such a cough should not be 
neglected, or it will become chronic, prove troublesome, and not 
easily to be gotten rid of. 

Causes. — Like every other disease of the air-passages, cough, in 
the majority of instances, originates from exposure. But then 
there are a great many indirect causes which produce coughs ; that 
is, it may be sympathetic, depending, as it not unfrequently does, 
upon some derangement of the digestive apparatus. A very troub- 
lesome kind, frequently met with, is one occasioned by an elongated 
palate ; this keeps up a constant tickling, which is very provoking, 
and the cause being overlooked, it not unfrequently proves in- 


It is unnecessary, in fact it would be impossible, for me, in the 
space which I have allotted to this topic, to enter into all the 
causes, direct and indirect, which give rise to the various forms of 
cough met with in practice. 

Treatment. — In selecting a remedy for a particular case of 
cough, you should take into consideration all the circumstances 
attending it ; for instance, from what does it originate ; is there 
much fever, any chilliness or headache, sore throat or pain in the 
wind-pipe upon pressure ; examine the throat to see if there is 
any inflammation, or if the palate is elongated, or the tonsils en- 
larged ; ascertain if it be a nervous cough, worm-cough, or stom- 
ach cough. 

Cough, simply as an isolated symptom, will be of no use to you 
whatever in selecting a remedy, because it is just as likely to de- 
pend upon an elongated palate as upon an affection of the air- 
passages. It may be occasioned by inflammation or congestion, 
irritation or the presence of a foreign substance, or it may be en- 
tirely sympathetic, originating from a derangement of some other 
important viscera besides the lungs. 

Now, looking upon cough in this light, you will readily see the 
folly, the utter absurdity, of cough panaceas. I would, therefore, 
advise you never to have recourse to them. Their effect, to say 
the least, is uncertain, and not unfrequently they do a great deal 
of mischief. 

The list from which you are to choose in treating the different 
varieties and forms of cough, comprises a great number of reme- 
dies. You should study each particular case carefully ; ascertain, 
if possible, from whence comes the difficulty, and endeavor to 
select a remedy that will cover the most important and largest 
number of symptoms present. Then, if after waiting a reasona- 
ble length of time, it does not yield to your treatment, you had 
better consult an intelligent, homoeopathic physician, and get him 
to point out the proper course to pursue. 

In all ordinary cases, you will have no trouble whatever in 
making prompt and perfect cures, but occasionally you will meet 
with a chronic case — one of long standing — which will baffle all 
your skill. Such cases had better be at once turned over to a 
homoeopathic physician, for here it is all desirable to ascertain to 
a certainty the precise locality and nature of the exciting cause. 
To illustrate this let me recite a case. 

Not long ago a lady called at my office to consult me in regard 


to the health of her daughter, — a young lady of perhaps seven- 
teen years of age. She had been suffering for the last eighteen 
months with a harassing cough, which was fast telling upon her 
general health. Her mother informed me that when her daughter 
was first taken, she thought it nothing but a common cold, for 
which she gave her hot teas, liquorice drops, hoarhound candy, 
and some few other domestic remedies. Since then, however, she 
had run the gauntlet of quack medicines from " Miss Susan Nipper's 
Cough Mixture " to " Ayer's Cherry Pectoral," of course including 
the abominable " Cod Liver Oil," all of which had proved of no 
avail ; on the contrary, it had so deranged her stomach that she 
now, in addition to her cough, suffered intensely from dyspepsia. 

After giving the case a critical examination, I turned to the 
mother and said : — 

" Madam, your child needs careful attention. You have neg- 
lected her too long, already ; you have wasted valuable time in 
pottering with these wonderful cure-alls." 

" I know, doctor, she has been sick a great while ; it is over a 
year and a half, but then I kept thinking she would get better." 

" Your daughter's lungs are sound ; there is nothing the mat- 
ter with her throat ; this cough originates from a disease of the 

" Why ! I never heard of such a thing before." 

" Yery well, you hear it now, and you would have heard it 
before, had you consulted a physician six months ago." 

" Oh, dear ! why didn't I consult some one before ? what shall I 
do ? can she be cured ? " 

" I think she can. I would recommend you to remove her 
from school ', take her into the country ; give her plenty of fresh, 
pure mountain air, and outdoor exercise, and put her under the 
care of an educated homoeopathic physician." 

Now you will readily observe that the prospect of curing the 
above case would have been slim, indeed, had not the cause of it 
been first ascertained. As it was, it yielded kindly, as I have since 
learned, to the treatment adopted, and the young lady now enjoys 
her former health. 

The treatment of cough, where it appears in connection with 
other diseases, or where it is dependent upon functional derange- 
ment of some important viscera, will be given in connection with 
such affections under their appropriate headings. At present, we 
shall content ourselves with giving the indications for the impor- 


tant and prominent remedies, where cough is the principal symp- 

Aconite may be given when there is a violent, short, dry cough, 
especially at night, excited by a tickling in the larynx, or upper 
part of the windpipe, attended with constriction of the throat, or 
stinging pain in the chest, and difficulty of breathing ; skin hot 
and dry. See " Bronchitis." 

Belladonna. — Spasmodic cough, almost without intermission, 
day and night, caused by a tickling in the throat, or rather a sen- 
sation as though some foreign substance were in the windpipe ; 
heat and redness in the face ; fulness and pain in the head ; pain 
in the nape of the neck ; constriction of the throat ; catarrhal 
cough, followed by sneezing ; sharp, cutting, or griping pains in 
the abdomen. Hyoscyamus is frequently of service, when Bella- 
donna affords but partial relief, particularly when the dry, tick- 
ling, nightly cough is relieved for the time by sitting up in bed. 

Bryonia. — Dry, spasmodic, or catarrhal cough, coming on after 
eating, or immediately after entering a warm room, excited by an 
irritation in the throat, frequently accompanied by shivering, 
which is followed by fever and rheumatic or aching pains in the 
head and limbs. Also for a moist cough, with yellow expectora- 
tion, or expectoration streaked with blood. The fit of coughing 
frequently ends in vomiting. This remedy is particularly applica- 
ble for the coughs which come on in winter from taking cold, 
especially when the whole body feels lame and as though it had 
been pounded, with pain in all the limbs, through the chest, and 
under the shoulder-blades. Children do not like to be handled, 
are disposed to stretch and yawn, and are very drowsy in the day- 

Chamomilla. — Catarrh and hoarseness after taking cold ; cough 
arising from a tickling in the pit of the throat, and extending 
down under the breastbone, especially when talking ; cough in 
children, excited by crying or by anger ; dry cough ; worse at 
night and continuing during sleep ; wheezing ; suffocative stoppage 
of breath, or a sensation of something rising in the throat and 
taking away the breath ; cough after midnight ; fever with nightly 
exacerbations ; paleness of the face, or paleness of one cheek and 
redness of the other ; great irritability of the nervous system ; 
child frets and worries all the time ; is only quiet when being car- 
ried about. 

Calcarea-carh. — Tedious cough through the day, as from dust 


in the throat ; violent, dry cough at night, with palpitation of the 
heart, and beating of the arteries ; shooting pain in the head from 
within outward ; also pain in the chest and side. For cough 
with expectoration of thick, yellow, or lumpy and very offensive 
mucus ; chills in the evening, followed by fever and perspiration. 
This remedy is particularly applicable to fat children with fair 
hair, pale, clear skin, disposed to eruptions, and taking cold upon 
the slightest exposure. 

Cina. — Dry, spasmodic cough, with difficulty of breathing ; 
anxiety, paleness of the face, and moaning after the cough ; cough 
at night, with sudden starting up, and loss of consciousness, par- 
ticularly in children suffering from worms ; fluent coryza, with 
burning in the nose, picking of the nose ; nausea early in the 
morning, and while eating ; cough, with expectoration of mucus. 

Drosera. — Morning cough, with bitter and mucous expectora- 
tion ; dry, spasmodic cough, worse on lying down at night, or 
toward evening, aggravated by laughing or talking, frequently fol- 
lowed by vomiting, or bleeding at the nose. See "Hooping- 

Dulcamara. — Moist cough, with copious secretion of mucus ; 
mucus streaked with light-red blood ; barking cough, excited by 
deep breathing. For coughs arising from taking cold by getting 
wet ; tightness about the chest ; anxiety and fulness in the fore 
part of the chest ; cough is worse when in a warm room, or when 
lying still ; better when moving about. 

Euphrasia. — Cough, with violent running and soreness of the 
nose ; eyes inflamed and watery ; cough worse during the day ; 
morning cough, with copious expectoration, and oppressed breath- 

H&par-sulph. — Paroxysms of dry, hoarse cough, ending in a 
fit of crying ; worse at night ; hollow, suffocative cough, aggra- 
vated by exposing any part of the body to the cold air, especially 
during sleep ; wheezing respiration, with danger of suffocation 
when lying down ; also a dry, deep cough, excited by a feeling 
of tightness in the chest, or by talking, stooping, ascending stairs, 
or much exertion of any kind ; sneezing after coughing. 

Hyoscyamus. — Nightly, dry, spasmodic cough, worse when 
lying down ; cough after meals ; attacks resembling hooping-cough ; 
greenish expectoration. Compare Belladonna. 

Ignatia. — Dry, short, hacking cough, as from a feather in the 
throat, which becomes aggravated the longer the paroxysms of 


coughing continue ; nightly cough, which becomes worse after 
eating, on lying down at night, or on rising in the morning ; 
spasmodic cough, with fluent coryza ; constriction of the throat 
and chest. 

Ipecacuanha. — Catarrhal, nervous, or spasmodic cough, espec- 
ially at night, with painful shocks in the head ; also with nausea, 
gagging, and vomiting, attended with pain in the abdomen ; vio- 
lent fits of coughing, which continue until the child becomes fairly 
purple in the face, and the limbs grow quite stiff; oppressed 
breathing, as though the lungs were filled with mucus, which, on 
coughing, almost suffocates the patient. This remedy is also ser- 
viceable when there is a tickling sensation in the throat, dry 
cough, or cough with expectoration of offensive mucus. See 
" Hooping-cough." 

Lachesis. — Dry, racking cough, with tickling in the throat or 
chest, and dryness of the throat ; cough from a sensation as of a 
dry spot on one side of the throat ; soreness of the larynx ; con- 
striction, with a sensation of swelling in the throat ; the patient is 
unable to bear anything tight about the neck ; cough from ulcers 
in the throat ; sore throat, with a feeling as though something had 
lodged there, or as though something liquid had gotten into the 
wind-pipe ; spitting up of blood ; hawking up of mucus ; difficult 
expectoration ; pain in the throat, chest, and ears ; cough soon 
after lying down, or when sleeping. 

Mercurius. — Dry, convulsive cough, particularly increased by 
talking ; pain in the head and chest when coughing ; hoarse, 
catarrhal cough, with watery secretion from the mouth or nose, or 
with watery diarrhoea ; fatiguing cough, with tickling and dryness 
in the chest, sometimes attended with retching, with expectoration 
of blood, or bleeding from the nose ; catarrh, with coryza, cough, 
and sore-throat. 

Nux-vomica. — Particularly for a dry cough, or, if dry through 
the day and evening, with expectoration towards morning ; oppres- 
sion of the chest on lying down, with a feeling of heat and dryness 
in the mouth ; catarrhal cough, with hoarseness ; cough excited by 
tickling or scraping, or a rough, acrid sensation and itching in the 
throat, or a feeling of roughness or soreness, and followed by 
stinging pains, expectoration of tenacious mucus, which is de- 
tached with difficulty, sometimes streaked with blood ; cough 
accompanied with rending pain through the head, and a bruised 
sensation at the pit of the stomach ; cough after eating, and occa- 


sionally followed by vomiting; cough aggravated by movement. 
Nux is specially applicable to persons who are of a constipated 

Phosphorus. — Dry cough, from irritation of the throat, or with 
stinging pain in the chest, worse when lying upon the left side, and 
during motion ; hoarseness and pain in the chest, as from excoria- 
tion ; cough, with expectoration of blood or tenacious mucus ; 
heaviness, fulness, and tightness of the chest ; stitches in the 
chest. See " Pneumonia." 

Pulsatilla. — Cough, with easy expectoration of mucus ; also 
severe, shaking cough, mostly in the morning, with retching and 
inclination to vomit ; loose cough, with salt, bitter, disgusting 
expectoration, sometimes streaked with blood. 

Sulphur. — Cough, particularly during the night, with painful 
stitches through the chest, or under the ribs, in the back and 
loins ; cough, with expectoration of yellowish or thick mucus, of a 
salt or sweetish taste ; cough worse when lying down. Especially 
applicable to obstinate cases. 

Tartar Emetic. — Hollow, rattling cough ; cough with nausea 
and vomiting of food ; cough, with rattling of mucus in the chest ; 
rapid and difficult breathing ; fits of coughing and hoarseness. 
This remedy answers well for the first stages of influenza. 

Administration op Remedies. — After carefully selecting the 
remedy, dissolve twelve globules in as many spoonfuls of water, 
and give of the solution one spoonful for a dose. Or, if you prefer 
it, and it is sometimes more convenient, you can give three or 
four — to older children six or eight — globules, dry, upon the 
tongue. In acute cases, from a recent cold, you can repeat the 
remedy every hour, hour and a half, or two hours, according to. 
the urgency of the case. In coughs of long standing, one dose, 
night and morning, or at most every four hours, will be suffi- 

Diet. — Patients suffering from cough, particularly if it is a 
chronic cough, should live upon a good, plain, substantial diet, 
avoiding all articles of food which are found to disagree. Avoid 
all rich, high-seasoned food, fat meats, new bread, and all articles 
of a stimulating nature, or having a strong pungent taste or 
smell, strong drinks, acids, beer, and so forth ; also spices of 
every description. 

Regimen. — Free exercise in the open air is highly beneficial ; 
a morning walk ; exercise with the dumb bells ; drawing large 


quantities of air into tho lungs, then beating upon the chest with 
the hand ; all this will expand and strengthen the lungs not only, 
but the whole bodily frame. Children should be encouraged in 
lively out-door play ; it makes them active ; let them run, skip, 
and jump ; give them a hoop to trundle, a top to whip, a rope to 
jump, a kite to fly, or a ball to throw. Supply them with corn- 
cobs and blocks ; let them erect and destroy house, church, or castle. 

During some part of the day children should be allowed the 
most perfect liberty. 

The daily bathing with cold water is the best means of over- 
coming a predisposition to coughs and colds. 

A sponge or shower-bath should be taken every morning, the 
skin afterwards should be rapidly dried and rubbed to a glow, 
either with the hand or a coarse towel, after which the child 
should be warmly dressed. 


Definition. — This disease has several appellations ; by some it 
is called Catarrhal Fever, or Catarrh on the Chest ; by others Cold 
on the Chest, etc. It is simply an inflammation of the mucous 
membrane lining the bronchial tubes. The bronchial tubes, you 
will remember, are formed by the bifurcation or division of the 
windpipe, — trachea, — and they lead directly to the lungs. The 
one intended for the left lung is two inches in length, while the 
one for the right is but about one. Upon entering the lungs, they 
divide into two branches, and each branch divides and subdivides, 
and ultimately terminates in small sacks, or cells of various sizes, 
from the twentieth to the one-hundredth of an inch in diameter. 
The office of these tubes is to convey air into the lungs. 

Now, in mild cases, — ordinary bronchitis, or as we commonly 
call it, cold on the chest, — the inflammation, which is only slight, 
is confined to the larger tubes ; there is little or no difficulty of 
breathing, moderate cough, and slight fever, while in the severer 
forms the inflammation extends down into the most minute bron- 
chial ramifications, and all the symptoms from the onset are of a 
severe nature. 

Causes. — The reader is referred to the General Remarks at the 
commencement of this section. The most frequent, and perhaps the 
only exciting, cause of the disease is sudden transitions from a warm 
to a cold atmosphere. " I believe myself from what I have seen 


in this city (Philadelphia), during the last eleven years, that the 
most fruitful cause of bronchitis and also of pneumonia, croup, 
and angina, in early life, is the style of dress almost universally 
used for children." — Meigs, " Diseases of Children" 2d edit. p. 
180. Now, that is the opinion of one of the most celebrated 
writers upon diseases of children, and I presume there is not 
one physician in a thousand but that agrees with him. " The 
dress is insufficient. It consists usually of a small flannel shirt, 
cut very low in the neck, scarcely covering the shoulders, and 
without sleeves ; of a flannel petticoat ; a muslin petticoat ; and 
an outer dress made, in nearly every case, of cotton. The dress, 
like the flannel shirt, is cut low in the neck, is without sleeves, 
and fits very loosely about the chest, so that not only are the whole 
neck, the shoulders, and the arms exposed to the air, but, in conse- 
quence of the looseness of the dress about the neck, it is fair 
to say, that the upper half of the thorax is also without covering." 
— Ibid. 

Now, children are dressed in about this style the year round, 
both winter and summer, and physicians go their daily rounds, 
year in and year out, constantly warning parents of the danger of 
such exposure, especially during the fall and winter months, and 
parents heed them not. There is many a long row of little white 
stones in Greenwood Cemetery that would not have been erected 
had it not been for Fashion's dictum. 

Every physician, as soon as he commences to treat a case of 
bronchitis, orders the child to be warmly dressed about the chest 
and arms, and to be kept from the cold air ; he knows that with- 
out this precaution, in the large majority of cases, his remedies 
would be prescribed in vain. 

Symptoms. — For convenience sake, we divide this disease into 
three forms, — 1st, Simple Acute Bronchitis ; 2d, Acute Suffocative 
or Capillary Bronchitis ; 3d, Chronic Bronchitis. 

The first form, Simple Acute Bronchitis, — cold on the chest, or 
as it is usually called, catarrh on the chest, — is a very frequent 
disease among children of all ages. It seldoms sets in suddenly, 
as an inflammatory affection, but gradually developes itself from 
an ordinary catarrh, or cold in the head. 

The breathing becomes somewhat accelerated ; there is more or 
less cough, stuffing of the chest, some fever, skin a little hotter 
than natural. On applying your ear to the chest you will 
hear a wheezing sound, or a rattling of mucus in the air-tubes ; 


sometimes, after a severe coughing spell, vomiting will take place. 
As a general thing, toward night, the patient is more restless and 
uneasy, fever higher, and cough more troublesome. 

Remarkable remissions at times take place in the course of this 
disease, the child appearing quite well for hours at a time, or it 
may wake up quite bright in the morning, but, as the day, wears 
on, the fever rises ; the skin again becomes hot and dry ; respira- 
tion hurried and anxious ; cough frequent, with a sensation or an 
appearance of tightness across the chest, so that during the day 
and forepart of the night he appears to be quite ill, but, as morn 
approaches, the fever diminishes ; the skin becomes moist, the 
cough less frequent, and the child gets a quiet nap, which so much 
refreshes him, that, during the next forenoon, he appears quite like 
himself. These symptoms may run along for four or five days, 
when the difficulty of breathing, with the fever and the restlessness, 
disappears ; the cough grows less, gradually diminishes, and the 
child soon regains its accustomed health. 

In cases rather more severe than this, the cough is a prominent 
symptom from the beginning ; at first, dry and violent, very fre- 
quent and harassing as well as painful, the paroxysms of coughing 
sometimes lasting a quarter of an hour, during which the child 
cries, throws his arms up, or his head back, thus evincing his 
anxiety and pain. The cough is excited by crying and sucking. 

As the disease progresses, the cough becomes loose ; small chil- 
dren vomit up quantities of phlegm, while larger children expec- 
torate quite freely. The mucous rattle may now be heard over 
almost every part of the lung ; the fever is high ; breathing quick 
and oppressed ; skin hot and dry ; pulse frequent ; child fretful 
and restless. Older children complain of pain when coughing, 
and the infant evinces it by its wincing, as well as by its endeavor 
to suppress the cough. v 

The expectoration, at first scanty and viscid, later becomes co- 
pious and streaked with blood. There is an entire loss of appetite, 
foul tongue, great weakness, paleness of the lips, countenance 
anxious or dull, and the child drowsy. 

Symptoms of improvement, which generally take place in three 
or four days, are diminution of the fever ; the skin, instead of 
continuing hot and dry, becomes moist, and feels more natural to 
the touch ; respiration becomes less frequent ; soreness and pain 
diminished ; the cough becomes loose and less frequent ; the appe- 
tite returns, and the child rests better. 


Ordinary bronchitis is a very frequent disease among children, 
and often follows in the wake of hooping-cough, scarlet-fever, or 
measles. This form of the disease is rarely fatal. 

Treatment. — Aconitum is generally the first remedy called for, 
particularly should there be much fever, with skin hot and dry ; 
pulse hard and rapid; respiration quick, anxious, or difficult; 
great thirst ; a short, dry, and frequent cough, seemingly excited 
by a tickling sensation in the throat or chest ; great anxiety and 
restlessness ; constant desire to be taken up or laid down ; not 
contented long with any one position ; more or less pain in the 
chest, particularly at night. 

Pulsatilla. — - When there is moderate fever and heat of skin ; 
cough shrill and racking ; huskiness of the chest, or hoarseness 
when crying ; obstructed respiration, especially when lying "upon 
the back ; no anxiety ; little or no thirst ; tongue coated yellow ; 
vomiting or expectoration of thick yellowish or greenish phlegm ; 
coryza, with discharge from the head. Child appears better, even 
quite bright, through the day, but, as evening approaches, the 
symptoms increase, and the patient passes a very uncomfortable 

During convalescence there is profuse secretion of mucus, which 
can be heard rattling in the chest ; contractive tightness of the chest. 

Phosphorus. — This remedy is indicated when, after the inflam- 
matory symptoms have subsided, there is still great oppression of 
breathing, hoarseness, and roughness of the larynx, or upper part 
of the windpipe ; great anxiety and heat in the chest ; dry, hack- 
ing cough, which is disposed to get worse after having once abated. 
The cough is excited by a tickling in the throat, by talking, or by 

This remedy is particularly valuable when there is danger of a 
complication with inflammation of the lungs. 

Tartar Emetic. — Especially if the disease is marked from the 
commencement with a rattling of mucus in the chest, which can 
be heard or even felt on placing the ear to the chest. Ipecac, is 
also a good remedy for these symptoms, especially should the child 
be threatened with suffocation, when coughing, from the excessive 
secretion of mucus. Tartar Emetic, also, when the paroxysms 
end in the expectoration of a quantity of mucus, or when a fit 
of coughing ends in vomiting, especially in young children. 
Coryza, with profuse discharge from the head ; the child sleeps 
with its eyes half open ; cries when touched. 


Ohamomilla. — When, after the fever is subdued with Aconite, 
there is a dry cough, worse at night, or even during sleep ; child 
cross and fretful. Other remedies than those enumerated are 
often serviceable, but we believe the above will be found quite 
sufficient to control all ordinary cases. We might, however, add 
Spongia, and Hepar-Snphur, which may be given in alternation, 
when there is hoarseness, a dry, hollow cough day and night, but 
more particularly at night, with scanty, ropy, and sticky expecto- 
ration ; skin hot and dry ; respiration anxious and laborious, with 
burning in the chest. 

Administration. — The remedies may be given either dry or in 
solution. When given in solution, dissolve twelve globules of the 
chosen remedy in twelve teaspoonfuls of water ; give one spoon- 
ful every two or four hours, according to the severity of the symp- 
toms. When given dry, three to six pills make a dose ; put them 
upon the tongue and let them dissolve. 


Definition. — Capillary Bronchitis is so named from the fact 
that the inflammation extends down into the capillaries or small 
sub-divisions of the bronchial tubes. It may appear as an idio- 
pathic, or primary affection, but, as a general thing, it succeeds 
the form just described, particularly when that form has been neg- 
lected or improperly treated. We shall not enter into a descrip- 
tion of it here, for two reasons : first, it is but seldom met with ; 
second, when met with, it should be treated only by an expe- 
rienced physician. 



Definition and Symptoms. — This form of the disease usually 
follows an acute attack, either on account of improper treatment, 
or the presence of some hereditary taint, predisposing the child 
to scrofula or consumption. 

The cough from the acute form never entirely ceases ; it be- 
comes loose, and the expectoration may be considerable ; the diffi- 
culty of breathing, though diminished, never entirely disappears ; 
every night, or perhaps only every other night, fever arises, and is 
followed by more or less perspiration ; the lips crack and become 
ulcerated ; sores break out around the nostrils ; the skin looks 
22 ' 


blanched ; eyes are sunken ; appetite lost ; the strength dimin- 
ished ; thirst is excessive. The neighbors and friends remark, 
that the child is going into a " decline." 

These symptoms may last for weeks, or months, or even years ; 
but at any time, a colliquative, or watery diarrhoea may set in ; 
and this will soon put out the last ray of its glimmering existence, 
and the little sufferer dies of marasmus. 

It needs a good deal of nice discrimination in the selection of 
remedies to combat successfully this form of the disease. A great 
many things in regard to the general health and constitution of 
the patient, must be taken into consideration. I would, therefore, 
advise you to consult an educated Homoeopathic physician. 


Definition. — The lungs are enclosed and their structure main- 
tained by a serous membrane called the pleura. This membrane 
forms a shut sack, as, hi fact, do all serous membranes ; and the 
lungs fit into it as does a boy's head into his tippet, when it is in- 
verted or folded partially within itself. You will observe, there- 
fore, that the lungs, though enclosed by this membrane, are still 
upon the outside of it. After covering the lungs as far as 
their roots, the pleura is reflected over the inner surface of the 

This may be illustrated as follows : — Take a glass tumbler, the 
inner surface of which may represent the inner surface of the chest ; 
place within the tumbler a hollow India-rubber ball ; call this the 
pleura ; now, with yOur finger, indentate the ball ; this forms a 
little cul de sac, within which the finger rests. Thus you have a 
shut sack ; the pleura — ball — enclosing the lung — finger — and 
reflected upon the inner surface of the chest — tumbler. 

Very well ; now pleurisy, or, as physicians call it, pleuritis, con- 
sists of an inflammation of this membrane. You will observe, that 
at every act of respiration, or in other words, every time the lungs 
expand and contract, the opposing surfaces of this membrane must 
glide upon each other ; and, when in a healthy state, they do this 
freely, for the parts are well lubricated with serum, just as a piece 
of machinery is with oil, and for the same purpose ; but when in- 
flamed, the pleura becomes hot and dry ; the supply of serum is 
diminished or -entirely suppressed, and the friction thus inevitably 
produced, causes the pain or stitches in the side and chest. 


Pleurisy may either terminate by an adhesion or a gluing together 
of the opposed surfaces of the empty sack, or its walls may be 
widely separated by a pouring forth of serum ; this latter effect 
constitutes Dropsy of the Chest. 

This disease seldom attacks infants and young children; it is 
not as frequent, neither is it as dangerous a disease, as inflamma- 
tion of the lungs, with which, however, it is often connected. 

Causes. — The exciting cause, as a general thing, is exposure 
to cold or damp. It may also arise from severe injuries to the 
chest, as from a blow or a fall. See u General Kemarks," at the 
head of this chapter. 

Symptoms. — Pleurisy, from the onset, is marked by a sharp, 
stabbing pain, on a level with or just beneath one or the other of 
the breasts, preceded or accompanied by chilliness, or shivering ; a 
dry ineffectual cough is usually present, with no expectoration, or, 
if any, very little, and of a frothy, whitish look ; some difficulty of 
respiration ; high fever ; pulse quick and hard ; great thirst ; hot 
dry skin ; loss of appetite ; headache ; and sometimes bilious 

The pain beneath the breast may diffuse itself throughout the 
chest, but usually it is confined to a small space, and is of a sharp, 
stabbing nature, seemingly as though a knife were thrust into the 
side, which prevents the patient from taking a long breath, and 
produces great suffering ; when coughing or sneezing, the child 
endeavors to suppress the cough. The pain is always aggravated 
by deep inspirations, change of position, or by pressing upon the 
parts ; it usually lasts three or four days, and then subsides. In 
some cases, — but these are few indeed, — there is little or no 

The patient cannot lie upon the affected side, at least during the 
first stages of the disease ; that position increases the pain ; how- 
ever, as the pain subsides, and effusion takes place, he is unable to 
lie on either side, on account of the pressure made upon the sound 
lungs by the effused serum, which produces great difficulty of 
breathing. The patient is, therefore, compelled to lie upon his 
back, or nearly so. This effusion into the pleura sack, sometimes 
amounting to several pints, causes the affected side to bulge out, 
and become evidently larger than the other. 

Treatment. — Aconite and Bryonia are the two principal rem- 
edies for this disease, and, in a great majority of cases, will be all 
that is necessary to effect a cure. In severe cases, or when the 


attack is sudden, they may be given in alternation, every half-hour, 
increasing the intervals between the doses as the severity of the 
symptoms diminishes. 

Mercurius. — This remedy may be given when there are copious 
night-sweats, more or less difficulty and shortness of breathing, 
after the fever has been subdued with other remedies. 

Arnica, of course, should be administered where pleurisy arises 
from external violence. 

Arsenicum. — If extensive effusion has taken place, and there is 
considerable prostration. 

Administration op Remedies. — Of the chosen remedy, dissolve 
twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of water, and give one tea- 
spoonful at a dose every hour, or every two hours, according to the 
severity of the symptoms. 

Diet and Regimen. — As in pneumonia, the application of 
cold bandages is often of great service. 

When pleurisy appears in connection with pneumonia, other 
remedies than those enumerated may be called for. Consult 
" Pneumonia." 


Definition. — Pneumonia is an inflammation of the substance 
of the lungs ; but the majority of the cases of pneumonia are at- 
tended with more or less inflammation of the serous membrane 
lining the interior of the chest, and inverting over the lungs ; that 
is, there is some pleurisy. Bronchitis is also a frequent accompa- 

Pneumonia may be either single or double : one lung may be 
affected, or both. It is more common upon the right side than 
upon the left, and generally commences in the lower lobes. Why 
it does so, is not known ; but such is the fact. . 

Causes. — Inflammation of the lungs, or lung-fever as you will 
hear some call it, is a very important, because frequent, disease of 
childhood. As a general thing, it does not occur as a primary 
affection, but supervenes as a complication, either in scarlet-fever, 
measles, hooping-cough, inflammation of the bowels, or bilious 
remittent fever. 

As cold is an active, exciting cause, you will find pneumonia 
much more frequent during the winter than during the summer 
months. A severe blow or fall upon the chest, the inhalation of 



noxious or irritating gases may, and often does, produce it. I 
have known children to inhale hot steam from the spout of a 
coffee-pot, or from the spout of a tea-kettle, and thereby excite an 
inflammation of the lungs. 

Children of all ages are liable to its invasion ; but, from statisti- 
cal reports, we are forced to believe that it is more frequent from 
the third to the fourth year ; nursing infants, and children under 
two years of age, being less liable to it than those older. 

Symptoms. — Pneumonia, in the majority of cases, commences, 
as do all inflammatory or febrile diseases, with a chill or shivering, 
followed by heat, and an increased frequency of the pulse. Cough 
is always present, at first dry and deep, or quick and spontaneous. 
The respiration is accelerated, the breathing from 50 to 60, some- 
times even 60 to 80, in a minute. Pain, or, more properly speak- 
ing, a stitch in the side, usually the right, on taking a long breath 
or deep inspiration. If you will now in this, the first, stage of the 
disease, place your ear to the patient's chest, you will hear a pecul- 
iar crackling sound, similar to that produced by throwing salt 
upon hot coals, or like the sound produced by rubbing between your 
finger and thumb, a lock of one's own hair, close to the ear. This 
is an important symptom : it gives an early and sure intimation 
that engorgement, or congestion, the forerunner of inflammation, 
has taken place. 

The expectoration, which, however," is seldom present in children 
under four or five years of age, is at first tough and sticky, but 
soon changes to a bloody mucus ; sometimes, especially in older 
children, the sputa is of a rusty color. The face is flushed, and 
wears an anxious look : it is, in severe cases, blanched, and the 
features pinched. The skin is hot and dry, and of a shiny or 
glazed appearance ; thirst is excessive ; the pulse ranges from 130 
to 140 ; in young children, it may run as high as 160, or even 180. 
The tongue may be hot and parched ; but, as a general tiling, you 
will find it moist, and covered with a yellowish or whitish fur. 
The patient does not wish to be disturbed, would much rather be 
let alone, usually lies upon his back, and desires nothing but 
plenty of cold water. 

Now, the train of symptoms presented in a young infant — a 
babe at the breast — differs in some respects from the preceding. 
Of course, the child cannot tell you that it has a pain in its side : it 
cannot express its suffering in words. How, then, are you going 
to ascertain what is going on within that little chest ? In fact, 


hoiv are you to know what is the difficulty, and where it is lo- 
cated ? Children are not deceitful ; and if you are attentive, and 
at all discriminating, you will have but little trouble in interpret- 
ing their look of anguish or their cry of pain. 

The child will be peevish, restless, and uneasy ; cries and frets 
all the time, does not care to nurse ; skin is hot and dry ; respira- 
tion is short and hurried. You will observe that the chest does 
not rise and fall regularly with each inspiration, but the move- 
ments are short, uneven, or jerking. 

Eespiration is carried on chiefly through the action of the 
abdominal muscles. 

From the onset, cough is present, at first dry, short, and hacking, 
but it soon becomes loose ; vomiting is frequently present ; some- 
times a spell of coughing will end in vomiting, and thereby the 
expulsion of a quantity of glutinous mucus, or mucus tinged with 
blood. That the child suffers from pain when coughing is evident 
from the expression of its face ; the grimaces and twistings of 
the features are always marked, and then, as you will observe, 
when the cough comes on, the little sufferer attempts to smother 
it ; instead of taking a full inspiration, as it would if its chest 
were not sore, it tries to make it short and sudden ; it tries to 
suppress it. 

Each spell of coughing is accompanied, or instantly followed by 
a screech of pain, or a fit of crying. The cry, also, is peculiar ; 
it is not a healthy cry, but a kind of a suppressed cry, more of a 
sobbing nature, but still sharp and shrill, indicative of real suffer- 

When the inflammation has reached its height, which it does 
generally by the fifth or sixth day, the symptoms, not invariably 
but usually, remain stationary for one or two days, and then begin 
to subside. The fever diminishes; the skin loses its hot and 
harsh feel, becomes soft and moist ; the cough becomes quite loose, 
less frequent, and ceases to be painful ; the child can take a deep 
inspiration, or even cry aloud, without suffering pain. The flush- 
ing of the cheeks passes away ; the expression of the face becomes 
more natural ; the child looks around and notices all that is going 

At this period of the disease, children are apt to be quite cross 
and fretful, wanting everything, and throwing all away as soon 
as gotten. Mothers say, that this is a good symptom. 

When pneumonia ends unfavorably, the patient lingers along for 


a great while ; the disease runs the same course as above described, 
but, instead of taking a favorable turn, the fever continues ; the 
breathing becomes less frequent but more laborious and irregular ; 
the child gradually fails ; the strength diminishes ; the face looks 
blanched and sunken ; low muttering delirium may be present, but 
usually intelligence is retained to the last. 

Treatment. — Aconite is the prominent remedy in the first 
stages of pneumonia ; that is, during the chilliness and fever. 

The following symptoms call loudly for its employment : high 
fever; pulse full and bounding; cough short, dry, rough, and 
racking ; excessive thirst ; redness of the face or cheeks ; great 
nervous irritation ; respiration hurried and anxious, or sobbing ; 
violent pain in the chest and side when drawing a long breath, or 
when crying. The pains about the chest are particularly trouble- 
some at night, causing the little sufferer great uneasiness, not 
allowing it to lie down ; and, as it is not free from pain when 
sitting up, it constantly wishes to change its position, to be passed 
from mother to nurse, from nurse to the cradle, from the cradle to 
the bed, and so on. Now, as the disease increases, this rest- 
lessness subsides, and the child is willing to lie perfectly quiet upon 
its back. 

Aconite should be continued as long as the fever remains high, 
and this nervous, restless disposition continues, and the cough 
remains as above described ; but if, regardless of aconite, the fever 
should continue to increase, and there should be considerable con- 
gestion about the head, with violent throbbing of the arteries, 
which pass up on either side of the neck, Belladonna should be 
given, or Aconite and Belladonna may be given, in alternation, one 
hour apart. 

Bryonia. — Particularly when the fever has somewhat dimin- 
ished under the use of Aconite. "When the breathing is short, 
quick and anxious ; there is pain and oppression in the chest, 
which is aggravated by movement ; the pain appears to be in the 
upper part of the chest ; the cough, which is spasmodic, and 
almost constant, is generally loose, and sometimes ends in vomit- 
ing ; the expectoration consists of white, slimy mucus streaked 
with blood. When the disease arises from exposure, from taking 
cold, especially if there should be rheumatic pain about the ex- 
tremities, or pain in the small of the back, or, if in young chil- 
dren, there should be constipation, Bryonia is frequently indicated, 
in alternation with Aconite. 


Phosphorus. — This is a valuable remedy and, in severe cases, 
may precede Bryonia or Belladonna, either alone or in alternation 
with Aconite. It is indicated by the following symptoms : decided 
increase of the short, hacking cough, especially in the evening, 
with suffocative sensation in the chest ; little or no expectoration. 
The child cries, when coughing, evidently from the cutting pain in 
the chest ; it also endeavors to restrain the cough, or make it short 
and sudden. There is also great difficulty of breathing, which 
interferes with nursing ; the child nurses but little, or refrains from 
the breast altogether; heaviness, fulness, and tightness, as though 
a band were drawn around the chest ; stitches in the side, espe- 
cially the left ; depression of the mental faculties ; great prostra- 
tion ; paleness of the face ; dimness of the eyes ; muttering delir- 
ium ; picking at the bed-clothes ; extremely laborious respiration ; 
small, quick pulse. 

Tartar-emetic — may be given in alternation with Phosphorus, 
especially when Aconite and Bryonia afford no relief: also, for 
paroxysms of cough, with great oppression of breathing; loose 
cough, with profuse expectoration ; rattling, hollow cough, or rat- 
tling of mucus in the chest ; little or no pain ; nausea and vomit- 
ing, especially after coughing ; feeble and accelerated pulse. 

Pulsatilla. — Difficulty of breathing, especially when lying upon 
the back ; young children wish to be held in an upright position ; 
hoarseness and roughness of the chest ; racking, shrill cough, or 
cough with greenish or bloody expectoration. 

Arnica. — Should be exhibited in cases arising from mechanical 

Mercurius. — Where Aconite has diminished the fever, but still 
there is some difficulty of breathing, and the patient is very much 
exhausted from copious night-sweats. 

Arsenicum. — Great restlessness and excessive thirst; small, 
weak pulse ; cold extremities ; rapid prostration of strength. 

Administeation of Remedies. — Of the selected remedy dis- 
solve ten globules in as many teaspoonfuls of water, and give 
one teaspoonful at a dose every hour, or every two, three, or four 
hours, according to the severity of the symptoms. 

Diet and Regimen. — The diet should be plain, consisting of 
light, easily-digested substances, panadas, gruel, etc. Cocoa makes 
an excellent drink. Cold water may be allowed, when desired. 
The breast, of course, is the diet for infants. 

While suffering under a sharp attack of pneumonia, or more 


particularly when recovering from it, great care should be taken 
that the child is not exposed by taking it from one room to 
another, or, if it should have been confined up-stairs, by carrying 
it down through cold halls, or into a damp basement. 


Definition. — This affection, like that of cough, does not, in 
itself, constitute a disease. It is rather dependent upon some 
morbid condition of the larynx or throat, such as irritation, in- 
flammation, or a congested condition of the parts. 

Causes. — The causes are the same as those which are produc- 
tive of almost all chest difficulties. It often occurs in connection 
with those diseases, which produce great disturbance about the 
chest and throat, and is frequently an accompaniment or sequence 
of a common cold. It is a suspicious symptom, under any cir- 
cumstances, and ought never to be tampered with or neglected. 
You will remember that this is one of the premonitory symptoms 
of membranous croup. 

Treatment. — Where hoarseness appears in connection with 
other diseases, such diseases must be treated according to the 
directions given in the articles under their respective heads ; and, 
in all probability, as the original difficulty disappears, the hoarse- 
ness, which is a mere attendant, will pass away. But should it 
still remain, or recur by itself, the individual peculiarities of the 
patient, 5 his general habit and constitution, together with any com- 
plaint to which he may be subject, or from which of late he has 
been suffering, should be taken into consideration and carefully 
studied. Then, if you can select a remedy which will cover the 
totality of the symptoms, you can rest pretty well satisfied of 
making a perfect cure. 

Arsenicum. — If, with hoarseness, there should be an excessive 
discharge of acrid water from the nose. 

Causticum. — For obstinate cases, combined with influenza; ca- 
tarrh, with cough and smarting, as from excoriation in the chest ; 
chronic hoarseness, worse morning and evening. 

Capsicum. — Hoarseness, attended with a dry obstruction and 
tickling or crawling in the nose ; violent cough, worse toward 
evening, with pain in the head and other parts of the body ; smart- 
ing in the throat extending up into the ears. 

Chamomilla. — Hoarseness after a cold, with an accumulation 



of tough mucus in the throat ; hoarseness, with pain in the throat 
after expectoration ; cough morning and evening, with tickling in 
the pit of the throat ; fever and great irritability, especially 
toward night. 

Carlo-veg. — Chronic hoarseness, worse morning and evening, 
aggravated by talking or crying ; dry cough, with hoarseness and 
roughness of the chest ; tickling in the throat ; for hoarseness 
and cough after measles. 

Eepar-sulphur . — Hoarseness, with low, hollow voice ; deep- 
seated cough ; hoarseness, either acute or chronic, with a dry, 
evening cough, which is accompanied with a sensation of soreness 
in the throat and chest, stinging in the throat as from splinters ; 
especially for persons who have suffered from large doses of 

Kali-carb. — Hoarseness and roughness of the throat, with 
constant sneezing, or a choking sensation, as if there were a plug 
in the throat ; dry cough, with tickling ; for young girls suffering 
from leucorrhoea. 

Mercurius. — Hoarseness, attended with a burning and tickling 
sensation in the throat ; a thin, watery discharge from the head ; 
also when there is profuse perspiration, especially at night, Mercu- 
rius may be given in alternation with Nux-vomica, or it may follow 

Nux-vomica. — Catarrhal hoarseness, worse during the morning, 
with dry obstruction of the nose ; rough, dry, fatiguing cough ; 
the patient feels alternately chilly and hot, is impatient and 

Phosphorus. — For chronic hoarseness, with roughness and dry- 
ness of the throat ; catarrh, with cough and fever ; cough, with 
stinging in the throat ; voice almost extinct. 

Pulsatilla. — Hoarseness, with almost total loss of voice ; pain 
when swallowing ; loose cough, with yellow or greenish and 
offensive discharge from the nose ; loose cough ; pain in the chest ; 
especially if there be suppression of the catamenia, or when hoarse- 
ness appears in connection with leucorrhoea. If Pulsatilla does 
not suffice, follow it with Sulphur. 

Sulphur. — Especially for chronic cases, or obstinate ones, at- 
tended with roughness and scraping in the throat ; also for hoarse- 
ness, coming on during damp, cold weather ; deep, rough voice, 
especially at night. Follows well after Mercury or Pulsatilla. 

Administration of Remedies. — Either one of the above medi- 


cines may be given dry or. in water. When given in water, dis- 
solve twelve pills in as many spoonfuls of water. One spoonful of 
this solution may be given for a dose, and repeated every two or 
four hours, according to the nature and severity of the case. If, 
in the course of forty-eight hours, no relief is obtained, another 
remedy should be selected. 

In chronic cases, the remedy should not be so frequently re-. 
peated : a close night and morning will be sufficient. Change 
the remedy in six or seven days, if no improvement is percep- 

Diet and Regimen. — The same as in " Cough." 


Every mother, of any experience, is more or less acquainted with 
this dreaded disease ; and few subjects possess greater interest for 
her. It is divided into two separate and distinct forms ; namely, 
spasmodic and membranous. Spasmodic croup — the form which 
I shall describe first — is that which is usually called by the laity 
in general, simply croup ; by authors, it is described as false, or 
pseudo-croup, in contradistinction to the true, or membranous. 


Definition. — This is one of the most frequent diseases to which 
childhood is exposed. It is almost peculiar to children, and occurs, 
as a general thing, during the period of first dentition ; that is, 
about the second year. However, children from one to ten or 
twelve years of age are liable to it. It is said to be more common 
among boys than girls : whether this is the case or not, I am una- 
ble to say. A popular belief, too, is, that fat, lymphatic children 
are more liable to croup than those of a spare habit ; \)ut, as 
far as my observation goes, it occurs indifferently in the weak 
and strong. 

Though not contagious, as some erroneously suppose, there is 
strong argument in favor of its being hereditary. I can call to 
mind several families that can trace back, for three or four gene- 
rations, a predisposition to this disease. 

Spasmodic croup, from whatever cause it originates, consists in 
a simple, ordinary inflammation of the upper part of the windpipe, 
— the larynx, — with a violent spasmodic action of that organ. 


It is very apt to •manifest itself abruptly, without any premonitory 
signs whatever, — the child going to bed as well as common, or, 
at most, suffering from a slight cold, with huskiness of voice, but 
before midnight, usually at about eleven o'clock, is aroused from 
a quiet slumber with a spasmodic fit of coughing, which, once 
heard, will never be forgotten. 

Causes. — Croup is more common in cold, damp climates than 
in warm, dry ones. Eapid and frequent changes of season, weather, 
and temperature have considerable influence in producing it. I 
think there is but little doubt that certain states of the weather or 
season predispose to it in a greater degree than usual, and thus 
occasion a larger number of children to be attacked upon the 
slightest exposure ; and this has undoubtedly given rise to the 
supposition that croup is a contagious disease, and that it frequent- 
ly appears as an epidemic. 

Children, hereditarily predisposed to croup, are liable to an 
attack at any time, upon the least exposure ; and I have not un- 
frequently known it to be produced or excited in such by a long 
and severe fit of crying. 

No doubt, the most frequent exciting cause is exposure to cold, 
— carrying the child through cold halls, or from a warm atmos- 
phere into a cold one, or sitting in a draft of air. I have also 
known it to be produced by cutting the hair in rough, cold 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of croup are well marked, and 
need never be mistaken for those of any other disease. In the 
evening, or before midnight, the child will be aroused by a parox- 
ysm of spasmodic coughing. The cough is rough, barking, and is 
accompanied by a shrill, sharp sound ; during the paroxysms of 
cough, the breathing is spasmodically oppressed, at times seemingly 
almost to suffocation. The face and neck are at first highly 
flushed, but, as the paroxysm becomes more violent, assume a 
dark, livid red, which afterward passes into a deadly paleness, if 
the fit is of long duration. The veins swell, and beads of perspi- 
ration stand out upon the forehead : sometimes the whole head is 
wet with sweat. 

The voice, during a paroxysm, becomes almost extinct. The 
child, almost frightened to death, not only by his own condition, 
but by the excitement of those around him, throws himself from 
side to side, grappling, as it were, the disease which seems to 
threaten immediate suffocation, his countenance presenting a pic- 


ture of the utmost anxiety. The patient may remain in this 
condition from fifteen to twenty minutes, or from half an hour to 
even an hour. As soon as the violent symptoms abate, the child 
falls asleep, when afterwards, on awaking, all that remains is a 
little hoarseness, a loose cough, and some fever. The patient may 
have hut one of these attacks during the night ; but more frequently 
there are several in succession, perhaps not so severe as we have 
described. The attack, however, is very apt to recur toward 
morning, and, if not then, the following night. This is about the 
course of the disease when left to itself; but if cut short, as it 
easily can be, at the very commencement of the first paroxysm, 
the child is as well the next morning as though nothing had 
happened, and remains so. On the contrary, if improperly treated, 
or allowed to continue, the second night will usher in a scene 
equally frightful as the one preceding it ; and, before the third 
day has passed, the inflammation will have extended down 
through the trachea, or lower part of the windpipe, toward, and 
sometimes even into, the bronchial tubes ; and then, with all its 
attending horrors, you will have a true case of membranous 

Treatment. — An ordinary case of croup no mother need fear, 
if she but have the proper homoeopathic remedies at hand. Aco- 
nite, ITepar-sulph., Spongia, and Tartar-emetic are the remedies, 
and with, them you will be able speedily to dissipate the crowing, 
croupal cough ; and the little sufferer, who but a moment before, 
was in imminent danger of suffocation, will drop into a sweet and 
peaceful slumber, and that, too, without the nauseating dose of 
Syrup of Ipecac. ; without the onion-draughts to the feet, and 
goose-grease to the chest, to which ignorant people trust their all. 

If premonitory symptoms are present, such as a hoarse cough 
with fever, Aconite and Spongia should be given in alternation, 
every hour. If, during the evening, the symptom should assume 
a distinct form of croup, or should the child be startled from sleep 
with a suffocative, crowing, barking cough, the Aconite must be 
discontinued, and Tartar-emetic substituted for it, and given, in' 
alternation with Spongia, every ten or fifteen minutes. 

A warm bath is a valuable auxiliary, and should be resorted to 
in all severe cases, as it lessens the agitation, and makes the 
symptoms yield more easily. The temperature of the water, 
when the child is immersed, should be about 96°, and gradually 
raised by the addition of hot water. 


The child may remain in this bath from ten to fifteen minutes, 
or until the choking cough ceases. When the child is taken from 
the water, it should be quickly wiped dry, and then well wrapped 
up, to prevent it from taking cold. Cloths wrung out in cold 
water and applied to the throat, are of great service ; these cloths 
should be covered with dry flannels. 

This treatment will usually break up the most violent attacks 
of croup in a very short time ; in fact, the prompt administration 
of Aconite in the first stage, that is, when the inflammation first 
sets in, will, in the majority of cases, cut short the disease without 
any other assistance. 

For the cough, which is ringing, but more moist and loose, that 
remains after the violent paroxysm has subsided, Spongia and He- 
par-sulph. may be given in alternation every hour, lengthening the 
interval as the severity of the symptom subsides. 

If a recurrence of the severe paroxysm should occur, the. same 
treatment should be repeated. 

Hepar-sulph. — Should be given when the cough is loose, with 
rattling of mucus in the air-passages, or when the expectoration 
consists of thick, tenacious phlegm. Tartar-emetic may be given in 
alternation with He-par, from half an hour to one or two hours apart. 

For the hoarseness remaining after an attack of croup, and to 
obviate a tendency to a relapse, Phosphorus or Hepar-sulph. may 
be given once in three or four hours. 

Kali-bichrom. — This is a valuable remedy for a hoarse, dry, or 
whistling cough, or when there is expectoration of ropy mucus ; 
but of more service in severe cases of membranous croup. 

Administration op Remedies. — When Tartar-emetic is given, 
dissolve about as much of the first trituration as can be put upon 
a five-cent piece, in twelve spoonfuls of water, and of this solution 
give one spoonful at a dose, as above directed. When any of the 
other remedies are chosen, dissolve twelve globules in twelve 
spoonfuls of water, and give one spoonful at a dose. 

For Diet and Regimen, see " Cough," and " Membranous 


Definition. — This disease is closely allied to, and often con- 
nected with, the one we have just had under consideration, — 
spasmodic croup. " It consists in inflammation, generally of a 
highly acute character, of the larynx — upper part of the wind- 


pipe — or the trachea, windpipe proper, or of both, which termi- 
nates, in the majority of cases, in the exudation of false membrane 
more or less abundantly upon the affected surface." 

The inflammation usually begins high up, near that part which 
contains the vocal cords, or what physicians call the larynx. Per- 
haps you would better understand me, if I should say that it com- 
mences in the region of that projecting cartilage, by some called 
Adam's Apple, and extends down into the bronchial tubes. 

This form of croup differs from the preceding one in this partic- 
ular, — the formation of a false membrane upon the surface in- 
flamed ; this of course obstructs the air-passages, and, in severe 
cases, it completely closes them up, so that the patient dies from 
actual suffocation. This membrane when coughed up, or when 
taken from the dead body, looks about like a stick of boiled mac- 
aroni ; is commonly of a yellowish color, and from a sixteenth to 
a twelfth of an inch in thickness. 

"Why one form of croup should be marked by violent spasmodic 
action of the larynx, and the other by the formation or exudation 
of a false membrane, when they both consist in an inflammation 
of the same tissue, no cause can be assigned. 

Causes. — What has been said in regard to the causes of spas- 
modic croup applies equally well to this disease. The reader 
is also referred to the general remarks at the commencement 
of chapter vn., preceding " Diseases of the Air-Passages and 

Symptoms. — Croup usually commences as a common cold, with 
sneezing, cough, and more or less fever; seldom presenting any 
symptoms by which we can distinguish it from ordinary catarrh. 
Like catarrh, it is attended with slight fever, drowsiness, watering 
of the eye, and running from the nose. 

The child complains for two or three days of a croupy cough 
and hoarseness. Now hoarseness, under any circumstance is a 
suspicious symptom, and ought never to be neglected; children 
suffering from ordinary cold seldom exhibit this symptom. After 
being simply hoarse for two or three days, the voice becomes weak ; 
the child speaks or cries in a whisper. In the last stage, and in 
severe cases, the child is wholly unable to speak, even in a whisper, 
or cry ; the only noise it is at all able to make is the peculiar vio- 
lent, short, shrill, barking cough. This shrill, harsh cough, peculiar 
to membranous croup, has been compared to the sound produced 
by the attempt of a young cock at crowing. 


Between the paroxysms of cough, which are excited by speaking, 
drinking, etc., the wheezing in the air-passages is heard at every 
inspiration ; occasionally something is expelled from the windpipe 
by the cough. As the disease progresses, the voice becomes more 
and more hoarse, and less distinct, the windpipe becoming clogged 
up with mucus or with false membrane. 

From day to day and hour to hour, we can trace the steady, on- 
ward march of this disease toward its fatal termination. Unlike 
spasmodic croup, after a severe paroxysm of cough, or attack of 
strangulation, it does not retreat, and leave the way open for a free 
return of respiration, but maintains the ground which it has 
gained, and throws out barricades to obstruct returning health. 
These barricades of false membrane may consist of patches here 
and there thrown out upon the surface of the windpipe, or the 
whole tube may be completely lined or even entirely filled up, so 
as to preclude the possibility of respiration. Death is the inevita- 
ble result. 

Dr. Watson, an eminent writer, says, " As the obstruction to the 
passage of air increases, the blood ceases to receive its proper 
quantity of oxygen ; the skin grows dusky ; the pulse feeble and 
irregular ; the feet and legs cold ; the cough also ceases to be loud 
and clanging ; it becomes husky and inaudible at a short distance ; 
and the voice sinks to a whisper ; the head is thrown back ; the 
nostrils dilate widely, and are in perpetual motion ; the face pale, 
and sometimes livid ; the pupils often dilated." 

The duration of the disease may be stated to be from three to 
twelve or fourteen days. Death, however, has been known to occur 
as early as the first day. 

Treatment. — "This dreadful disease," says Dr. Hering, of 
Philadelphia, " may, in the majority of cases, be easily and 
promptly cured with homoeopathic remedies. We hardly lose one- 
fifth of the number who die under the old treatment." 

What that old treatment consists in is of no earthly use to us ; 
but as a curiosity in medicine I present it here. I shall quote 
only from standard allopathic works. Dr. West (Dis. of Child., 
p. 223), after recommending an emetic of ipecac and antimony, to 
be followed by nauseating doses of antimonial wine, says : " The 
abstraction of blood, and the administration of tartar-emetic, are 
the two measures on which your main reliance must be placed ; 
and you must bleed largely, and give tartar-emetic freely, remem- 
bering, that, if relief do not come soon, it will not come at all. . . . 


I have never met an exception to the rule which prescribes the 
free abstraction of blood in every case of severe idiopathic 

Dr. Eberle says {Bis. of Child., p. 273), " Without doubt, how- 
ever, the remedy upon which our principal reliance should be 
placed, for the removal of tracheal inflammation (croup) , is blood- 
letting." Underwood says {Bell's ed., p. 278), " Bleeding is al- 
ways necessary, if the physician be called at the commencement of 
the disease or stridulous noise. If the patient be visited too late 
to endure this evacuation, I believe no hope can remain of his 
being benefited without it, unless the infant be very young, which, 
however, in another view, cannot but add to the danger." Dr. 
Condie says {Bis. of Child., 2d ed., p. 305), " The practitioner 
who, in violent cases, neglects this important measure (blood- 
letting) , and places his hopes on any other remedy, or combination 
of remedies, will have but little reason to flatter himself upon 
his success in the management of the disease." 

Yet M. Guersent (p. 373) asserts that " bleeding has not the 
power of arresting this specific inflammation." M. Bretonneau 
{Meigs, Bis. Child., 3d ed. p. 96) " is of the opinion that it has no 
effect in preventing the formation of the false membrane." M. 
Yalleix (p. 353) says, " From the examination of a large number 
of cases, I am convinced that blood-letting, whether general or 
local, is not a powerful curative agent ; and it does not obviously 
arrest the progress of the disease." Dr. Wood says (Prac. of Med., 
vol. i. p. 788), " Blood-letting, in this variety of croup, is much 
less efficient than in the catarrhal." 

Dr. Douglas, of Boston, was the first to use calomel in this dis- 
ease. In regard to mercurials, Dr. Samuel Bard says : " The 
more freely I have used them, the better effects I have seen from 
them." " The remedy principally relied on in the present day, 
and which in many cases has acted like a charm, is large and re- 
peated doses of calomel." — {Gardner's Med. Die.') M. Valleix, 
as quoted by Meigs {Bis. of Child., 3d ed., p. 100), on the con- 
trary, doubts " whether there are any true cases of croup on rec- 
ord cured by calomel alone." 

Dr. Meigs says {Bis. of Child., 3d. ed., p. 101), " The largest 
quantity (of calomel) exhibited in any one of my cases, was be- 
tween forty and fifty grains ; the smallest, six. In most of the 
cases, the quantity varied between fifteen and thirty grains." 

Dr. Bard, whom we mentioned above, says he gave calomel, in 



the quantity of thirty or forty grains, in five or six days, to children 
three or four years old. 

Dr. Meigs, after recommending calomel, quaintly remarks, that 
it (calomel) " has been known to produce gangrene (mortifica- 
tion) of the mouth, and necrosis (death) of the cheek-bones." 

Burning the throat with caustic has been recommended ; but, 
as M. Bouchut remarks, it has this slight disadvantage : " Imme- 
diate suffocation may be the consequence, should the sponge be 
left too long upon the glottis, and should too large a quantity 
of the liquid enter the glottis." 

Tracheotomy (opening the windpipe) has its adherents and op- 

I think I mentioned somewhere, in a previous article, that the 
old practice of treating diseases was, to say the least, unsatisfactory. 
Does not the above series of quotations savor of something of the 
kind ? 

Four — and I could quote forty, were it necessary — eminent 
men recommend blood-letting ; an equal number, equaljy eminent, One asserts that calomel is the remedy, par excel- 
lence ; another proves it to be so ; but a third denies it all, and 
says that he does not believe there is a case on record cured 
with it. Besides that, a fourth asserts that its effects are bad, 
— it destroys the mouth and cheek-bones. 

" Burning the throat with caustic might be of service ; " but 
" then you suffocate the patient." Thus they wrangle. 

In fact, there is but one class of remedies that any two allo- 
pathic physicians can agree upon recommending, — emetics ; and 
the good effect of these is erroneously attributed to their nauseat- 
ing properties. But this is a mistake ; for Ipecac, and Tartar- 
emetic are homoeopathic to the disease in question ; their action is 
direct and specific. Every allopathic physician knows, or, at 
least, he ought to know, that large doses of these drugs will pro- 
duce symptoms upon a healthy person similar to those of croup. 
And, had he a mind, he could soon prove it to his entire satis- 
faction, by experimentation, that minute doses of these remedies 
will produce results more prompt and satisfactory than large 

I am aware that I have already taken up too much room in 
quoting and commenting upon this irrational mode of practice. 
Let us hasten to an intelligent and rational method of treat- 
ment, leaving the old for those " who, having eyes, see not," etc. 


Aconitum. — Is the first remedy in all cases. It is peculiarly 
adapted to this specific form of inflammation, and may be given, 
in alternation with Spongia, every fifteen or twenty minutes, from 
that to an hour or an hour and a half, according to the severity of 
the symptoms. If no decided improvement follows the adminis- 
tration of these two remedies, but, on the contrary, the disease 
becomes visibly worse, and the danger increases, give Hepar-sulph. 
in alternation with the Spongia. 

I have never yet seen a case of croup prove fatal, unless it were 
complicated with some other disease, where Aconite and Spongia 
had been properly administered at the outset. Just as soon as 
you perceive that the child has taken cold, and exhibits any of the 
premonitory symptoms of croup, such as a dry, hoarse cough, huski- 
ness of voice, more or less fever, etc., give a dose of Aconite, and 
repeat it once an hour. Two or three doses will put an end to all 
the difficulty, and thus save your child a severe fit of sickness, and 
yourself a vast amount of anxiety. 

Should the case have become very violent, either from neglect, 
or, worse yet, from the tampering of some ignoramus, with plain 
indications of the formation of false membrane, and be threat- 
ened with suffocation, you must resort immediately to Kali Bichro- 
micum. A small powder of the first trituration should be given 
every few minutes. Should no good effect follow this, give Arsen- 
icum. Hot applications to the throat are now of service. 

Bromine. — Is a valuable remedy in this stage of the disease, 
particularly should there be a great deal of mucus rattling in the 
throat, with labored Respiration, wheezing, and rough cough, with 
danger of suffocation, gasping for air, expectoration of thick 
mucus. Should the expectoration be of this ropy mucus, give 
Kali Bichromaticum. When Bromine is used, a low dilution is 

Phosphorus. — This remedy is also of service in some^ of the 
worst forms of croup. It may be given, in alternation, with 

Any hoarseness that may remain, after the more dangerous 
symptoms of this disease have passed away, can often be removed 
by Phosphorus or Hepar ; should these not answer, you can give 
Carbo-v., Belladonna, or Arnica. 

Warm baths are always of valuable assistance in croup ; they 
relax the system, lessen the agitation, and make the symptoms 
yield more readily to the remedies given. You can either make 


them general, that is, immerse the child all over, or partial ; bathe 
the arms and legs ; keep the feet warm. 

No application need be made to the head, unless it be hot ; then 
a cloth wrung from cold water, and applied to the head, would be 

Severe forms of the disease should always be treated by a physi- 
cian, when one can possibly be had. 

Administration of Remedies. — The directions for Bichromate 
of Potash accompany its indications. Of the other remedies, 
whichever is chosen, dissolve twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls 
of water, and give one teaspoonful at a dose ; as above directed. 

Diet and Regimen. — The diet of a patient, while suffering from 
this disease, should be plain and of a non-stimulating nature. A 
mucilaginous diet is the best, as oatmeal gruel, barley-water, etc. 
As a drink, cold water or toast-water may be allowed, or perhaps 
milk. Oat-meal gruel, sweetened with raspberry or strawberry 
syrup, if palatable, will answer both for nourishment and drink. 

Children subject to croup should be carefully guarded against 
taking cold, and a predisposition to it will be best eradicated by 
an occasional dose of Phosphorus or Hepar. Lycopodium is also 
recommended for this purpose. 

Dr. Yon Boenninghausen, a justly celebrated German physician, 
makes use of the following simple treatment in all cases of croup, 
and, according to report, with a success far exceeding that of any 
other practice. He takes five powders and numbers them respec- 
tively, as follows : No. 1, Aconite ; 2, Hepar-sulph. ; 3, Spongia ; 
4, Hepar-sulph. ; 5, Spongia. All of the two hundredth potency. 
These he directs to be given, in the order of their numbers, thirty 
minutes apart, until relief is manifest, when their administration 
is to be suspended. Of three hundred cases treated in this 
manner by Dr. Boenninghausen, and a majority of them being 
what are termed membranous, not one was lost, two hundred and 
ninety out of the three hundred were cured in less than two 
hours. Better success than this certainly could not be wished 

Boenninghausen's treatment, as it is called, was introduced into 
this country in the year 1860, by Dr. Carroll Dunham of New York, 
to whom homoeopathia is indebted for many valuable contribu- 
tions : since then, it has been tested by, and received the sanction 
of, all the most eminent homoeopathists of the United States. 



Definition. — This is one of that peculiar class of diseases that 
seldom, if ever, attacks the same individual but once during a 
lifetime. It is essentially a disease of childhood. Not but that 
adults would be just as liable to its invasion as children, but for 
the fact that they are protected by previously having had the dis- 

Causes. — Some authors pretend that girls are more liable to it 
than boys, but I never could observe any difference. One thing is 
evident: let it once enter a family of children, and the whole 
group is pretty certain to have an attack, let them be boys or 
girls. It is undoubtedly contagious, as has been proved beyond 
dispute. It appears at times in the form of an epidemic, usually 
in the spring and fall. When appearing in the fall, it is apt to be 
more severe, from the fact that it is more liable to become com- 
plicated with lung difficulties, catarrhs, etc., and, of course, when 
connected with other diseases, they add to its severity. 

Particular care should be taken that feeble children, as well as 
young and delicate infants, are not exposed to hooping-cough dur- 
ing the fall months. Such children might pass through an uncom- 
plicated attack during the warm and genial months of summer 
unharmed ; whereas in winter, during cold, inclement weather, 
they might succumb, even if they escaped the usual crop of au- 
tumnal coughs and colds. 

Its duration, according to allopathic authority, is from six weeks 
to six months, and from their statements one is led to conclude 
that they never yet have had the good fortune to mitigate its 
severity a particle, or to abridge its duration a moment. Some, 
looking upon it as an inflammatory affection, have applied their 
antiphlogistic treatment with heroic severity. Others, taking into 
consideration the essential features of the disease, — the absence 
of fever, the little or no signs of inflammation upon inspection of 
the parts involved, — consider it purely a spasmodic affection of the 
air-passages, " calling for antispasmodics" cry they, and, as a 
matter of course assafastida, leads the van. 

Another clique, whose opinions are brought to a focus by Dr. 
Dixon, of the " New York Scalpel," assert that it is sheer nonsense, 
worse than folly, to talk about " cutting short the disease ; " " it 
must have its regular period of duration," say they. But did you 
ever hear of one of them refusing to treat a case, and honestly 


confessing that over this disease his remedies had no control ? 
No, indeed. As Dr. Dixon asserts, " it is all a mere matter of 

Symptoms. — Physicians, as a general thing, divide hooping- 
cough into three stages, as follows : 1st, catarrhal ; 2d, spas- 
modic ; and 3d, the stage of decline. 

The catarrhal, or stage of invasion, commences with the. ordi- 
nary symptoms of a common cold. For several days, more or 
less, — seldom, however, more than ten or twelve, — the child will 
present all the symptoms of catarrh ; sneezing ; watering from 
the eyes and nose ; irritation and tickling of the throat ; loss of 
appetite ; restless uneasiness ; often chilliness, with flushes of heat; 
indisposition to do anything but worry and complain. Sometimes 
there is considerable fever, especially toward night, with a hollow 
cough, which, at first, is quite dry, but afterward with copious ex- 
pectoration of thick, tough mucus. The cough at this stage has 
no peculiarity by which it can be distinguished from an ordinary 
cold. Sometimes this first or catarrhal stage is entirely wanting. 

The second — the spasmodic or convulsive stage — consists of 
violent spasmodic paroxysms, or fits of coughing. These parox- 
ysms occur at longer or shorter intervals, and last from a quarter 
to a half or three quarters of a minute. A rapid succession of 
them may occur so close together as to make almost one continual 
paroxysm, lasting from ten to fifteen minutes. 

These paroxysms are made up of a succession of quick, forced 
expirations, without any intervening inspiration, until the little 
sufferer gets fairly blue, yes, at times, even black in the face, and 
appears upon the very point of suffocation. This is followed by one 
long-drawn act of inspiration, which produces that peculiar, shrill 
sound, or hoop, as it is called, from which the disease derives its 
name. Immediately after this deep inspiration, the same series of 
short coughs or expiratory movements take place, until all the air 
is expelled from the lungs ; then is repeated the long, deep-drawn 
inspiration with its accompanying hoop. This alternation of 
several short coughs, expelling all the air from the lungs, followed 
by one long inspiration, again filling them, usually ends in the 
expulsion of a quantity of thick, ropy mucus, or else in vomit- 

When one of these attacks is approaching, if the child is lying 
down, he will suddenly jump up ; or, if playing, he will drop his 
playthings, and run to the nearest fixed object for support ; catch- 


ing hold of his mother's dress, a chair, table, anything to hold on 
to, while the fury of the paroxysm passes over. For a few mo- 
ments, after it has passed, he stands quite exhausted ; but soon re- 
turns to his playthings, as unconcerned as though nothing had 

In some very severe cases, during a fit of coughing, blood will 
fly from the nose and mouth, and occasionally from the eyes and 
ears. The eyes, blood-shot and sunken, will fairly start from their 
sockets, presenting a horrid spectacle of suffering. 

The third, or stage of decline, consists in an amelioration of the 
severe symptoms ; the paroxysms become less frequent, and of 
shorter duration ; the child's appetite returns, and he again re- 
sumes his natural habits and disposition. 

In this stage of improvement, when all is going on smoothly, a 
slight cold may reproduce all the distinct characteristics of this 
peculiar cough. 

Complications. — Simple hooping-cough, when unconnected 
with any other disease, is seldom or never attended with much 
danger. But its complications are many, and of various forms ; 
therefore it is highly important that all the accidents that are apt 
to occur in the course of this disease should receive a careful 

Bronchitis. — This is a frequent complication of hooping-cough. 
It may be recognized by a greater amount of fever than usual ; an 
incessant cough during the first stage, with difficult breathing. 
The expectoration will be more difficult, and less profuse, and have 
a frothy or a yellowish look. You will also notice, when the child 
coughs, a marked expression of pain pass over his face. Some- 
times the spasmodic cough of pertussis will give way entirely to 
that of bronchitis ; and here let me remark, in passing, Pulsatilla 
would be the remedy. 

Convulsions. — This is by no means a rare complication, but 
is by far the most dangerous of any that we meet with. Parents 
whose children are subject, or show a predisposition, to convul- 
sions, would do well to keep a close watch over them, while passing 
through a siege of hooping-cough. 

This complication, with that of head difficulties, — congestion of 
the brain, and the like, — is more apt to occur at about the second 
year, or rather at any time during dentition. And we augur ill 
from their approach, when the cough is of great severity, and the 
face remains livid for a considerable length of time after the par- 


oxysm has passed ; or, perhaps you will perceive slight twitchings 
of the extremities, — the fingers and toes ; or of the muscles of 
the face, particularly around the eyes and mouth. The child is 
apt to be languid and sleepy after a fit of coughing is over. 

Hooping-cough complicated with convulsions, is apt to prove a 
serious affair. I would, therefore, advise you not to trust to your 
own judgment, but to procure the attendance of a good homoeo- 
pathic physiscian. Should this be impossible, do not, by any means, 
allow delusive hope to persuade you into the belief that an allo- 
pathist would do better than yourself ; as, my word for it, he 
will not. Consult article on " Convulsions." 

Pneumonia. — Inflammation of the lungs is another complica- 
tion often met with ; for the particular symptoms indicative of its 
presence, see article on " Inflammation op the Lungs." 

There are other accidents than those enumerated, such as 
emphysema, tuberculization, etc., which at times occur in connec- 
tion with hooping-cough ; but to the unprofessional reader, their 
etiology and diagnosis would be like so much Greek ; and, as they 
appear but seldom, we will therefore pass on to the consideration 
of the 

Treatment op simple Hooping-cough. — Gratifying it is to be 
able to assure the reader that over all the alarming symptoms of 
pertussis, as well as its milder forms, homoeopathy holds specific con- 
trol, and often " cuts it short," Dr. Dixon to the contrary notwith- 

As it is sometimes doubtful whether your catarrhal symptoms 
are the precursors of hooping-cough, or the accompaniments of 
an ordinary cold, you should treat them as simple catarrh. But 
the moment you hear a spasmodic bark, or the moment you become 
satisfied that you have a genuine case of pertussis to deal with, no 
matter in what stage you find it, give either Mephitis putorius or Oo- 
rallia, one dose every four hours, and continue it for four or five days. 

Drosera. — This is another invaluable remedy, especially during 
the second stage of the disease. It is indicated by the following 
symptoms : dry, spasmodic cough, with retching, worse at night, 
or upon repose ; pain in the side, just under the short ribs ; when 
coughing, the child presses with its hand upon the pit of the 
stomach ; severe fits of coughing following each other in quick 
succession, with hemorrhage from mouth and nose ; expectoration 
of thick, tough phlegm ; the cough is excited by talking or 


I would recommend a high attenuation of this remedy to be 
used, say the two hundredth, of which one dose may be given 
every six hours. 

In all probability, one or the other of the above remedies will 
break up the severe, spasmodic cough ; when, for the remaining 
symptoms, you can give an occasional dose of Causticum, and, 
especially, if there be present a rough, dry cough, worse at night, 
with hoarseness, and pain in the chest when coughing. 

Now, as hooping-cough does not always appear dressed in the 
same set of symptoms, other remedies than those enumerated may 
be called for. I will mention a few of them. 

Aconitum. — "When there is much fever, with short, dry cough, 
and pain in the chest. This remedy may be called for at any 
stage of the disease, and may be given in alternation with Bryonia 
or Phosphorus, particularly when hooping-cough threatens to be- 
come complicated with inflammation of the lungs. 

Coceionella. — For a violent, spasmodic cough, with expectora- 
tion of white or ropy, tenacious mucus. 

Stibium. — Tartar-emetic. — When, at the commencement of 
the disease, there is a hard, suffocative cough, or when there is a 
quantity of mucus which can be heard rattling in the chest; 
paroxysms of cough, with apparent danger of immediate suffoca- 
tion ; watery discharge from the eyes and nose ; pain in the eyes. 
If, in addition to the above symptoms, the cough is excited by a 
tickling in the larynx, short fits of coughing, following each 
other in quick succession, each inspiration seemingly producing 
a fresh fit of coughing, Ipecacuanha would demand the prefer- 

Chamomilla. — When there is a wheezing, rattling at each inspi- 
ration ; cough excited by an irritation in the windpipe ; the 
child is cross and fretful ; crying irritates the throat which causes 
it to cough, consequently the more it cries, the worse it coughs. 

Cuprum. — Frequent fits of coughing, with rigidity of the whole 
body ; rattling of mucus in the bronchial tubes ; entire prostration 
after a fit of coughing; the paroxysms end in vomiting, when 
complicated with convulsions. 

Hepar-sulph. — This remedy is particularly adapted to the 
period of convalesence when the cough is subsiding. Also, for a 
hollow-sounding cough ; oppression of breathing ; paleness of the 
face ; hands hot and dry. 

This remedy will tend to prevent a recurrence of the cough, from 


taking cold, by removing the sensitiveness, and the susceptibility 
of the mucous membrane from atmospheric changes. 

Administration of Remedies. — Of the remedy chosen dissolve 
twelve pills in twelve teaspoonfuls of water ; of this solution, give 
one teaspoonful for a dose, and repeat it every two, three, or six 

When giving Drosera, do not alternate it with any other rem- 

Diet and Regimen. — The diet and regimen of a child, while 
passing through a siege of hooping-cough, is an item of no little 
consideration. A stimulating diet will cause an inordinate activ- 
ity, and therefore an increased susceptibility of the whole system 
to slight exposures. The diet should be plain and nutritious. 
Light and easily digested food is the best. All spices and hot, 
stimulating drinks should be strictly avoided. For a drink, we 
may allow cold water, oatmeal-gruel, barley-water, rice-water, 
toast-water, etc. 

Exposure to cold will very much aggravate the cough, and even 
reproduce all the severe symptoms, when the child is in a fairway 
of recovery. The dress should be so regulated as to guard against 
all sudden atmospheric changes, so as to keep the body at about 
an even temperature. 


Definition. — Great difference of belief has existed as to the 
nature and exciting cause of this disease. Many considered it 
synonymous with spasmodic croup, and as such treated it ; others 
regarded it as dependent upon an enlargement of the thymus 
gland, calling it thymic asthma. But the generally received 
opinion now is, that it consists in spasms of the glottis, or opening 
at the top of the windpipe, caused by an affection of the spinal 
system of nerves. It occurs during the first, second, or third year 
of life, and appears to be frequently connected with dentition, and 
a deranged state of the digestive system. Asthma of young child- 
ren somewhat resembles, and is sometimes mistaken for, spas- 
modic croup ; but instead of being, like croup, a specific inflam- 
mation, it is purely a nervous affection, and manifests itself in 
children of a strumous or scrofulous habit, in feeble, delicate, and 
excitable subjects. 

Symptoms. — The entrance of air into the lungs is impeded or 


entirely prevented by the spasmodic contraction of the opening into 
the windpipe. Difficult breathing is the first symptom ; the inspi- 
rations are prolonged and arduous ; the air, as it passes through 
the narrowed opening (rima giottidis), produces a wheezing sound, 
or the breathing may be momentarily arrested, after which the 
child catches its breath with a shrill cry. In severe cases, when 
the closure is complete, the child gasps for breath ; the body is 
thrown violently backward ; the face turns pale, sometimes blue ; 
the forehead is bathed in sweat ; the nostrils dilate ; the eyes are 
fixed and staring. If the paroxysms continue many seconds, the 
extremities become cold, the fingers and toes contracted, or the 
whole body may become convulsed. After a time, varying from 
a few seconds to a few moments, but which appears a much longer 
time, the spasm of the glottis ceases, and a loud, full inspiration 
takes place, followed by a fit of crying. The child looks around 
somewhat frightened, sobs for a little while, but soon regains its 
accustomed spirits. An attack of this kind, occurring suddenly, 
may befall a child every week, — yet, a fortnight or a month may 
intervene between the attacks ; and, during the intervals, the 
child is as well as ever, respiration perfectly free, no fever, appe- 
tite good. 

The paroxysms at first manifest themselves in a mild form; 
but if allowed, from neglect or improper treatment, to continue, 
they increase in frequency, as well as severity, and finally be- 
come associated with other spasmodic affections. At first, they 
come on only at night, or after the child has been asleep ; gradu- 
ally, as they become frequent, they occur indifferently in the day- 
time or at night, after a crying-spell or a fit of anger. 

This disease, which is, as I have already observed, sometimes 
mistaken for spasmodic croup, may be distinguished from that 
affection, if you will remember that asthma presents no premoni- 
tory symptoms, occurs in the daytime as well as at nigrn^ is not 
accompanied with fever, and leaves no cough or hoarseness behind ; 
while, in croup, these symptoms are always present. 

Treatment. — The principal remedies for this disease are, Sam- 
bucics, Ipecac, and Arsenicum. 

Administration op Remedies. — Of whichever remedy chosen, — 
and I would advise you to commence with Sambucus and Ipecac, 
in alternation, — dissolve twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of 
water, and give one teaspoonful of this solution at a dose, and 
repeat it every ten or fifteen minutes. If this should afford no 


relief, administer Arsenicum in the same way. Should these rem- 
edies fail, Mosch., Phosphorus, or Belladonna may be indicated. 


Definition. — The larynx is a cartilaginous cavity or tube, 
forming the upper part of the windpipe. It consists of several 
movable pieces, forming that complex and beautiful instrument 
which produces every variety of tone, from the harsh, unmelo- 
dious noise of a midnight brawler, to the soft, sweet, flute-like 
sound, that flows from the warbling throat of a Jenny Lind. 

Now, laryngitis is simply an inflammation of the mucous mem- 
brane lining the larynx, just as bronchitis is an inflammation of 
the mucous membrane lining the bronchial tubes. 

It occurs at all ages of life ; but, as a general thing, is confined 
to children of from three to six years of age. It very much re- 
sembles an ordinary case of croup, but differs from that disease 
by being devoid of that peculiar, spasmodic, stridulous cough. 

An acute attack of laryngitis sometimes runs its course with 
alarming rapidity, producing death by suffocation before you 
are hardly aware that your child is in danger. It is, therefore, 
highly important that you should early recognize its first or pre- 
monitory symptoms, that you may combat it at the outset with 
prompt and energetic treatment. 

This disease it was that laid low the best, the purest man whom 
earth ever saw, George Washington. 

Causes. — Exposure to cold is the most frequent cause of this 
disease. The reader is referred to what has been said upon dis- 
eases of the air passages in general at the head of this chapter ; 
also to the article on " Croup." 

Symptoms. — This disease is usually preceded by the ordinary 
symptoms of catarrh, — sneezing, with mucous discharge from the 
head. But frequently the first thing amiss that you observe, is an 
alteration in the voice or the cry of the child ; he speaks quite 
hoarse, or the voice is deep, or entirely lost. The cough is hoarse, 
and at first dry, but it soon becomes loose ; it is usually quite 
moderate, and, as a general thing, more frequent during the even- 
ing, or early in the morning. On looking into the throat, you will 
observe more or less inflammation about the tonsils and palate ; 
this inflammation may be diffused over the whole surface, or may 
be in patches, and varies in color from a mere blush, as in mild 
cases, to a deep rose, or even a violet-red. 


Now the first symptom which should excite your alarm, is the 
difficulty of swalloiving, for which you can find no adequate cause ; 
certainly the slight inflammation observable upon inspection of the 
throat, is not sufficient. No, it is lower down than you can see ; 
you ask the child to put his finger upon the sore spot, or seat of 
his distress, and he will point to that projecting cartilage called 
Pomum Adami, or Adam's apple. 

To this difficulty of swallowing you will soon find added a diffi- 
culty of breathing. The respiration is peculiar ; it is attended 
with a throttling noise ; each inspiration produces a wheezing 
sound, just as though the air were drawn through a narrow reed. 
In fact, this sound is produced by the air being drawn through the 
narrowed opening at the top of the windpipe, and this narrowing 
is produced by the thickened or puffed-up state of the lining of 
membrane, which results from the inflammation therein existing. 

You will find the larynx painful, upon pressure being made 
externally. The face is flushed ; the skin hot and dry ; the pulse 
more frequent than in health, rising to 120° or 180° to the 
minute ; the child is thirsty, restless, and uneasy. 

As the disease advances, the general distress increases, the face 
loses its flushed appearance, and assumes a livid, anxious, ghastly 
aspect ; the eyes protrude ; intense suffering is depicted upon every 
lineament of the countenance ; the little sufferer throws up his 
arms and declares or makes signs that he wants air, that he must 
have it. And now, if relief is not soon obtained, death closes the 
frightful scene ; he perishes, he dies from actual strangulation. 

I am happy to state that this disease is not a very frequent one, 
at least the severer form of it. I have never seen a case that 
proved fatal. 

It was quite prevalent during the. winter of 1859, but yielded 
promptly to the usual treatment. 

When improvement sets in, the cough becomes less frequent, 
looser, and easier ; the fever, soreness of the throat, and difficulty 
of swallowing gradually disappears ; the voice loses its harshness ; 
the appetite returns, and, in a few days, all traces of the disease 
has vanished. 

You mil have no trouble in distinguishing this disease from a 
common sore throat, by the peculiarity and difficulty of the breath- 
ing. It is true, extreme enlargement of the tonsils obstructs 
respiration, but then, on inspection, this swelling will be visible. 


In laryngitis the inflammation and swelling is slight, at least all 
that you can see of it. 

You will recognize it as not croup, from the fact that in that 
disease swallowing is not interfered with, besides the cough is quite 

Treatment. — As soon as the inflammatory process is lighted 
up within the larynx, Aconitum should be administered in doses 
frequently repeated, and often it will arrest the severest attack at 
its very commencement. 

Aconite. — This remedy is especially indicated, when the follow- 
ing symptoms are present : skin hot and dry ; short breathing ; 
quick pulse ; great thirst ; face flushed ; short, dry cough, and 
irritability of the nervous system. Aconite should be continued 
until there is an evident abatement of the febrile symptoms, or 
until the pain and sensibility in the upper part of the windpipe 
become more decided ; the breathing and cough shrill, with an 
increase of hoarseness, and difficulty of articulation ; then Spongia 
must be substituted for, or given in alternation with, Aconite. 

Hepar-sulph. — This remedy should be given in preference to 
Spongia, when the febrile symptoms remain unabated after the 
use of Aconite. Hepar and Spongia may be given in alternation 
from one to two hours apart. 

Belladonna. — Highly sensitive and inflamed state of the throat, 
inability to swallow liquids, every attempt produces a spasmodic 
choking ; the tongue hot and dry ; dry, short cough, worse at 

Tartar-emetic. — When there is hoarseness from the first, cough 
hard and ringing, or paroxysmal fits of coughing, with suffocative 
arrests of breathing. 

Phosphorus. — For the remaining hoarseness, with more or less 
pain, and a feeling of fulness or tightness about the chest ; expec- 
toration of viscid mucus. 

Lachesis. — Hoarseness, with a sensation as though something 
had to be hawked up ; great sensitiveness to external pressure. 

Administration. — Dissolve six globules in twelve teaspoonfuls 
of water, and give of the solution one teaspoonful at a dose, from 
one to three hours apart. In extreme cases a close may be given 
every ten or fifteen minutes. 

Diet and Regimen. — A child suffering from this disease should 
be confined to a warm room, and not allowed to roam all over the 
house, through cold rooms and in drafts of air. 


A slight reduction of diet is advisable, forbidding all condi- 
ments, or anything of a stimulating nature. A farinaceous diet is 
the best. 

The application of cold water is always advisable, often afford- 
ing great relief. 

Rubbing the throat with camphorated oil, goose-grease, ready- 
reliefs, — in fact, the application of stimulating lotions or embro- 
cations of any kind is highly objectionable. 


The term cold is a relative one, and is used in this connection 
to express a certain condition or sensation produced by the abstrac- 
tion of heat from the system by any substance of a lower tempera- 
ture than that of the body. This condition or sensation, it will 
therefore be observed, may not always be occasioned by the same 
degree of temperature. For instance, a temperature that, to a 
healthy, active, vigorous man, would seem warm, or at least com- 
fortable, would to one enfeebled by disease, appear right the 
reverse. Or, the temperature of a room to a properly-clad female, 
might seem warm, while to her delicate child, with arms and chest 
entirely naked, it would be cold. What would be cold weather to 
a Southerner, would be warm to an Esquimaux. Again, a man or 
child, though perhaps not of the strongest physical constitution, 
but full of vim, with high, moral and physical courage and excite- 
ment, will resist a greater amount of cold, than one who is faint- 
hearted, nervously depressed or despondent. 

Children are more susceptible to atmospheric depressions than 
adults, and simply because the power of generating heat within 
themselves is weak, undeveloped. 

In considering the effect of cold upon the system, due reference 
should always be had to the capabilities of those function's whose 
duty it is to supply heat, and whose capabilities, it should ever be 
remembered, are in direct proportion to the healthfulness and 
vigor of the constitutional powers. "When the vital energies are 
weak, a less degree of cold will depress them than when they are 
vigorous and energetic. 

A robust, healthy boy, full of life and energy, with free and full 
respiration, one who is accustomed to much out-door exercise, and 
can trundle his hoop till the blood goes dancing through his veins, 
distributing vital warmth throughout his system, is vastly more 


capable ot withstanding the injurious effect of cold than the child 
who has been housed up in warm rooms, whose respiration is 
feeble, and circulation sluggish. The latter, instead of being able 
to spare some heat, must be so clad as not to allow a particle of 
that which he evolves to escape. 

Some persons, owing to an exhausted or inactive condition of 
the digestive, nervous, circulating or respiratory functions, are 
peculiarly sensitive to the least atmospheric depression ; they are 
unable to generate vital heat, sufficient to supply the loss which is 
extracted from the exposed surfaces of the body. This is espe- 
cially the condition with infants, aged persons, and convalescents. 

There are many conditions which favor the injurious action of 
cold upon the body, among which may be mentioned the unde- 
veloped and the exhausted state of the " heating apparatus,", as 
in infancy and old age ; debility ; exhaustion from previous ill- 
ness ; fatigue ; dissipation ; over-heating of the body ; too long 
fasting; over-eating, or excesses of any kind which depress or 
diminish the vital forces of the nervous system. The power of 
resisting cold is also diminished in a wonderful degree by sleep. 

Other things being equal, cold is more likely to prove injurious, 
when it is applied by a wind, or a current of air, and especially 
when but a part of the body is exposed to its influence, as when 
sitting by an open window, or in such a position that a current is 
allowed to impress any definite part of the body for a length of 
time. One may walk or stand, out-doors, in the wind and feel no 
bad results from it, but let him be exposed to a current of air of 
the same temperature, passing through a chink in the door, 
directly upon his back, or upon his head from a partially opened 
window, and it will soon produce results injurious to a greater or 
less extent, according to the individual's constitutional powers of 
resistance. Cold does not always cause disease in the exact part 
to which it has been applied, that is to say, because a person sits 
through a tedious concert with a draft of air continuously playing 
a disease-producing tattoo upon his back, he must not necessarily 
have rheumatic pains or some other trouble in the part, although 
this may be the case. As a general rule, the cold, by diminishing 
vital action in the parts on which it acts, so determines and in- 
creases the same in distant parts, as to give rise to congestions and 
inflammations, or to a train of diseased action, more or less defi- 
nite, which, by common consent, is usually termed a cold, such as 
chills, general soreness and lameness, pains and aches in the head 


and limbs, followed, as soon as reaction comes on, by accelerated 
respiration and circulation, as well as other symptoms which con- 
stitute fever. 

Cold does not affect all persons alike. Two ladies, exposed to 
the same current of air, may, as the result, suffer from diseases 
quite dissimilar. This depends upon peculiarities in temperament, 
predisposition, and habit of the individual. As a general rule, 
however, those organs or parts of the system are first affected 
which are the weakest. If the lungs are predisposed to disease, 
cold will develop some difficulty in these organs. Should a person 
be subject to catarrh, cold will act as an exciting cause to bring it 
into action. Children subject to croup, to glandular enlargements, 
or to gatherings in the head, need but a cold to set the disease in 
motion. The same principle is true with other organs and struc- 
tures of the system. The extent and severity of the disease thus 
excited will depend upon the amount of exposure, and the deli- 
cacy of the part affected. 

The most common results of taking cold are catarrh and cough, 
sometimes fever, colic, dysenteria, diarrhoea, neuralgia, sore-throat, 
pains in the teeth, ears, or general pain and soreness throughout the 
vrhole system. 

Treatment. — In the selection of remedies for the evil effects 
of cold, it will frequently be necessary to refer to those chapters 
where the diseases are treated of more at large. In this place, we 
shall only treat of those medicines which are applicable to the more 
common cases. 

In many instances, one is aware of having taken cold long in 
advance of any definite symptoms manifesting themselves. Or, in 
other words, the individual is aware of having taken cold before 
its injurious effects have settled upon any particular organ or part. 
There may be a general feeling of lassitude, some chilliness, and an 
inclination to yawn and stretch. In most instances, these^ symp- 
toms may be dissipated, and all further evil results warded off, by 
a few doses of Aconite. 

Some persons are in the habit, for removing these first symptoms 
of a cold, of taking a hot sling on retiring at night, and thus in- 
duce free perspiration. This frequently answers every purpose, 
affording prompt relief. A few globules of Aconite and a glass of 
cold water, however, will produce like results, and are certainly 
much more agreeable. 


Should the cold have been occasioned by the patient getting wet, 
give Dulcamara, Bryonia, or Rhus. 

For cold in the head, from wet feet, give Cepa or Dulcamara ; 
for pain in the limbs, Rhus or Mercurius ; for general soreness and 
lameness, Bryonia. 

Colic. — When colic results from a cold, give China, Chamo- 
milla, Nux-mos., Mercurius, or Nux-vomica. See " Colic." 

Cough. — For coughs provoked by a cold, we give Aconite. 
When there is a sensation of dryness and roughness in the larynx, 
or even throughout the whole chest, occasioning an incessant, 
short, dry, hollow cough, accompanied with more or less fever, if 
the cough excites vomiting, Nux-vom. or Oarbo-v. If accom- 
panied with a tough expectoration, which children cannot get up, 
Ghamomilla; if loose, Dulcamara or Pulsatilla. Bryonia may fol- 
low, or be given in alternation with Aconite, especially if there 
should be soreness of the chest, pain under the ribs, stitches in 
the side, cough dry and convulsive, expectoration streaked with 
blood, or cough from a tickling in the throat. 

Separ-sulph. — For a loose cough, attended with mucous rat- 
tling in the chest, pain in the throat when coughing, and a feeling 
in the chest which renders talking oppressive. If the cough is 
always worse after retiring, Belladonna or Nux-mos. Consult 
article on " Cough." 

Cold in the Head. — For catarrh, with great heat in the eyes 
and head, and soreness of the nose, give Belladonna. If the nose 
is entirely stopped, Nux-vom. 

Mercurius. — When the lining membrane of the eyes and nose 
is highly irritated, giving rise to copious discharge ; a feeling of ful- 
ness in the head ; pains in the limbs, accompanied with profuse 
perspiration ; constant sneezing ; profuse, excoriating coryza. 

Cepa. — When there is running from the nose and eyes ; great 
heat and thirst, accompanied with headache ; worse at night and 
while in-door s. 

Arsenicum. — Excessive discharge of an acrid, burning water 
from the nose, with hoarseness and sleeplessness. 

Pulsatilla. — Stoppage of the nose in the evening, with a dis- 
charge of thick, yellow mucus in the morning ; catarrh, with loss 
of taste and smell ; may be followed by Nux-vom. If a catarrh, 
becomes checked by a fresh cold, give Pulsatilla. 

Consult article on " Catarrh and Coryza." 

Headache, Toothache, Earache. — Belladonna for headache, 


when there is a fulness, as though the head would burst, espe- 
cially when going up-stairs, and worse in the open air. For pain, 
or pressure in single spots, with buzzing in the ears, and hardness 
of hearing, give Dulcamara. When headache is accompanied with 
giddiness, give JSfux^nos. If accompanied with nausea and vom- 
iting, JYux-vom., Coculus or Antimonium-c. 

For earache, arising from cold, give Rhus, Chamomilla, Nux- 
vomica, Mercurius, Dulcamara, Bryonia, or Sulphur. See " Ear- 

For toothache, arising from cold, give Aconite, Bryonia, Chamo- 
milla, Rhus, JVux-mos., or Mercurius. See " Toothache." 

Sore Throat. — For sore throat, arising from cold, Belladonna 
or Mercurius will usually suffice. See " Sore Throat." 

Diarrhoea. — Diarrhoea, occasioned by cold drinks, generally 
yields to Arsenicum or Bryonia. For diarrhoea immediately after 
taking cold, give Opium or Dulcamara. For diarrhoea from 
checked perspiration, especially in the summer time, or during 
warm weather, Bryonia. From getting wet, Dulcamara, followed 
by Bryonia. When caused by eating ice-cream, give Opium, Grlo- 
noine, or Bryonia. Consult article on " Diarrhoea." 

Administration op Remedies. — Dissolve of the remedy se- 
lected, twelve globules in six spoonfuls of water ; and of this solu- 
tion give one spoonful at a dose, and repeat it as often as the 
exigency of the case seems to demand, 




General Remarks. — As a large number of the various stom- 
ach and intestinal disorders originate from the same disturbing 
influences, I have deemed it expedient to make here a few obser- 
vations embraced under the heading of General Remarks, upon 
their frequency, cause, and prevention. By this means we shall 
save numerous repetitions, when we come to speak of specific dis- 

Of the importance of a just understanding, and a due consider- 
ation of this class of diseases, it is but necessary for me to assert, 
that they are the occasion of about one-fourth of all the deaths 
under fifteen years of age. They are by far the most frequent 
and fatal diseases to which childhood is exposed. 

The particular age at which children are most liable to these 
affections is from birth to the termination of first dentition ; this 
of course includes the second summer. From this period onward, 
as the child increases in years, it becomes less liable to their inva- 

Causes. — By far the most frequent exciting cause of all gastric 
diseases during infancy, is an improper, or an unwholesome 
diet. They are not unfrequently, in nursing infants, dependent 
upon an unhealthy condition of the mother's milk ; but it seems 
to me that the chief source of difficulty is the too early resort to 
an artificial diet, or an artificial diet badly chosen. Of course, 
the natural aliment of an infant is its mother's milk, which, dur- 
ing the first few months is very thin, and possesses properties pe- 
culiar to itself. Now contrast this with the various articles of 
food prepared for children; the latter consist of pap, or thick 
bread and milk, or crackers moistened with milk and water, to 
which a little sugar is added ; gruels of all kinds ; coarse prepara- 
tions of rice, barley, etc., etc. As before intimated, the stomach 


of an infant is only intended to receive the milk provided by its 
parent ; and it is entirely incapable of digesting the thick or coarse 
food, as "well as often too rich, which is so frequently substituted for 
that which nature has provided. 

However, it is not always the quality of the food only that is at 
fault, but, often, I imagine, the quantity as well. Physicians and 
discriminating nurses have long recognized the over-feeding of 
children as a frequent source of mischief. Children fed upon an 
artificial diet scarcely ever escape these intestinal derangements. 
Every mother of any experience, knows that diarrhoea is very apt 
to set in immediately after weaning a child ; and any one who has 
given it a moment's thought must certainly have inferred that 
this is but the result of an irritation of the mucous membrane 
lining the intestinal canal, produced by the change of food made at 
the time. 

An indigestion, or a loss of digestive power, and the consequent 
enervation and wasting-away of the system, from imperfect assim- 
ilation, is but the direct effect of an improper diet, or the over- 
taxation of the digestive apparatus from excessive feeding. 

The heats of summer and sudden atmospheric changes are un- 
doubtedly powerful predisposing causes to infantile bowel com- 
plaints ; in fact, we seldom have these diseases to any great ex- 
tent, presenting all their characteristic features, except during the 
hot months of summer. To the heats of summer, we have usually 
to add, impure air and badly ventilated houses. As you pass 
through some of the streets of our cities, and inhale the effluvia 
from the dirty gutters, you wonder, not that so many are taken 
sick, but that all do not die ; and then, when you come to enter 
the damp basements, and find huddled together whole families of 
ten or a dozen persons, occupying one room, in which they cook, 
eat, and sleep, you are actually bewildered and in amazement, 
wondering how any mortal can draw the breath of life from, such 
a contaminated atmosphere. 

To people living thus, and all those who reside in narrow, 
crowded streets and alleys, these diseases are as scourges. But 
these disorders are not confined exclusively to the poor, and to 
those living beneath the ground, and away from the light and air 
which God has given us. No, they are only too common among 
all classes of the inhabitants of our large cities. 

Dentition, being a natural, physiological process, we should not 
expect it to be productive of any evil results ; nevertheless, it is 


a well-established fact, that the cutting of teeth is a powerful pre- 
disposing cause to intestinal irritation, and it frequently impairs or 
diminishes the tone of the digestive function, so that a child is 
often unable, during the period of cutting teeth, to digest food, 
which at other times agreed with it perfectly well. In considera- 
tion of these facts, it would seem advisable that a child should not 
be weaned until after the period of first dentition is completed. 
The protrusion of the teeth appears to be the first indication on 
the part of nature, that the digestive organs are sufficiently de- 
veloped to receive and digest other food than milk. It can now 
masticate for itself. This is a fact which I have always endeavored 
to impress upon the minds of my patients, and, I am sorry to say, 
with but indifferent success. They complain that nursing a child 
is so fatiguing ; it is such a drain upon their system, that they are 
really unable to bear it ; or, if they are willing, some other obsta- 
cle presents itself, which makes it advisable that the child should 
be weaned. 

The preceding remarks apply exclusively to infants. Gastric 
derangements of children, from the completion of the first denti- 
tion to the age of eight or ten years, may, in the majority of cases, 
be traced directly to the persistent inattention on the part of 
mothers and nurses to the general laws of health. It is the 
strangest thing in all the world to me, that poor human nature, 
who is so plain in all her requirements, should be so wholly disre- 
garded. I often wonder, whether it is from ignorance or from 
thoughtlessness, that people give so little attention to what they 
know is necessary for their well-being, if they would preserve 
good health. It appears to be a studied endeavor on the part of 
some people, to see how far the laws of nature can be perverted, 
or wholly ignored. Sometimes I think it is the evil one himself 
who is leading us astray, and that by these invasions upon a 
rational mode of living, he is endeavoring to enfeeble the race, 
both physically and mentally, and thus render us an easier prey to 
his infernal machinations. Scripture tells us, "Whatsoever a man 
soweth, that shall he also reap." This applies as well to the phys- 
ical as to the spiritual man, and nowhere, perhaps, would a ser- 
mon on this text be more appropriate than just here. As, if ye 
sow tares, ye expect not to reap wheat, so neither ought ye to 
expect a harvest of good health after sowing the seeds of dys- 

Since the first contemplation of this work, I have made exten- 


sive inquiries in regard to the diet of children. These investiga- 
tions have amply confirmed my own observations, that it is quite 
a common thing, in fact the general custom, to allow children of 
from two to three years to sit at the table and partake of the same 
food that is prepared for the adult members of the family. Now, 
any one who will take the trouble to pause a moment, and con- 
sider the number and variety of dishes concocted to suit the deli- 
cate palates of this fastidious people, and at the same time remem- 
ber that the children have an indiscriminate and free choice from 
amid such a profusion, certainly cannot be surprised at the thin, 
pale, puny specimens of humanity that meet his gaze on every 
hand, continual subjects of intestinal and gastric derangements, 
whose systems, like a wilted plant, droop with the slightest expos- 
ure, and are continually harassed by some one of the mighty host 
of ills following in the train of an enfeebled digestion. 

Dr. Meigs, the most celebrated writer upon diseases of children, 
and from whom we have already made extensive quotations, when 
speaking of diet in relation to intestinal diseases, makes use of the 
following language : — 

" The chief causes of the disease, after the first dentition, are, 
according to my experience, the habitual use of improper food. 
.... I am acquainted with some families in this city, the chil- 
dren of which, from the age of two years, are allowed habitually, 
to breakfast upon hot rolls and butter, hot buckwheat cakes, hot 
Indian cake, rice cakes, sausages, salt fish, ham or dried beef, 
and coffee or tea ; and to dine upon a choice of various meats, and 
a great variety of vegetables, which latter they often prefer to the 
exclusion of meat, and then make a rich dessert of pies, pud- 
dings, preserves, or fruits ; and lastly, to make an evening meal 
of tea and bread and butter, almost always relished, as the term 
is, with preserves, stewed fruits, hot cakes of some kind, or with 
radishes, cucumbers, or some similar dish. Add to such meals the 
eating, between whiles, of all kinds of candies and comfits, which 
many children here regularly expect in larger or smaller quantity, 
cakes, both rich and plain, fruits to excess, and at all hours, from 
soon after breakfast to just before going to bed, raisins and al- 
monds and nuts of various kinds ; and the wonder is, not that we 
are a pale, thin, dyspeptic, and anxious-looking race of people, 
compared with Europeans, but that we have any health at all, 
when our children are allowed to make use of the indiscriminate 
and unwholesome diet just described." 


Now one would think this alone enough to degenerate the whole 
race in a short time ; but to all this, is yet to be added that vile, 
pernicious habit of drugging children with medicines. Most moth- 
ers and nurses have, each, their little collection of remedies ; some 
choose the simple, — those that are usually called domestic reme- 
dies, that are chiefly concocted from roots and herbs ; while others 
make free use of all the patent medicines which the shops afford ; 
and are ever ready to descant learnedly upon the relative merits of 
all the vermifuges, blood-purifiers, and human regulators generally, 
that quackery ever yet imposed upon an innocent public. For 
every little ailment that may overtake a child, brought about, as 
we have already said, in most cases, by some error in diet, a dose 
of medicine must be given, — usually a cathartic. Now this, in 
the first place, is all unnecessary, even if it were ever so harmless. 
The seeming disorder from which the child is suffering is but an 
effort on the part of nature to rid herself of some offending sub- 
stance, as, in the great majority of cases, she would readily do, 
if meddlesome hands would but let her alone. But no. The 
child is sick, perhaps " bilious," so a dose of medicine must be 
given, to work it off. And what is the result ? Why, a slight 
indisposition, which a judicious restriction of diet, and a little 
care would have speedily removed, is, by officious hands, other- 
wise changed to some serious disorder. The medicine given is so 
repulsive to nature, that the whole system is thrown into commo- 
tion, in the effort to reject it ; the child is vomited, physicked, in 
fact, " thoroughly cleaned out," as the saying is ; and this is 
looked upon as salutary ; but a greater mistake was never made. 
If the child recovers, it does so in spite of the treatment ; but in 
the majority of cases, the extra irritation and exhaustion thus 
produced, if not the direct cause of some immediate mischief, is 
surely laying the foundation for future disease, by enfeebling the 
whole digestive apparatus. 

And thus the nervous system becomes shattered also ; the child 
grows up irritable, cross, morose, and a constant subject for all 
sorts of nervous affections. 

These little innocent domestic remedies that mothers are so fond 
of giving are not as innocent as they have been wont to think. I 
am of the opinion, — and you can have this opinion endorsed by 
questioning any intelligent physician, — that their effects are far 
deeper and far more lasting than people generally suppose. 

I do not know how the nervous system can be more speedily 


affecte'd and permanently injured than by this eternal drugging. 
As for the patent medicines of our day, their ill effects are incal- 
culable. There is scarce one of them that does not contain some 
rank poison, and that, too, in no " infinitesimal " quantities. It 
is singular with what audacity these nostrums are placed before 
the public. The proprietress of one advertises herself as " The 
Florence Nightingale of the Nursery ! " " Angels and ministers 
of" health defend the children ! say we, from her somniferous 
hand. There is no doubt but that any of their syrups or cordials 
would put a fretting child to sleep, even while " teething," and 
you might attend a party or a ball without a fear of its waking ; 
opium would produce the same result ; either, however, does it 
only at the hazard of the child's future health. If these domestic 
remedies were but given occasionally, so much need not be thought 
of it ; but just think what slight ailments call for their use, and 
with what a free and generous hand they are given. It is aston- 
ishing how slight a recommendation they need ; a mere hearsay is 
all that is required. 

If you had a valuable gold watch, and from some cause, to you 
unknown, it should stop running, and a friend should come along 
and tell you that all it needed was a little oiling, would you open 
the case and pour in at random a few drops of oil? No; you 
would take it to the best jeweller that you could find, and charge 
even him to be careful with it. But your child, whose organiza- 
tion is far more intricate, far more delicate, and far more suscepti- 
ble of permanent injury, when tampered with by ignorant hands, 
than any watch ever manufactured, — if its system becomes de- 
ranged, or deviates in the least from its normal condition, and 
some old lady comes along and says, " Give it this, or give it that," 
why, down it goes. You simply take her recommendation for it. 
If the lock upon your front-door refuses to bolt, you know not 
why, or your gas refuses to burn, from some obstruction in the 
meter, you do not commence tinkering at the one, or overhauling 
the other, but immediately send for a man skilled in the business, 
and place the article in his charge. How different with your 
child ! If he is sick, you know just exactly what to do ; if he 
picks his nose, he has got worms ; and, if he has got worms, why, 
of course, he must take Dr. Taenia's Vermifuge, — it is a certain 
cure, for you read so in a medical almanac. I saw a lady, this 
very day, who was mourning because she did not find out sooner 
that her child had the scarlet fever, for old Mrs. Blixen had said, 



" that if a sheep's melt were bound upon the child's feet,' at the 
outset, it was a certain cure ! " How often will some people 
take up a newspaper, read over a string of symptoms attached to 
an advertisement of some popular quack nostrum, and immedi- 
ately recognize the very disease from which their child is suffer- 
ing, send for a bottle, and force it down, whipping the child, 
perhaps, because its nature revolts against the nauseous stuff. 
Besides, all children will get bilious, — at least, parents are apt 
to think so, — and therefore they must occasionally take an anti- 
bilious pill, and, by way of variety, perhaps an emetic. 

In addition to all this, every spring and fall, the children, like 
an old house, must have a " thorough cleaning out," perhaps be 
fumigated, under the absurd notion of purifying the blood. Now, 
who, when in his right mind, reasoning rationally, can help arriv- 
ing at the fact, that this eternal drugging is one great source of 
stomach and intestinal derangements. I do not believe there is 
another nation upon the face of the earth where drugging is so 
universally practised as it is here in America. 

In passing through Our cemeteries, one cannot help being struck 
with the number of little white stones, all nestled among the grass, 
and upon many of them you will find this beautiful little couplet, 
beautiful, when true : — 

" Sleep on, sweet babe, and take thy rest, 
God called thee home; he thought it best." 

I never read it but I sigh, as 1 think how often it might be 
changed, and truly, too, to read as follows : — 

Sleep on, sweet child, thy trouble's past; 
Physic has freed thy soul at last. 


Definition. — The term thrush or aphthae is applied to an ulcer- 
ative sore mouth, peculiar to infants, which makes its appearance 
during the first year ; as a general thing, within the first fortnight. 

Nurses and women of experience generally anticipate the arrival 
of this unwelcome visitor, and, as a preventive, are very careful, 
after the child has nursed to wash its mouth with a soft linen rag 
dipped in cold water, and to remove all particles of milk, which, 
if allowed to remain there and ferment, would tend to induce an 
irritation of the delicate membrane lining the mouth. This gen- 
eral expectation, on the part of nurses, shows that the disease in 
question is one of no uncommon occurrence. 


Causes. — I do not think there is any great reason to be sur- 
prised, that parts so tender and delicate in their structure should 
become abraded and inflamed, when we take into consideration the 
fact, that of all the thousands of children born annually within 
the United States, few, yes, very few indeed, escape having their 
stomachs crammed with some pernicious mixture of sugar or 
molasses, or some one of the forty thousand other outlandish 
things, which grandmothers and old-fogy nurses invariably have 
ready at hand upon their arrival. Why, the irritation of the spoon, 
even, in punching such trash into an infant's mouth is enough 
itself to excite an inflammation. 

I know it is common to attribute the sore mouth of children to 
some derangement of the digestive organs, but seldom, indeed, do 
you find children suffering from thrush, or, in fact, many of the 
diseases of the mouth and intestinal canal, which are so common, 
unless where the stomach has been made a vat in which to ferment 
some nauseous mixture of honey or molasses. 

Symptoms. — Thrush or aphthae is characterized by the eruption 
of vesicles, capped with small, white spots, which break, and are 
followed by small, round ulcers, with edges more or less thickened, 
and surrounded by a red circle of inflammation ; the bottom of the 
ulcer is of a grayish color, and secretes a whitish, cheesy humor, 
which adheres more or less to the surface. 

"When these ulcers or aphthseous patches are isolated, they usually 
occupy the internal surface of the under lip and cheeks, the 
edges of the tongue and gums ; when numerous or confluent, the 
inner surface of the mouth is quite covered with them, while the 
matter secreted extends or spreads from one to another, forming a 
complete coating, of greater or less thickness. When this layer 
becomes detached, upon close inspection the ulcerated points are 
visible beneath. 

As a general thing, there is little or no fever, neither v is the 
child as restless or as fretful as one would expect. The mouth is 
hot, and the saliva is secreted in larger quantities than is natural. 
These ulcers, even when in small numbers, cause severe pain, and 
if situated far back in the mouth, interfere with swallowing. 

Now, aphthae may be confined exclusively to the mouth, or it may 
penetrate into the windpipe, the oesophagus, or the stomach ; it 
may occupy spots upon different parts of the alimentary canal, or 
the whole mucous membrane, from the mouth to the rectum, may 
be involved. 


When aphtha extends over a large surface, affecting the stomach 
and bowels, the child grows pale and thin, diarrhoea sets in, and 
the affection, which at first seemed insignificant, may assume quite 
a serious character. See " Canker of the Mouth." 

Treatment. — Borax is an excellent remedy for aphthae, and may 
be given in the form of pills, dry, upon the tongue, or twelve 
glooules may be dissolved in as many teaspoonfuls of water, and 
given, one teaspoonful of the solution every three hours. 

A weak solution of Borax — a few grains to a teacupful of 
water — is frequently used as a gargle or wash for the mouth ; 
when this is done, no other internal administration of this remedy 
will be necessary, as the child will swallow quite a sufficiency for 
a dose. 

Mercurius. — When there is profuse salivation, and a tendency 
toward ulceration. If Mercurius fails to effect a cure, follow it 
with Sulphur. 

Arsenicum. — For bad cases, when the ulcers assume a livid 
hue, or if the mouth and throat become covered with ulcerations, 
attended with diarrhoea and great prostration of strength. When 
Arsenicum does not prove sufficient, give Nitric-acid. 

Chamomilla is sometimes of service, especially when the mouth 
is hot, considerable fever, and great restlessness. 

Nux-vomica and Bryonia may also, in some cases, be of service. 

Administration of Remedies. — The directions for Borax have 
already been given. The other remedies may be given in the 
same manner. 


Definition. — This form of sore mouth is usually found in 
children of from five to ten years of age : by many it is consid- 
ered contagious, but, upon this point, physicians are divided ; all 
agree, however, in considering it epidemical. It is an inflamma- 
tion of the mucous membrane, with an exudation upon the surface, 
of a yellowish, plastic lymph, with erosion, or ulceration, which 
occasionally, particularly if improperly treated, assumes a very 
destructive character, running into deep, dark, sloughing sores. 

This affection is also known as cancrum oris, scurvy of the 
mouth, or canker-sores. 

Symptoms. — The peculiar characteristics of this disease are, 
first, pain and uneasy sensations in the gums, which soon become 


hot, red, and very sensitive ; they also swell, become spongy, and 
bleed when touched. 

The gums, and internal surface of the cheeks are covered, or 
rather, spotted over with patches of false membrane which adheres, 
with considerable force, to the tissue beneath ; under this layer of 
exudation, small ulcers make their appearance on the gums, the 
inside of the lips, and cheeks, on the soft palate, and edges of the 
tongue. Sometimes this false membrane is entirely wanting, when 
the ulcers are plainly visible, and present a grayish or livid ap- 
pearance, with swollen, softened, or bleeding edges. 

These ulcerated spots may be but few in number, either upon 
the inner surface of the lips, and cheeks, or edges of the gums, or 
they may be studded over the whole cavity of the cheek. 

The breath is always more or less fetid, and not unfrequently 
putrid, or almost gangrenous, and sometimes, especially in severe 
cases, there is a copious discharge of offensive bloody serum from 
the mouth. 

The glands about the throat and neck are swollen and painful ; 
the movements of the under-jaw are stiff; this, together with the 
looseness of the teeth, makes mastication very difficult, while 
swallowing is interfered with, from soreness of the tongue and 
throat. , 

There is generally more or less of a low grade of fever ; the 
patient loses his strength, and sometimes becomes very much pros- 

The course of this disease is short, if under judicious treatment ; 
but, not unfrequently, sudden, severe, and destructive salivation 
is set up by the intemperate — allopathic — administration of 
calomel, which, if not ending in gangrene of the mouth, prolongs 
the difficulty to an indefinite length of time. 

Treatment. — Mercurius. — This remedy is indicated in almost 
every case, and may always be given at the commencement of the 
disease ; unless it was brought about by calomel or mercury in 
some form, in which case Carbo-v. should he administered, to be 
followed if necessary, by Hepar-s. or Nitric-acid. 

Natrum Muriaticum. — Particularly when the gums are swollen, 
and bleed when touched ; when blisters and small ulcers appear 
upon the tongue, which smart and burn, rendering talking painful. 

Nux-vomica. — For putrid and painful ulcers ; swellings of the 
gums ; fetid ulcers over the whole inside of the mouth ; emacia- 
tion, constipation, and irritability. 


Sulphur — At the end of the cure, or when other remedies fail ; 
also when there is swelling of the gums, with pulsative pains. 

Arsenicum, Carbo-v., Dulcamara, and Capsicum are sometimes 

Administration of Remedies. — Of the chosen remedy, dissolve 
twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of water ; 'one teaspoonful 
of this solution may be given for a dose. At the commencement 
of a case, or in severe cases, the remedy may be repeated every 
two hours, until amelioration or change. In cases less urgent, a 
dose may be given every four hours. 

Diet and Regimen. — The diet should be plain, and of either a 
farinaceous or vegetable form ; animal food, either solid or in 
soups or broth, had better be dispensed with. 

It is desirable that the mouth should be frequently gargled or 
rinsed out, and especially after eating, that no offensive matter, or 
particles of food may remain to irritate the parts. A weak solution 
of brandy and water makes the best wash, lemon-juice and water 
is frequently used, so is a decoction of sage. I advise, however, 
the brandy and water. 

Decayed teeth, or stumps of teeth, remaining in the mouth, are 
often the source of irritation : when such is the case, they should 
be speedily removed. 


Definition. — The term gangrene, you will please bear in mind, 
is synonymous with mortification. 

Gangrene of the mouth is, justly, the terror of all those who 
have it to contend with. It generally commences with ulceration 
of the mucous membrane lining the cheeks and covering the gums, 
which, if not soon arrested, runs into gangrene. The mucous tis- 
sue of the mouth, the gums, the lips, and the substance of the 
cheeks, are destroyed, turn black, and slough away, leaving the 
teeth loosened, the jaw-bone denuded and exposed, while from 
the mouth there stream quantities of offensive, thick, black mucus. 
Such is gangrene of the mouth. 

Causes. — This affection is seldom met with in private prac- 
tice. It is almost exclusively confined to public institutions, such 
as nurseries, almshouses, hospitals, and the like, where large 
numbers of children are gathered promiscuously together. It al- 
most always follows upon some previous acute or chronic disease, 


such as long-continued fevers, measles, or other acute exanthema, 
and where, I take it, the patient suffered more from the treatment 
than from the actual disease. 

Unfavorable hygienic conditions, debilitated constitutions, a 
scrofulous habit, etc., are conceded on all sides to constitute 
the predisposing cause of this affection ; but the exciting cause 
has been, and still is, a bone of contention among those physi- 
cians encountering this disease. It is perfectly plain, however, 
to those who are disposed to see, that gangrene of the mouth is 
nothing more nor less than poisoning by mercury. 

This disease, as has been observed, only occurs in public in- 
stitutions, — those hot-beds of routine practice and experimenta- 
tion. Private practice sees but little of it, because here heroic 
treatment is under some restraint. 

Symptoms. — Having never treated a case of gangrene of the 
mouth, and seen but few, I shall borrow from Billet and Bar- 
thez a description of the disease, which Dr. Teste assures us is 
as true as it is striking. 

" Gangrene of the mouth begins during the course of conva- 
lescence from another acute or chronic disease, by ulceration, 
aphthae, or more rarely by oedema, — swelling of the part where 
gangrene is about to be developed. At this time, the face is 
pale, the breath fetid; the fever not very intense, unless. there 
also exists a febrile disease, and then the pulse may be consider- 
ably accelerated ; the child becomes more sad ; ordinarily com- 
plains little, or none at all, of the mouth ; sometimes, though 
rarely, he suffers severe pain. 

" The ulceration, slight at first, and with a grayish base, situ- 
ated upon the middle of the internal surface of the mouth, or in 
the folds between the gums and the lips, is soon covered with a 
grayish, putrilaginous excretion, of a fetid and peculiar odor ; at 
the same time, an infiltration of the diseased cheek or lip takes 
place ; the oedema is soft, rather regularly circumscribed ; "it soon 
becomes increased, and there is formed, deep in its centre, a hard, 
regular, round nucleus. Then the cheek becomes tense, shining, 
and pale, or marked with a violet-colored marbling, more decided 
upon the prominent parts of the tumor. In the interior of the 
mouth, the eschar has taken a brown color ; it has spread consid- 
erably, has reached the gums ; it is sometimes surrounded by a 
violet-colored circle. 

The child is seated in his bed, and occupies himself with the 


objects around him ; sometimes without strength, he lies in a state 
of indifference, his face, puffed and without expression on one 
side, is sad and depressed on the other; a bloody, or already 
blackish saliva flows from his half-open lips. He asks, however, 
for food, and takes with avidity what is offered him, and swallows, 
together, his food and the putrid matter detached from the gan- 
grenous parts. 

" His skin is cool, and his pulse but little developed, and of mod- 
erate frequency; unless there exists some febrile complication, his 
mind is clear, but sometimes, during the night, he has more or 
less intense delirium. 

" From the third to the sixth day of the disease, the scene 
changes, an eschar is formed upon the most purple and prominent 
part of the tumor, either upon the cheek, or upon the under lip, 
small, black, and dry, this eschar extends itself from day to day, 
and sometimes attains considerable dimensions, invading almost 
the whole side of the face, or even descending upon the neck ; at 
the same time, that of the mucous membrane is increased in the 
interior. The aspect of the child is as sad as it is hideous to the 
sight-: sometimes, in a sitting posture, and availing himself of all 
his strength, he tears from the interior of his mouth the gan- 
grenous fragments ; sometimes lying dejected, depressed, he allows 
to flow out and cover him a blackish and fetid sanies. 

" This appearance, however, may become still more repulsive, 
when the slough is partially detached, and the mass is seen hang- 
ing from the cheeks, or, even worse, when, falling off, it leaves a 
perforation, through which the bare and loosened teeth, and the 
blackened maxillary bones are visible. The odor is then of the 
most offensive character ; the child still retains some strength, and 
asks for food, or, in the last state of prostration, he refuses all 
nourishment ; there is always great thirst, and the patient drinks 
with avidity ; he does not vomit, but there is great relaxation of 
the bowels ; he becomes rapidly more and more emaciated, his 
skin is dry, but not very warm, his pulse, very small, becomes in- 
sensible, and death arrives, without other phenomena." 

Treatment. — Hartman recommends Secale-cornutum, and 
Arsenicum, to which Teste adds Ipecac, Muriatic-acd., and Kreo- 



Definition. — This disease consists in an irritation, inflamma- 
tion, and swelling of the salivary glands of the mouth and throat, 
with a profuse discharge of saliva, or spittle. 

Causes. — Most persons, when hearing of a patient suffering 
from salivation, are very apt to attribute it to the injudicious use 
of mercury, and lay all the blame upon the head of the physician 
who happens to be in attendance. Now, because one of your chil- 
dren's parotid or submaxillary glands takes a notion to swell up, 
and secrete an unnatural amount of saliva, which keeps the poor 
patient constantly spitting, do not blame some sapient son of 
allopathy, who has happened lately, or perhaps years ago, to pre- 
scribe for your child, when it had the measles or scarlet fever'; 
because salivation is not necessarily the effect of mercury. 

We often see patients recovering from smart attacks of fever, 
with all the symptoms of salivation, where there has not been one 
particle of mercury given. It is well to know and understand 
these things ; because justice is due to all, and poor, fading allo- 
pathy has enough to bear, without fathering the whims of every 
fickle gland. 

Several other substances, besides mercury, are known to have the 
occasional effect of producing an increased, and even a profuse, flow 
of saliva ; for example, preparations of gold, copper, antimony, arse- 
nic, and potassium ; and it is asserted, upon good authority, that cas- 
tor-oil, digitalis, and opium have occasionally the same consequences. 

Salivation sometimes occurs spontaneously, that is, without any 
obvious cause : occasionally it results from some local irritation 
within the mouth, from decayed teeth, etc. ; sometimes it owes its 
origin to colds, and the various forms of fevers, particularly the 
cutaneous variety ; it sometimes occurs as a critical discharge, by 
the action of nature, and is then beneficial ; and occasionally it is 
induced by mercury. v 

Symptoms. — As salivation is a disorder of the salivary glands 
and mucous membrane of the mouth and throat, it is always ad- 
visable to examine the parts closely, and on so doing, in the 
majority of cases you will find them red and swollen, sometimes 
considerably inflamed ; the glands beneath the under jaw are 
usually enlarged and very tender. These glands, when in health, 
secrete only the necessary amount of saliva ; but, when diseased, 
they discharge it in large quantities, and not unfrequently you will 



find it very much changed in its character and appearance. In- 
stead of being thin, watery, colorless, inodorous, and tasteless, as it 
is in health, it may become dark, thick, stringy, fetid, and very 

Treatment. — If salivation has been produced by calomel, or 
any mercurial preparations, the remedies will be JSepar-s.,Lachesis, 
Belladonna, Nitric-ac, and Sulphur. When caused by cold, Mer- 
curius will be the appropriate remedy ; also when there is painful 
swelling of the salivary glands, fetor of the mouth, ulcers on the 
inner cheek, profuse discharge of fetid saliva. 

All astringent washes or gargles, which directly diminish the 
salivary discharge, are injurious. Mild washes or gargles, such 
as milk and water, may be used, and are sometimes attended with 
considerable benefit. 

Administration op Remedies. — When Mercurius is given, dis- 
solve twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of cold water ; and 
one teaspoonful of this solution may be given once in two or four 
hours. Other remedies the same. 

Diet. — The diet must be of the mildest kind, — gruels, milk 
and water, crackers soaked in water, plain puddings, and the like. 
For a drink, cold water may be used, or cocoa, if the patient 
likes it. 


Definition. — Cause. — Ranula is a swelling of the salivary 
glands under the tongue, or, as an anatomist would say, of the 
sub-lingual glands, caused by some obstruction of the salivary duct, 
— which is the little canal that carries the saliva from the gland 
to the mouth, — from cold, inflammation, or some irritating 

Tumors of this kind are not generally painful ; but when they 
are of any considerable size, they interfere with the free motion of 
the tongue, and thus materially interfere with speaking. 

Treatment. — Mercurius, Calcarea-c, Thuja, Sulphur are the 
principal remedies. 

Mercurius. — When the tumor is of an inflammatory nature. 
Should the swelling burst, and leave a troublesome ulcer, Mercu- 
rius and Calcarea-c. may be given, in alternation, every night and 

Administration op Remedies. — Of the selected remedy, give 
three or four globules, dry, upon the tongue, night and morning, 


until the difficulty is removed. If the first remedy fails to produce 
any favorable result, proceed to select another, which you can ad- 
minister in the same manner. 


Definition. — Causes. — Almost every form of swelling with in- 
flammation, that affects the gums passes under the head of gum- 
boils ; even abscesses and inflammations are thus generally desig- 
nated. These troublesome affections, — for they are sometimes 
very annoying, — arise from various causes; not unfrequently they 
are the primary disease, depending upon an inflammation from 
some common or accidental cause ; generally, however, they are 
but the result of some irritation or disease going on within the 
gum. For instance, a decayed tooth may be the primary trouble, 
or the cutting of a tooth ; the wisdom teeth are almost always pre- 
ceded by considerable inflammation and swelling. 

Treatment. — When gum-boils are caused by decayed teeth, 
extraction is the only remedy. Almost always before an abscess, 
or a gum-boil is formed, there is considerable inflammation and 
swelling, with heat and pain, for which you should give Aconitum 
and Belladonna, in alternation, every two hours, until the heat 
and tension is relieved. 

Mercurius, — when there is considerable throbbing or pulsative 
pain, may be given in alternation with Hepar~s. Mercurius may 
also be given when Aconite and Belladonna fail to afford relief. 

In swelling of the jaw with suppuration, whether in consequence 
of decayed teeth, or the unskilful abstraction of a tooth, Silicea 
will be the appropriate remedy. Silicea should also be given 
where the preceding remedies have failed to arrest the progress 
of the boil, and suppuration has already taken place. • Calcarea 
is also another excellent remedy, under the same circumstances. 

In gum-boils from irritation arising from the cutting of the wis- 
dom teeth, Aconite and Ohamomilla will be the appropriate reme- 
dies. Sometimes it will be found necessary to make a slight in- 
cision with the lancet or a knife. 

Staphysa. — Against bleeding from the gums. 

Hyoscyamus. — For throbbing pain in the bone, attended with 

Administration of Remedies. — During the inflammatory stage, 
the remedies may be given as often as every hour ; from that to 


two or three hours. When giving Silicea or Calcaria, one doso 
night and morning. Dose, three pills. 


Definition. — Causes. — The salivary glands are sixrin number, 
three upon either side of the throat ; and are named, respectively, 
the parotid, — so called from being situated below and in front 
of the ear ; the submaxillary, — because situated beneath the sub- 
maxillary or under jaw bone ; and the sublingual, — that is, under 
the tongue. 

The office of these glands is to furnish saliva or spittle, with 
which the food, during mastication, is moistened ; so that when 
carried into the throat, it passes with ease through the oesophagus 
into the stomach. 

Now mumps is an inflammation of the largest and most im- 
portant gland in this group, the parotid ; hence the name parotitis. 
It often prevails as an epidemic ; when it attacks one child in a 
family, or a school, several others are pretty sure to be affected 
also, either simultaneously or in succession. It is undoubtedly 
contagious. It chiefly attacks children and young persons ; and 
what is rather curious, it seldom, I might almost say never, attacks 
them the second time. , 

Symptoms. — At the commencement of the disease, there are 
no marked symptoms, except the tumefaction and. swelling, which 
you will find just below the ear. The swelling generally extends 
from the parotid, where it commences, to the submaxillary, and 
even to the sublingual glands. Sometimes only one side is af- 
fected ; sometimes both at once ; but, I presume most frequently 
first one side is affected, and then the other. The swelling is 
hot, dry, and painful ; very tender to the touch. There is usu- 
ally some fever ; the motion of the under jaw is interfered with 
from the swelling in the vicinity of the joint. The inflammation 
reaches its height in about four days, and then begins to decline ; 
its whole duration may be stated, on an average, at eight or ten 

Mumps is not considered dangerous, unless from imprudent ex- 
posure the patient takes cold, or from any other cause the disease 
" strikes in," that is, becomes thrown back upon the system, so as 
to involve some of the vital organs. In many cases, under these 
circumstances, the swelling about the neck and throat subsides 


quickly on the fifth or seventh day, and shows itself upon the tes- 
ticles in the male sex, and upon the breast in the female, and 
these parts become hot, swollen, and painful. Another dangerous 
transfer of this disease, but particularly rare, is from the testicles 
to the brain. 

Treatment. — Mercurius is the principal remedy, and often the 
only one required ; two or three doses in most cases will effect a 
cure ; one dose every night until four doses are taken. Dose, four 

Belladonna. — When the swelling gets hot and dry, or when it 
is very red, having an erysipelatous appearance ; also when it re- 
cedes and affects the brain, producing delirium and other head 
symptoms, — give a dose, three globules every hour. If Belladonna 
does not afford relief, follow it with Hyoscyamus. When the swell- 
ing suddenly disappears and affects the testicles, give Pulsatilla, a 
dose every two or three hours. 

Administration op Remedies. — The globules may be given 
dry, upon the tongue, about three at a dose, or you can dissolve 
twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of water, and of the solu- 
tion give one teaspoonful at a dose. 

Diet and Eegimen. — The diet must be light. Toast and black 
tea, cocoa, custards without spice, bread puddings, baked apples, 
and stewed prunes may be allowed. If it is during cold weather, 
the patient should be kept in a moderately warm room ; if there 
is much fever, he had better lie in bed. No external application 
need be made, unless it be simply a handkerchief tied around the 
neck. Should the neck get very tense, hot, and dry, it will be 
advisable to apply hot flannel cloths. Great care must be taken to 
prevent the patient from taking cold. Never apply cold water, 
or any of the many lotions ; follow simply the directions above 


Definition. — Glossitis is an inflammation of the substance of 
the tongue, characterized by pain, redness, hardness, and swelling, 
either with dryness of the mouth, or a profuse discharge of saliva, 
and accompanied with the usual symptoms of inflammatory fevers. 
The inflammation may be confined to one side of the tongue, or 
the whole organ may be implicated. 

Causes. — It usually arises from mechanical injuries, or from 
the contact with chemical agents or acrid substances, which may 


excite an irritation. In many cases, however, the attack is very 
sudden ; a severe inflammatory action setting in, without any ap- 
parent cause. " This affection is sometimes induced," says Dr. 
Copland (vide Copland's Med. Diet.) " by exposure to cold, or to 
currents of cold air about the head after the use of mercurials, or 
from the suppression of the salivary discharge by these causes." 

Symptoms. — The first symptom complained of is usually an 
acrid, stinging sense of heat, or burning pain in the tongue ; the 
inflammation, as a general thing, sets in suddenly and proceeds 
rapidly ; the pain and swelling is very great ; the tongue presents 
a livid or dark red appearance. The inflammation may commence 
upon one side, or be restricted to a very small portion, but grad- 
ually it may extend until the whole organ becomes involved. 
During the progress of the disease, the pain becomes more acute 
and of a burning and lancinating character, which is aggravated 
by the slightest movement ; the attempt to talk or swallow causes 
great suffering. 

In severe cases, the tongue becomes enormously swollen, filling 
the entire mouth, speaking and swallowing being entirely pre- 
vented, while respiration is obstructed, even to threatened suffoca- 
tion. In other cases, the swollen and inflamed organ is protruded 
from the mouth, presenting a horrid picture of suffering. The 
tongue is usually furred over with a thick coating, and a profuse 
secretion of saliva flows from the mouth. 

Treatment. — Aconite should be administered at the commence- 
ment, when the fever and inflammation are severe, and accompanied 
with acute, tense, cutting pain. If the inflammation should have 
arisen from mechanical injuries, as it often does, particularly in 
children subject to convulsions, where the teeth at times lacerate 
the tongue severely, Aconite and Arnica should be given in alterna- 
tion every hour or two hours, according to the severity of the case. 
Four globules may be given for a dose, dry, upon the tongue, or 
dissolve six in twelve teaspoonfuls of water, and of this solution 
give one teaspoonful at a dose. 

Mercurius and Belladonna are the principal remedies to be relied 
upon in the majority of cases. Mercurius may be given first, 
when, at the commencement, there is violent pain, swelling, hard- 
ness and salivation ; also, when the tongue becomes involved with 
ulceration of the throat. Belladonna should have the preference, 
where the inflammation assumes the character of erysipelas, as 
well as where Mercurius has proved insufficient, and the inflamma- 


tion has extended to the neighboring parts ; also, when numerous 
little ulcers make their appearance upon the tongue and gums. 

Where the two remedies are apparently indicated, and you are 
undecided which to choose, the two may be given in alternation, 
from one to four hours apart, according to the severity of the case. 
Dose, same as Aconite. 

Should you meet with a case where the swelling had become so 
enormous as to threaten suffocation before a physician could arrive, 
do not hesitate to take your knife, or any sharp instrument, and 
make a free, longitudinal incision in the tongue. This gives exit 
to the blood, which removes the congestion and relieves the patient. 

Case. — I was called last January to see a young lady whose 
tongue suddenly inflamed without any cause, — at least as far as 
we could ascertain, — and became so enormously swollen as to 
threaten suffocation, the whole buccal cavity was entirely filled up, 
and a large portion of the inflamed organ protruded from the 
mouth. The slightest motion of the tongue caused great suffer- 
ing ; swallowing or talking, even the lisping of a word, was impos- 
sible. The tongue was covered with mucus, and a fetid discharge 
of saliva flowed constantly from the mouth. 

I prescribed for this case Mercurius, 30th, and in less than six 
hours after taking the second dose, the tongue had resumed nearly 
its ordinary size. The improvement continued, and in a few days 
the patient was as well as ever. 


The cutting or eruption of the teeth being a perfectly natural 
physiological process, we should scarcely expect it to occasion 
disease or suffering of any kind, and, perhaps, were all children 
in a perfectly healthy condition at the time of its commencement, 
they would suffer but little, if any, during this period. However, 
in the first place, all children are not born healthy ; and, secondly, 
those few that are so born, soon — by mismanagement in dress, 
diet, and exercise — have all their functions so blunted and de- 
spoiled as to be in no better condition than those who, at first, 
possessed unhealthy constitutions. Under these conditions, or from 
these causes, dentition not unfrequently becomes complicated, diffi- 
cult, and even dangerous. Its most common complications are 
derangements of the digestive organs and the nervous system. 
Being so frequently and intimately allied with disorders of various 


kinds, difficult dentition has been rightly classed, among the 
diseases of infancy. 

The first, milk, or temporary teeth, as they are indifferently 
called, are twenty in number. Their eruption should commence 
at the sixth month, and be completed about the end of the second 
year, those of the lower jaw preceding the upper. 

As a general thing, they make their due appearance in the fol- 
lowing order: at about the sixth month, the two middle lower 
incisors, or cutting teeth, as they are called, come through ; in 
from three to four weeks these are followed by the corresponding 
ones in the upper jaw ; from the seventh to the tenth month, the 
lower lateral incisors appear, soon after these the two upper ones ; 
from the twelfth to the fourteenth month, the anterior molars, or 
first jaw-teeth, two below and two above, are cut, and shortly after 
these the stomach and eye teeth, and, finally, at about the end of 
the second year, the four back jaw-teeth, or posterior molars, two 
below and two above, make their appearance, completing the set. 

This regular order and time of teething, however, is not always 
observed; there are considerable variations. Some children get 
their teeth two or three weeks after birth, or indeed are born with 
them, while others again do not cut any teeth until they are ten 
or twelve months old. The order of succession, mentioned above, 
is also frequently violated ; the upper incisors making their appear- 
ance before the lower, the molars before the stomach and eye 
teeth ; frequently, also, they do not appear in pairs, there being 
a difference of weeks or even months, between the appearance of 
the first ones. 

Teething, in the most favorable cases, is preceded by slight 
salivation, or, as it is commonly called, drooling; by heat and 
swelling of the gums, increased thirst, restlessness, or fretfulness, 
and frequent desire to thrust things into the mouth, evidently to 
allay irritation and itching. 

In some cases the irritation, swelling, and inflammation of the 
gums become severe ; the mouth hot and dry ; the gums extremely 
sensitive and intolerant to the slightest pressure ; the child starts 
in its sleep, or, on waking, the head is hot, fever high, great thirst 
for cold water ; there are also frequent spasmodic twitohings of the 
hands and feet while sleeping. 

As a general thing, these symptoms are all occasioned by the 
pressure and irritation of the young tooth or teeth, and as they push 
forward, the gum wastes from absorption, and is at last cut 


through, the tooth making its appearance, and the symptoms of 
complaint gradually vanish, leaving the child bright and happy. 

Occasionally we find, instead of a hot and dry skin, with thirst 
and other fever-symptoms, the very opposite of these, namely, a 
profuse perspiration, great flow of saliva, and general relaxation 
of the whole system. These symptoms, however, are as a general 
thing, but temporary, and are afterward followed by dryness of 
the skin and mouth, fever and thirst. At times the patient is 
restless, fretful, and irritable ; again, he is heavy, dull, and 
drowsy ; sometimes there is a rash upon the skin, which is called 
"Ked Gum," or " Tooth-rash." 

Connected with teething, there are often many sympathetic 
affections, such as determination of blood to the head, convulsions, 
constipation, swelling, and suppuration of glands, eruptions of 
various kinds, both upon the head and body, gatherings, and 
discharges from the ears, cough, and always, I believe, great irri- 
tability of the nervous system. 

During the process of teething, the whole system is in a pecu- 
liarly excitable condition, so that trifling causes, such as at other 
times would make no impression whatever upon the child, may, 
during this period, excite a train of acute and serious symptoms, 
which only prompt and judicious treatment can successfully com- 
bat. In children of deficient vital power, a cold, an error in diet, 
or some undiscoverable cause, may excite a slight derangement 
which is at first perhaps scarcely noticeable, or at least considered 
of no account, but which, by neglect, or improper treatment, 
eventually leads to a permanent state of bad health, ending in 
tubercular degeneration of the lungs, or of the digestive appa- 

The necessity, therefore, of jealously guarding the children from 
every source of disease, at this time, to which they might other- 
wise be exposed, will be obvious to all. 

Unfortunately, however, for the children, most youhg mothers 
have an aunt or a kind female acquaintance, who has brought up, 
or at least seen some one else bring up, a large family of children, 
and, therefore, " knows all about these little complaints of teething 
children, and can treat them just as well as any doctor." Every 
friend, that calls and observes, or is informed, that the child is ill, 
at once suggests a remedy, " which has never been known to fail 
in such cases," and, as soon as they get home, their kind hearts 
prompt them "to send one of the children over with a bottle." 



Of course the patient must take a little from each of these contri- 
butions, no matter how numerous they are. The inexperienced 
mother remarks that, " certainly from so many infallibles one 
must be found, that would just hit her child's case," and, indeed, 
I have frequently seen the case hit, or rather seen it, after it was 
hit, but I have usually found it hit upon the wrong side. 

I have been frequently not only amused, but utterly confounded, 
on observing the paraphernalia of some nurseries, and especially 
those not previously under the charge of a homoeopathic physician. 
The mantel-piece is graced with lotions, pills, and powders ; bot- 
tles stand arrayed in warlike order ; ipecac, and squills, Godfrey's 
cordial, paregoric, hive-syrup, castor-oil, and the like, fill up the 
front rank, flanked by the redoubtable, never-failing, ever-to-be- 
exalted " soothing syrup for children teething ; " while sulphur 
and molasses, peppermint, goose-grease, and catnip bring up the 
rear ; mustard and onion-draughts being held as a reserve. 

Now, the frequent and persistent administration of these choice 
remedial agents from the domestic armamentarum is not, in my 
humble judgment, exactly the best way to preserve health, or even 
to restore it, when once lost. I argue that the delicate organiza- 
tion of a child is unable to withstand the rude shocks which such 
treatment must inevitably produce. Many of the little divergen- 
cies from health, which, taking place at this period, if left to nature, 
or treated rationally, would amount to nothing, are often, I am 
satisfied, " doctored " into some serious disease. 

A diarrhoea, which in itself is not unfrequently salutary, or a 
slight cold, no matter how trifling, must, in most people's opinion, 
needs have something ; and, not knowing exactly what is best, 
they give whatever they happen to have in the house, or whatever 
a neighbor may suggest. If the first prescription does not afford 
relief, or, perhaps, more properly speaking, if the child does not 
rally, in spite of tire prescription, another dose is concocted, and 
forced down its throat. This may be continued for several days, 
more or less, or until all the domestic and patent medicines have 
been tried, when the mother finally makes up her mind to send 
for a physician. The doctor arrives ; but alas! often too late to be 
of any service, and the child dies, either from the disease or the 
treatment, or both combined ; seldom from the disease alone. 

This giving such quantities of such barbarous stuff to delicate 
children, most certainly exhibits a degree of recklessness and ig- 
norance, pitiable to behold. If grown persons have a mind to 


scour themselves out weekly, with the most drastic purgatives ; 
if they have a mind to take stimulants, tonics, and correctives ; 
if they have a mind to cover the whole surface of their bodies 
with blisters, ointments, and plasters ; if they have a mind to be 
bled annually, and take purifying medicines every spring, I have 
certainly not the least objection ; but I do protest, in the name of 
humanity, that little, delicate children should be spared such inhu- 
man treatment. 

Listen to what Dr. Trail, in an article in his " Water Cure Jour- 
nal " says, in commenting upon the death of President Lincoln's 

" Little Willie, a healthy, robust, playful, genial, and happy 
child as ever was seen, had a slight cold ; it was doctored into a 
continued fever ; this was drugged into the typhoid ; and then the 
typhoid was dosed into death ; and the sprightly, joyous boy of a 
few days ago, now lies pale and mouldering in the cold and silent 
grave. As Willie Lincoln died, so do thousands every year." 

Perhaps at no period of a child's existence, is it so often and so 
thoroughly drugged as during that of teething. Of late years, we 
have had thrust upon the public, with an impudence only equalled 
by the' barbarity of the treatment, a host of " simple " remedies, 
discovered by experienced nurses, especially, for " children teeth- 
ing ; " nine-tenths of which are concocted and manufactured by 
brazen-faced men. I have more than once in these pages pointed 
out the pernicious effects of all such narcotics. I use the term 
narcotic advisedly, though well aware that these preparations are 
all guaranteed not to contain opium or morphine. It is not nec- 
essary to analyze a drug to ascertain its medicinal properties ; its 
effect upon the human organism is sufficient to demonstrate to 
what class it belongs. If it stupefies and puts to sleep, it is a nar- 
cotic, no matter of what it is composed. 

Opium, when given in any form, first excites or exalts the brain 
and nervous system, afterward calms, or " soothes," which appears 
to be a favorite word, the child into a quiet sleep. But its early 
and persistent use arrests the growth and activity of the brain, the 
bodily and intellectual faculties are blunted or dwarfed into insig- 
nificance, and the subject, if he lives to grow up, which, indeed, is 
doubtful, presents a physiognomy painful to behold. Various 
diseases of the nervous system, as paralysis, convulsions, etc., can 
frequently be traced directly to the abuse of this drug. 

I am well aware how pleasant and happy a thing it is, for a 


mother to possess a magic wand by which, magician-like, in the 
twinkling of an eye, she can " soothe " her fretful child, and gently 
put him away in the arms of Morpheus, where he will quietly lie, 
oblivious to all earthly cares or pains, while she dresses for a ball, 
or flirts away a few hours in innocent amusement. But I assert, 
without fear of contradiction, and would to heaven every mother 
In the land might hear and heed the assertion, that such practice 
cannot be indulged in except at the expense of the future intelli- 
gence, health, and happiness of the child. 

Treatment. — As the local irritation, attending the eruption of 
the teeth, is generally the exciting cause of most, if not all, the 
diseases and disturbances connected with dentition, our first en- 
deavor should be to moderate or remove the irritation as speedily 
as possible ; and this, in many instances, can readily be accom- 
plished by making a free incision through the gum down upon the 
offending . tooth. The lancet should always be resorted to when 
the gums are found hot and swollen, or when you can see or feel 
the tooth through the tissues, and especially if there should be a 
great determination of blood to the head, accompanied with 
twitching of the muscles, — symptoms indicating a tendency to 

This lancing the gums, I am aware, is looked upon with great 
horror by many mothers, but the pain which it causes is really 
insignificant ; in fact, in most cases instead of causing pain, it 
affords instant relief. It is true, children always cry when it is 
done, but you will notice they commence crying before the lance 
touches the gum ; certainly it is not the pain of the lance that 
makes them cry thus early. Besides, some people have the notion, 
which undoubtedly they obtained from physicians, that if the 
gums are lanced too soon, the cut will heal up, forming a scar 
through which it will be more difficult for the tooth to break. 
This is an antediluvian notion : the idea that the tooth pushes its 
way by main force through the opposing tissues, has been exploded 
long ago, if, indeed, it were ever entertained by thinking men. 

If, for any reason, it is not deemed expedient to lance the gums, 
and they are swollen and sensitive, and the child wants to press or 
bite something, to relieve the intolerable itching and irritation un- 
derneath the gum, give it an ivory ring or something of the kind 
to bite upon ; or, what is frequently done, rub over the advancing 
tooth with a thimble or a piece of crust sugar. 


Aconite may be given when there is much fever, restlessness, 
and pain, manifested by the child's crying and starting. 

Belladonna. — Especially when there is great derangement of 
the nervous system ; hot head, flushed face, inflammation and 
swelling of the gums ; or, when there are convulsions, the child 
starts from sleep as if frightened, and stares, the pupils of the eyes 
are dilated, the whole body becomes stiff; convulsions followed by 
sleep. See " Convulsions." 

Qhamomilla. — Perhaps this is the most generally called-fbr 
remedy for the difficulties of teething children. It is especially 
called for while the child is restless and uneasy at night, twitches 
and jerks while asleep ; starts at the slightest noise ; with general 
heat, redness of one cheek, moaning, groaning, and general uneasi- 
ness ; diarrhoea, with watery, slimy, and greenish evacuations ; 
worse at night. May be given in alternation with Belladonna. 

Cina. — When, during teething, there is a dry, spasmodic cough, 
resembling hooping-cough ; also when there are worm-symptoms 
present, such as distension of the abdomen, rubbing the nose, 
grating the teeth, wetting the bed, &c. 

Coffea. — When the child shows restlessness and cannot sleep, 
with some fever. 

Ignatia. — Should there be, in connection with symptoms of 
convulsions, frequent flushes of heat, sudden starting from sleep 
with piercing cries. Consult " Convulsions." 

Lycopodium. — When the child rolls its head from side to side ; 
sleeps with its eyelids half open, and moans while asleep. 

Magnesia-c. — Diarrhoea with stools like scum of a frog-pond, 
green and frothy. 

Mercurius. — Diarrhoea with greenish evacuations, and great 
straining ; profuse flow of saliva from the mouth, redness and 
soreness of the gums. 

Ipecacuanha. — Should there be nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea, 
fermented stools, or mixed stool of different colors. ^ 

Nux-vomica. — For obstinate constipation. May follow, or be 
given in alternation with Bryonia. 

Calcarea-carh. — For fat children, with 'light complexion, and in 
whom the process of teething is slow ; also when it is accompanied 
by diarrhoea with yellow stools, or stools like clay. 

SidpJmr. — For diarrhoea with sour, white, or hot stools, which 
excoriate the parts. 


Should constipation prove obstinate, give injections, as directed 
in article on " Constipation." 

When teething is complicated with convulsions or other diseases, 
consult such complaints, under their respective heads. 

Administration of Remedies. — Of the selected remedy a dose 
may be given, every one, two, three, or four hours, according to 
the urgency of the case. When the globules are given, three will 
be a dose ; when given in water dissolve six pills in as many 
spoonfuls of water and give one spoonful of the solution for a 

Diet and Regimen. — A judicious restriction in diet will often be 
all that is necessary in most of these cases, especially if the child is 
kept in a cool room, and allowed plenty of cool water to drink. 


General Remarks. — The proper culture and preservation of 
the teeth of children is a subject demanding the attention of every 
thoughtful parent. When taking into consideration the impor- 
tance of sound and regular teeth, alike in regard to health, com- 
fort, and appearance, the little care and attention requisite to keep 
them in a proper state seems almost insignificant. What adds 
more to the beauty of an individual than a handsome set of teeth ? 
and what detracts more from the appearance of a child, than a 
mouthful of blackened, irregular, and half-decayed teeth ? They 
not only present an unsightly appearance, but are very injurious 
to the health. 

The teeth are a part of the digestive apparatus, and in a great 
measure their soundness depends upon a healthy state of the 
stomach and bowels, so you will readily observe that whatever 
tends to derange these organs will exert a deleterious effect upon 
the teeth. Children are often refused candies because they are 
said to rot the teeth. Now that sugar itself ever directly injures 
the teeth, is a matter of doubt, but certainly the confectioners' 
preparations, together with the thousand other little, fancy fixings, 
which children have given to them, or by some means procure, 
excite a direct and injurious effect upon the stomach, deranging 
the bowels, producing dyspepsia, flatulence, and gassy eructations 
which blacken and corrode the enamel of the teeth, thus laying 
the foundation for their decay and speedy destruction. 

As a general thing healthy persons have sound teeth, while 


sickly, feeble ones have decayed teeth. It therefore becomes us 
well to study and practice the few simple rules that promote 

To preserve the teeth they must be kept clean; and to do this it is 
not necessary to use any of the thousand and one dentifrices, such 
as tooth-pastes, powders, tinctures, washes, etc., sold by chemists 
and perfumers. They are all more or less injurious and should 
therefore be avoided. 

Many persons are unable, or at least they think so, to keep their 
teeth clean without some kind of a dentifrice, and for such Dr. 
Hering recommends a charcoal made by burning stale bread quite 
black, and reduced to a fine powder, by pulverization, after which 
it should be washed, to free it from salts, and then dried. 

The most pleasant and efficacious way of cleaning the teeth is 
to wash or rub them with sour milk, after which the mouth should 
be rinsed with warm or tepid water. 

The mouth should be cleaned, washed with water, every night 
and morning, and the teeth brushed with a soft brush, both on 
then* anterior and posterior surface. The teeth should also be 
cleaned after every meal, either with the brush, or a piece of 
soft flannel ; this will prevent the collection of tartar. Care 
should also be taken, that all particles of food, that may have 
lodged between the teeth, and are inaccessible to the brush, are 
removed ; for this purpose toothpicks are found necessary ; these 
should be made of wood, ivory, or the common goose-quill ; a 
fine thread is at times convenient, it may be drawn backward and 
forward between the teeth. Metallic toothpicks are highly objec- 
tionable, and ought never to be used ; they injure the enamel. 

The pernicious habit of children, in picking their teeth with 
pins, needles, or penknives, should be peremptorily forbidden. 

Sudden changes of temperature, produced by the introduction 
of very hot or very cold substances into the mouth, crack the 
enamel, and eventually produce decay. All articles oi* diet should, 
therefore, be of a medium temperature when partaken of. 

The temporary teeth should be removed as they become loose, 
but not till then, unless they are crowded and irregular, or when 
a permanent tooth makes its appearance before the temporary 
ones are shed ; and, in such cases, the milk-tooth, though sound, 
should be removed without delay. This is necessary, that the 
first or temporary teeth may not interfere with the permanent 
set, for these latter are to last the child its lifetime ; and it • is, 


therefore, desirable that they should present a uniform and beau- 
tiful appearance. 

If, when the permanent teeth make their appearance, they are 
irregular and crowded, in consequence of the jaw being narrow 
and short, or from other causes, it may be necessary to remove 
one or more of them, in order to give the remaining ones a chance 
for free development, so that they will not present a pinched or 
crowded, and therefore unsightly, appearance. 

When it is necessary that a tooth should be extracted, do not 
have it done by a botch. It requires just as much skill and 
knowledge to extract a tooth well, that is, properly, as it does to 
amputate a limb ; therefore be particular to select a well-educated, 
competent dentist, a skilful operator ; and, for fear that you are 
not aware of the/«c£, — for fact it is, — perhaps I had better in- 
form you, that nine dentists out of every ten are entirely igno- 
rant of the first principles of dentistry. It is with dentists, as it 
is with most other men, — the less they know, the more preten- 
tions they make ; many a one who does not know a bicuspid from a 
molar, hangs out his sign of " Surgeon Dentist," with a presump- 
tion only equalled by that of quack doctors. 

The teeth of children, and no less those of adults, too, should 
be frequently examined, and wherever the enamel has become 
broken, and the body of the tooth commenced decaying, it should 
be immediately filled or plugged with gold foil ; this, in many 
instances, will arrest the further decay. Never allow your chil- 
dren's teeth to be filled with an amalgam of any description ; 
most of them contain mercury, and all are injurious, not only to 
the teeth, but to the general health. If you do not think it ad- 
visable to rill the milk or temporary teeth with gold, rather let 
them go unfilled than have recourse to any of the pastes or cheap 
patent fillings. Keep the cavities clean, and filled with white wax ; 
it is far preferable to any amalgam, and has the advantage of 
being innoxious. 

The practice of cracking nuts with the teeth, of lifting heavy 
bodies, of biting threads, etc., is injurious, because it cracks the 
enamel ; and where the enamel is cracked, and the body of the 
tooth exposed, decay is sure to commence. 


Definition. — Causes. — This troublesome affection, over which 
children shed so many tears, and adults sigh for want of sympa- 


thy, may arise from many causes ; some are hereditarily predis- 
posed to it, while others suffer from every exposure ; again, it may 
arise from disturbances going on elsewhere in the system, or it 
may be purely nervous. It is often rheumatic ; often arises from 
carious teeth; also from abuse of coffee or of calomel. Many 
are its causes, and as numerous are its forms ; it may be confined 
to one tooth, or it may extend to many ; one side of the face, 
both, or even the whole head may be affected. The pain may be 
of any, and of all forms imaginable, from a dull, heavy ache to a 
sharp, shooting pain. 

Treatment. — Do not allow yourself to be too easily persuaded 
into the belief that, because a tooth aches, it necessarily ought to 
be extracted, for toothache, in its severest forms, is often cured 
with homoeopathic remedies. It is not advisable to extract teeth 
when you can save them, and this can generally be done, unless 
they are ulcerated at the roots ; in which case, extraction affords 
the only reliable and prompt relief. Here, again, let me caution 
you in the selection of a dentist. Do not run to the first " tooth- 
puller," for no other reason than because he is near at hand. 
Choose your dentist as you should your minister and physician,. 
when in health, and then, when trouble comes, you will know 
where to seek relief. 

Many of the domestic remedies for toothache are objectionable ; 
creosote, laudanum, clove-tincture, and the like, afford but tempo- 
rary relief at best ; the pain soon returns with redoubled violence ; 
besides, the majority of them are injurious to the general health, 
as well as to the teeth themselves. It is better, far better to obtain 
permanent relief from some remedial agent that will remove the 
diseased condition, of which the toothache is the result. 

The principal remedies for toothache are, — Aconitum, Arnica, 
Antimonium-crud., Arsenicum, Belladonna, Bryonia, Chamomilla, 
Kreosote, Mercurius, Niix-vomiea, Pulsatilla, and Sul'phur. 

Aconitum. — When there is feverishness, with great anxiety and 
restlessness ; violent throbbing or beating pain ; rheumatic pain in 
the face and teeth ; congestion of the head ; heat, redness, and 
swelling of the face ; toothache, occasioned by cold. When the 
relief afforded is but transient, follow it with Belladonna or Cham- 

Arnica. — When the pain is the result of mechanical injuries, 
as from extraction or plugging. Children often fall and injure the 
teeth, at the same time bruise and cut the lips or cheeks ; in such 



cases Arnica may be used as a lotion, as well as taken internally ; 
when used as a lotion, one part of Arnica tincture should be mixed 
with five or six parts of water ; a linen cloth dipped in this mix- 
ture may be laid upon the injured part, and renewed every three 
or four hours, according to the extent and severity of the injury. 
When the injury is on the interior of the lips, or the teeth alone 
are affected, the mouth should be rinsed or gargled out with a 
similar mixture. 

Antimonium-crud. — For pain in hollow and decayed teeth. 

Arsenicum is useful when everything cold aggravates the pain. 

Belladonna. — When there is a sensation of ulceration at the 
roots of the teeth ; drawing pain in the face and teeth, extending 
to the ears, aggravated in the evening on getting warm in bed, or 
on applying anything hot ; heat and throbbing in the gums. 

Bryonia. — Drawing, jerking toothache, with a sensation as 
though the teeth were loose and elongated, especially during and 
after eating ; pain in decayed teeth ; toothache caused by wet 
weather, or accompanying rheumatic affections ; pains relieved 
momentarily by cold water held in the mouth. Bryonia is ser- 
viceable for pains through the face generally ; for pains which 
shoot from one tooth into another. 

Chamomilla. — Violent, boring, and throbbing pain, extending 
through the jaws to the ears, also into the temples and eyes ; the 
child is cross and feverish ; complains of pain in all the teeth ; 
cannot tell which aches the most ; worse at night, when the patient 
is warm in bed ; also after eating anything warm ; swelling and 
redness of the cheeks. Chamomilla is serviceable for toothache 
before menstruation. 

Kreosotum. — For pain in decayed teeth, with swelling and con- 
gestion of the gums. 

Mereurius. — For pains in hollow teeth ; tearing pain through 
the roots of the teeth ; shooting pain, passing over through the 
sides of the face, extending to the ears, especially at night, aggra- 
vated by cold food or drink ; swelling and inflammation of the 

Nux-moschata. — Especially for pregnant women ; also sometimes 
for children, when the pain arises from taking cold. 

Nux-vomica. — Toothache arising from cold, with throbbing, 
boring, or gnawing pain throughout the teeth and gums, aggra- 
vated by eating, or exposure to the open air ; tearing pain on one 
side ; rheumatic pains deep down in the nerve of the tooth, with 


pain as though the tooth were bein^ wrenched out. May be given 
in alternation with Mercurius. 

Pulsatilla. — Is most suitable for young girls, or children of a 
mild or timid disposition ; shooting pain, that extends to the ear 
of the affected side ; jerking pain, as though the nerve were tight- 
ened, and then suddenly relaxed, particularly of the left side ; the 
pain increased by warmth and rest, better when walking about, es- 
pecially in the open air ; toothache accompanied by earache and 

Sulphur. — Tearing and pulsative pain, particularly in carious 
or decayed teeth, extending to the upper jaw and into the ear ; 
pain worse at night, when warm in bed ; swelling of the gums, 
attended with shooting pain. Suits well after Mercurius. 


Toothache in Children. — Aconite, Bella., Cham., CofFea, Pulsat., 

" " Females. — Aeon., Bell., Cham., Chin., CofF., Hyos., 

Puis., Nux-m. 
" during Nursing . — Aeon., Bell., Chin., Nux-vom. 
" " Menstruation. — Calc, Cham., Puis., Bry., Lach. 
" " Pregnancy. — Bell., Bry., Nux-v., Puis., Staph., Rhus. 
" from Calomel. — Carb.-v., Hepar., Puis., Sulph., Lach. 
" " Taking Cold. — Aeon., Bell., Bryo., Dulc, Hyos., 

Merc, Nux.-vom., Rhus., Phos., Puis. 
" with Swelled Pace. — Cham., Merc, Nux-v., Puis., Bryon. 
" " Swelled Gums. — Aeon., Bell., Merc, Nux-v., Sulph. 
" " Swelled Glands. — Merc, Bell., Nux-v. 
" " Faceache. — Merc, Aeon., Bell., Bryo., Cham. 
" " Earache. — Cham., Merc, Puis., Calc, Sulph. 
" " Headache. — Bell., Glon., Nux.-v., Lach., Puis. 
" of a Nervous Nature. — Aeon., Bell., CofF., Ignat., Hyos., 

Cham., Nux-v., Spig. 
" " Rheumatic Nature. — Cham., Merc, Bryo., Bell., 

Sulph., Puis., Rhus. 
" " Congestive Nature. — Aeon., Bell., Cham., Puis., Chin. 
" " Hysterical Nature. — Ignat., Cham., Hyos., Sep., Bell. 
" on the Left Side. — Aeon., Cham., Nux-m., Phos., Sulph. 
" " Bight Side. — Bell., Bry., Staph. 
" in the Upper Jatv. — Bell., Calc, Bry. 
" " Lower Jaw. — Caust., Nux., Staph., Sulph. 


Administration. — After having made a careful selection, dis- 
solve, of the chosen remedy, twelve globules in twelve teaspoon- 
fuls of water ; of this solution, give one teaspoonful for a dose. 
Eepeat the doses from fifteen minutes to an hour or two hours 
apart, according to the severity of the pain. When a remedy 
given has afforded some relief, do not change it for another until 
it has had time to show its full effect. 


Definition. — This common disorder has several appellations : 
quinsy, angina faucium, cynanchia tonsillaris, amygdalitis, tonsil- 
itis, and laryngitis. These are but a few, and most of them are 
quite expressive to the professional reader, denoting the precise 
nature and locality of the difficulty. However, the treatment, 
ignoring names, and being governed entirely by the symptoms 
present, all may be summed up and described under the more 
common name of sore throat. The disease consists in an inflam- 
mation of the back part of the throat, including the palate and 
tonsils. It appears in different degrees of intensity, from the 
slightest irritation, causing but moderate inconvenience, and last- 
ing but a short time, to the highest degree of inflammation, ending 
in suppuration, or the formation of abscesses in the tonsils or ad- 
jacent parts. 

Causes. — The exciting cause is not always easily ascertained ; 
but, in the vast majority of cases, I believe that exposure to cold 
produces the attacks : we continually meet with them in the cold 
months of the year, and during cold, damp weather. 

This disorder is not strictly limited to any particular age ; the 
prattling babe, the boy at school, the young lady in her teens, and 
manhood in its prime are alike subject to its invasions. 

Symptoms. — Ordinary quinsy, of moderate severity, generally 
begins with restlessness, irritability, fever, sometimes a slight cough, 
and more or less soreness in the throat, especially when swallowing ; 
the older children complain of this pain and refuse all diet except 
drinks and soft food, while the infant betrays it by refusing to 
nurse, and wincing its face whenever swallowing is attempted. 

At first, there is but a slight sense of constriction and soreness ; 
or, at times, a pricking sensation in the throat, which becomes de- 
cidedly manifest when an attempt is made to swallow. This sore- 
ness increases as the disease progresses. The constitutional symp- 


toms, in mild cases, are not often decidedly marked ; the face is 
generally flushed ; fever moderate, and respiration somewhat accel- 
erated ; the voice is thick, and at times speaking is difficult or 
painful. Young children are often drowsy, hut seldom sleep quietly 
on account of the fever and irritability, which produces a restless, 
uneasy disposition. Pain is not invariably present, especially in 
young children ; and when there is a sudden rise of fever, with rapid 
respiration, slight dry cough, and more or less pain, this affection 
may be mistake for inflammation of the lungs ; but upon placing 
your ear to the chest, you will readily mark the difference in the 
two diseases by the entire absence of all physical signs of pneu- 
monia. Should any doubts remain as to the true nature of the 
disease, a thorough examination of the throat will soon decide it. 

To examine the parts well, the head should be thrown back, the 
mouth widely opened, and the root of the tongue depressed with 
the handle of a spoon ; by this means the whole interior of the 
throat will be brought into view. 

Severer forms of this disease than that above described are not 
of unfrequent occurrence ; not, however, in children under ten or 
twelve years of age, unless it be malignant or putrid sore throat 
in connection with scarlet fever ; but of that we shall speak here- 

Ordinary sore throat, in its severer forms, is quite a serious 
affair, and is at times ushered in with vomiting, fever, and great 
nervousness ; there is considerable thirst ; the pulse is high, strong, 
and frequent ; the cheeks are swollen ; the glands about the neck 
are enlarged and painful ; swallowing is difficult, sometimes almost 
impossible ; the inflammation is extensive, frequently ending in 
suppuration, or in the formation of abscesses in the tonsils or adja- 
cent parts. The tonsils are enlarged, sometimes enormously 
swollen, presenting serious obstruction to respiration. When the 
tonsils gather, relief may not be looked for until the abscess bursts. 

This disease is not regarded as dangerous, and seldom amounts 
to but a trifling inconvenience if taken in season and properly 

Treatment. — The following are some of the principal remedies 
for sore throat. Aconitum, Belladonna, Bryonia, Chamomilla, He- 
par-sulpJi., Ignatia, Lachesis, Mercurius, Nuxr-vomica, Pulsatilla, 
Rhus, Sulphur. 

Aconitum and Belladonna are generally the most appropriate 
remedies to commence the treatment with, and, in the majority 


of cases, will effect a cure without other aid ; particularly when 
the following symptoms are present : violent fever ; pulse full and 
hounding ; great thirst and restlessness ; deep redness of the parts 
affected ; constant desire to swallow ; swallowing produces spasms 
of the throat, which forces the liquids partaken of out through 
the nose ; burning and pricking sensation, with dryness of the 
throat ; pains shooting into the tonsils, and up into the ears ; 
swelling of the outside of the throat ; profuse salivation ; red and 
swollen face ; skin hot and dry ; pain in the forehead. 

During the prevalence of scarlet fever, Belladonna should com- 
mence the treatment of almost every variety of sore throat. 

Bryonia. — Especially after taking cold, or after getting over- 
heated ; hoarseness ; oppressed respiration ; pricking and painful 
sensibility of the throat ; pain on turning the head ; dryness of 
the throat, with difficulty of speech ; swallowing painful ; some 
fever, either with or without thirst ; chilliness ; pain in the limbs, 
back, and head. In alternation with Rhus, or Rhus may follow 
Bryonia when that remedy fails to afford complete relief. 

Qhamomilla. — Especially where sore throat has been induced 
by taking cold from exposure to a draught of air, while in a state 
of perspiration ; swelling of the tonsils ; tingling in the throat ; 
hacking cough ; hoarseness ; fever in the evening, with flushes of 
heat ; flushed cheek, or one cheek flushed and the other pale ; the 
child is cross and restless, wishes to be carried in the arms, and 
wants things which, upon obtaining, it throws away. 

Hepar-sulph. — In cases where the abscess in the tonsils is 
determined to break, this remedy will hasten the process ; it pro- 
motes suppuration. It may also be given when there are several 
small ulcers, which appear slowly and are not painful. In the 
beginning of the disease, when there are lancinating pains in the 
throat, may be given in alternation with Mercurius. 

Ladiesis. — This will be found a useful remedy where Bella- 
donna or Mercurius has been used without effect ; also, when 
there is a constant disposition to swallow ; dryness of the throat ; 
extensive swelling of the tonsils with threatened suffocation ; a 
sensation as of a tumor or a lump in the throat ; sensitiveness to 
the slightest noise or touch, even to' a handkerchief or the bed- 
clothes about the neck. All the symptoms are worse during the 

Mercurius. — This is a valuable remedy and may often be given 
at the commencement of an attack, especially when sore throat 


arises from taking cold, accompanied with rheumatic pains in the 
head and nape of the neck; violent throbbing hi the throat and 
tonsils, extending to the ears and glands of the neck, especially 
when swallowing ; disagreeable taste in the mouth ; profuse dis- 
charge of saliva ; chills in the evening, or heat followed by 
perspiration ; swelling and inflammation of the parts affected ; 
ulcers, and tendency to suppuration in the .throat. Mercurius 
may, at the commencement of an attack, be given in alternation 
with Belladonna ; if, however, there are strong symptoms of sup- 
puration, it should be alternated with Hcpar-sulph., and should be 
continued sometime after the abscess has broken. 

Nux-vomica. — In cases similar to those mentioned under Cham- 
omilla ; also, when there is soreness, with a feeling of excoriation 
or as if the throat had been scraped, and when there is a sensa- 
tion as if there was a plug in the throat. 

Pulsatilla. — For females or persons of a mild character ; 
throat feels swollen inside ; tonsils and palate have a dark-red 
appearance ; shooting pain in the throat towards the ear when 
swallowing ; scraping sensation in the throat ; chilliness in the 
evening, followed by heat. 

Rhus. — For symptoms similar to those of Bryonia. 

Sulphur. — For frequent or continued sore throat, especially in 
vitiated constitutions. Sulphur is a valuable remedy to hurry 
forward the suppuration process, when an abscess seems certain 
to burst ; also, after the discharge of an abscess, when the cavity 
is slow in healing, or when many abscesses form in succession. It 
may be given in alternation with Silicea. 

Administration op Remedies. — For ordinary cases dissolve, of 
the selected remedy, twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of 
water, and of this solution one teaspoonful may be given every 
two or three hours, until relief is obtained. In severe cases, where 
swallowing is difficult and very painful, three globules may be 
given, dry, upon the tongue, every two hours, or even oftener, 
every hour, until a change takes place. In all cases, lengthening 
the interval between the doses, as the severity of the symptoms 

Diet and Regimen. — The diet will have to be regulated accord- 
ing to the degree of inflammation. If the inflammation is exten- 
sive, the throat much swollen, and swallowing difficult, of course 
solid food cannot be taken. Custards, panadas, gruels, light soups, 
and the like, are about all that can be swallowed with any 


degree of comfort, and even these at times produce great pain ; 
in fact, the mere act of swallowing is almost impossible. 

In no disease perhaps is the beneficial effect of cold water more 
marked than in sore throat. When going to bed at night put a 
wet bandage around the throat, and cover it with a dry cloth. If 
the patient is confined to the house, repeat the same through the 
day. The application of water should be made at the commence- 
ment of the attack ; if, hoAvever, the disease continues in spite of 
the treatment, and suppuration is about to take place, which may 
be suspected when there is a pulsating or throbbing sensation at- 
tended with stitches in the parts affected, the suffering may be 
relieved, and the bursting of the abscess hastened by the repeated 
external application of warm linseed poultices, and gargling the 
throat with warm water. When much pain is present the inhala- 
tion of vapor from boiling water will often afford great relief. 

All medicinal gargles are injurious, and all external applications 
of blisters, leeches, mustard drafts, etc., are worse than useless. 

A predisposition to sore throat exists in some persons. Sulphur, 
Graphites, and Silicea have been found useful in overcoming this 
constitutional difficulty. When taken for this purpose, a dose 
every second or third night, until six doses are taken ; then dis- 
continue the medicine for one week ; after which, take it again, 
as above. 


Definition. — Causes. — Malignant sore throat constitutes a 
part of that terrible scourge, malignant scarlet fever. It also forms 
an independent disease, generally occurring in damp autumnal 
seasons, attacking children of vitiated, impoverished, or delicate 
constitutions, weakened by some previous disease. It is also more 
apt to attack children living in low, damp, cold, mouldy, or ill- 
ventilated houses, and in want of warm clothing and healthy food. 
Epidemic sore throat, under these circumstances, readily assumes 
a malignant type. 

This species of sore throat, however, is by no means exclusively 
confined to the class above described ; but, as I have already stated, 
they are most liable to it. Still, those living in the very lap of 
luxury, where want never enters, are not exempt from its invasions. 
It is an exceedingly dangerous disease, wherever and whenever it 
appears ; therefore the treatment should be prompt and energetic, 


and should never be attempted by domestic practice, unless it be 
impossible to obtain the services of a homoeopathic physician. 

Symptoms. — This disorder commences with a chill, not always, 
however, distinctly marked ; sometimes, indeed, amounting to but 
a slight shivering, followed by fever and languor ; oppression at the 
chest, with or without vomiting ; cheeks of a crimson hue ; more 
or less inflammation of the throat and tonsils, with an acrid dis- 
charge from the mouth and nose, excoriating the parts with which 
it comes in contact. Pulse, weak and very quick, almost imper- 
ceptible ; throat, and glands about the throat, much swollen ; face 
bloated ; patient very restless. 

Upon examination of the throat, you will perceive numerous 
small ulcers, covered with an ashy-gray crust, while the surround- 
ing tissue is of a livid or dark red color. These ulcerated spots 
vary in different cases. Sometimes they are few in number, and 
confined to the throat and tonsils ; in others, they are numerous, 
the whole mucous membrane of the mouth being thickly studded 
over with them ; they even extend through the opening into the 

These small spots, or patches, of ulceration are of -a yellowish- 
gray color, looking more like spots of lard than anything else. 
They may remain isolated and circumscribed ; but, in severe cases, 
they run together, and present a gangrenous appearance, become 
soft, and slough away. At this stage of the disease, there is exces- 
sive prostration ; the teeth and tongue are covered with a blackish 
incrustation, similar to that seen in typhus fever ; there is more or 
less delirium ; the breath is fetid, the countenance sunken ; vom- 
iting and fetid diarrhoea supervene ; the pulse grows feebler ; the 
skin, which was previously harsh and dry, now becomes covered 
with a cold, clammy sweat ; stupor sets in, and the patient dies. 

The milder cases, and those which respond readily to appropriate 
treatment, generally yield on the third or fourth day, terminating 
in profuse perspiration. The breathing becomes e*asier ; the pulse 
less frequent, but stronger ; the ulcers in the mouth become 
cleaner, lose their ashy-gray cast, and are surrounded by a bright 
redness ; the breath loses its bad smell ; swallowing is less diffi- 
cult ; and the general expression of the face becomes more 

Treatment. — The remedies are Belladonna, Arsenicum, Carbo- 
veg., Lachesis, Mercurius, Nitric-acid, Secale, and Sulphur. 

As a general thing, the treatment may begin with Belladonna 



and Mereurius in alternation, especially should there be much dry- 
ness of the mouth, with restlessness, or even delirium. 

It is often advisable, at the outset of an attack, when the skin is 
hot and dry, and the fever appears of an inflammatory nature, to 
give a few doses of Aconite ; but as soon as dryness of the throat, 
difficulty of swallowing, and a sense of constriction or choking in 
the throat, manifest themselves, immediate recourse should be had 
to Belladonna. 

Mereurius. — This remedy is specially indicated when there is 
a profuse secretion of Saliva from the mouth, with ulceration of 
the throat, particularly in the early part of the disease. If, how- 
ever, Mereurius fails to produce any decided relief, or, what is still 
worse, if the disease progresses, while the ulcers increase in size, 
and become painful, Nitric-acid may be given, either alone or in 
alternation with Mereurius. 

Arsenicum. — This is one of the principal remedies for gangre- 
nous sore throat, and should be given when there is extreme pros- 
tration of strength, rapid sinking of the patient ; also when the 
ulcers present a dark-red appearance, or where they are covered 
with dark scabs, and surrounded with a livid margin ; teeth and 
lips covered with blackish incrustations ; tongue dark and cracked ; 
constant muttering and delirium; breathing difficult; acrid dis- 
charge from the mouth and nose, excoriating the parts with which 
it comes in contact. This remedy can be given alone, or in alter- 
nation with Lachesis, which is also another valuable remedy, and is 
particularly indicated should the neck be much swollen or discol- 
ored and tender, or rather painful to external pressure. 

Carbo-veg. — When the discharge from the ulcer is thin*, copious, 
and fetid, accompanied with great prostration. 

Secale. — When the patient is disposed to sleep a good deal, or 
when he lies in a drowsy, half-stupefied state, if Secale does not 
have the desired effect, give Opium. 

Nitric-acid. — When the. patient is out of danger, but the ulcers 
are slow in healing, one dose may be given night and morning. 

Administration of Remedies. — The remedies may be given dry, 
upon the tongue, or they may be dissolved in water. If dissolved, 
put twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of water ; of this solu- 
tion, give one teaspoonful for a dose. At the commencement of 
an attack, or where the symptoms are severe, the remedy indicated 
may be given as often as every hour ; always lengthening the in- 
terval between the doses as the severity of the symptoms subsides. 


As a general thing, the dose may be repeated at intervals of from 
one to four hours. In this, as in many other cases, you "will have 
to depend a great deal upon your own judgment in the adminis- 
tration of remedies. 

Diet and Regimen. — The first thing to be done, is to place 
your patient in a dry, airy room : plenty of pure, fresh air is the 
best adjuvant in the treatment of this or any other disease. Stag- 
nation of air is an abomination greatly to be feared. 

The food, as a matter of course, will have to consist of rice, 
arrow-root, corn-starch, thin flour gruel, broths, and the like. 
When the mouth is very hot and dry, it is advisable to moisten it 
with a little warm milk and water. The mouth should be fre- 
quently washed out ; and this must be done very gently, so as to 
produce no irritation. As a wash, warm water appears to be the 
most desirable. During convalescence, care should be taken that 
the patient does not overload the stomach, as this would tend to 
produce a relapse, or at least excite some gastric derangement, 
which would retard an otherwise speedy recovery. 


Definition. — Causes. — Acute tonsilitis has already been con- 
sidered, in the article on sore throat. I will, therefore, here only 
make a few remarks in regard to chronic enlargement of the ton- 
sils. You will frequently hear the ignorant speak of children 
having tonsils in their throat, as though all children, and adults too, 
did not have them there. 

The tonsils are two oblong, somewhat rounded bodies, placed 
between the arches of the palate. In some they can scarcely be 
said to exist ; while in others they fill up the throat to such an ex- 
tent as to impede swallowing, or even respiration. The use of 
these glands is to secrete a fluid which makes smooth and slippery 
the passage to the stomach, for the easy transmission of the food 
we swallow. 

Enlargement of these glands from chronic inflammation, or en- 
largement either congenital, or arising from excessive nutrition, 
constitutes the disease under consideration. 

Symptoms. — The first symptom that attracts attention, is the 
habitually loud breathing of the patient during sleep, or in other 
words, his snoring. This is caused by the enlarged tonsils pressing 
upon the palate, which partially closes the passage through the 


nose ; the air being forcibly drawn through this narrowed open- 
ing produces that horrid noise. The voice becomes thick and in- 
articulate. These symptoms and that of snoring become aggra- 
vated upon the slightest attack of cold or catarrh. 

Deafness is also another symptom and originates from a sim- 
ilar cause, — the enlarged tonsil pressing upon the Eustachian 
tube, which is a small canal leading from the throat to the inter- 
nal ear. But the most serious consequence of long-continued 
enlarged tonsils is the effect it produces upon the chest ; enlarge- 
ment of the tonsils, and the " pigeon breast," usually go together. 
The obstruction preventing the free entrance of air into the lungs, 
these organs are but imperfectly developed ; how this imperfect 
expansion of the lungs produces the prominence of the breast- 
bone, would take too much room for me to explain, but you can 
rest assured that such is the fact. 

Enlargement of the tonsils, you will therefore see, though 
seemingly of slight importance, may lead to serious results. 

A weakly child, with slight enlargement of the tonsils, will 
often get rid of the ailment as he gains strength, and at the age 
of fourteen or fifteen have entirely outgrown it. 

Treatment. — The application of Nitrate of Silver, — caustic, — 
Iodine, Alum, or to cut the tonsils out, as allopathic physicians too 
frequently do, is worse than useless, for — and they too must have 
noticed the fact — in the majority of cases, after such barbarous 
operations, the lungs become affected, and sooner or later, as the 
result, the patient dies of consumption. If there be, in a patient, a 
hereditary taint of, or a predisposition toward consumption, I know 
of no other way to light up that latent spark so certain and so rapid 
as by the application of Nitrate of Silver to the throat. 

The only rational way of curing these enlarged tonsils, is to 
put the patient under a strict course of homoeopathic treatment ; 
it will take some time, it is true, for their reduction ; but, even 
though it takes a long time, it is much better than to run a minia- 
ture guillotine down a child's throat and clip off his tonsils, though 
it is done expeditiously ; for one is safe, and the other is not. 

The appropriate remedies are Belladonna, Causticum, Calcaria, 
Graphites, Hepar-sulphur, Lachesis, Mercurius, Nux-vomica, and 

When an aggravation of the symptoms occurs, caused by slight 
cold, the application of cold water to the throat, in the shape of 
wet bandages, over night, frequently gargling the throat with cold 


water, together with a few doses of Mercurius will be sufficient to 
remove the difficulty. 

When a course of treatment has been commenced, the remedy 
given should be continued for at least six weeks, a dose every 
other night. 


Definition. — Causes. — Treatment. — This is entirely an imagi- 
nary difficulty ; there is no such thing as falling of the palate. Some 
persons, however, after a slight cold or an attack of indigestion, 
suffer from a trivial inflammation of the palate, which produces 
from its thickened and elongated state, a sensation as if it had 
fallen. I have often seen old ladies, in such cases, put a little 
pepper, salt, or mustard upon the palate, — to make it jump up, I 

The best remedy that I know of for this condition of things, is 
JSfux-vomica. If it be a recent attack, a dose of three globules 
may be given every two hours, until the unpleasant feeling sub- 

Should this fail to effect a cure, Mercurius, Belladonna, or 
Sulphur may be tried in the same manner. 

Cold water is here very beneficial, applied both externally and 

Diet. — Avoid all stimulating articles of diet, such as fancy, 
high-seasoned dishes, and the like. 


Definition. — Diphtheria is a term used to designate a specific 
and peculiar form of inflammation of the throat. Unlike ordinary 
inflammations of these parts, this is attended with an exudation 
of false membrane upon the mucous surface, which is developed 
after a variable amount of constitutional disturbance, attended 
usually with a low grade of fever, and is mainly confined to the 
throat, tonsils, and nasal cavities. 

Diphtheria is a constitutional disease, presenting, as its charac- 
teristics, local manifestations in the throat. This is not, as many 
suppose, a new disease. A consultation of the best authorities 
discloses many severe epidemics to have visited both this country 
and Europe. We have a record of its ravages in Rome as early 
as a. d. 330. We read of it in Holland in 1337 ; in Paris in 1576 ; 


in Naples in 1618 ; again in France in 1818 and 1835. A severe 
epidemic passed over England during the years 1858, '59, and '60. 
— Brit. Bled. Journal. 

It seems to have first visited the United States in 1771— Trans. 
Am. Philos. Soc. vol. 1. — when it was but imperfectly recognized, 
being confounded with membranous croup, putrid, and other forms 
of sore throat. It reappeared here in the latter part of 1856 or 
the fore part of 1857, when it was at once distinctly recognized 
and successfully combated. 

In the year 1857 there were two cases of diphtheria reported in 
the city of New York ; in 1858, there were five ; in 1859, fifty- 
three ; in 1860, four hundred and twenty-two ; in 1861, four hun- 
dred and fifty-two ; in 1862, five hundred and ninety-four. 

In this city, there were thirteen cases reported in 1859 ; one 
hundred and thirty-five in 1860 ; one hundred and sixty-five in 
1861 ; two hundred and nineteen in 1862 ; two hundred and fifty- 
four in 1863 ; three hundred and sixty in 1864 ; one hundred and 
seventy-four in 1865. 

I would here remark, that many diseases of the throat are called 
diphtheria, which have no analogy to the disease whatever. 

Causes. — It is abundantly proven by long and repeated obser- 
vation, that diphtheria is propagated by two causes, — epidemic 
influence and contagion. 

Scrofulous children, — those subject to glandular enlargements, 
to catarrhal and croupous affections, — are usually the ones that 
are first affected when the disease rages as an epidemic. 

I am well convinced that the disease is contagious, and for the 
following reasons : It habitually spreads in those families which it 
invades. I cannot call to mind a single family of children in my 
practice, where the disease entered, but that more than one suf- 
fered, while, in numerous instances, it spread through the house- 
hold, affecting all, both adults and children, and those who were 
most closely in communication with the patient, were the first to 
be taken sick, while those who were early removed, sent away 
from the sick person, usually escaped. If this be not the result of 
direct contagion, then we must say that it becomes epidemic in a 
household to an extent sufficient to cause its spread from one 
member to another. Reductio ad absurdum. 

Surgeons have been seized, after a portion of saliva or false 
membrane had fallen upon the lips or mucous membrane of the 
nose while engaged in examining the throat, and have died from 
the effects of it. — Monograph on DipTi., G. F. Snelling, M. D., 
p. 10. 


I have known a child from the country, merely carried through 
one street in Albany, a short time since, who sickened with the 
disease in six hours, and died within a few days. — hoc. cit. 

Dr. Giddings, of S. C. — Am. Jour. Med. Science, vol. xxiv. — 
remarks : " Under particular circumstances, as when many per- 
sons are crowded together ; when ventillation is imperfect, and 
cleanliness is neglected, there can be no question of the genera- 
tion of a contagious influence, capable of transmitting the disease 
from one person to another." Dr. Bard, of N. Y., in the same 
journal asserts the disease to be infectious, and that the infection 
depends not so much upon any prevailing disposition of the air, as 
upon effluvia received from the breath of the infected person. 

After reviewing the facts of the question, as presented by obser- 
vation, and the written opinion of eminent authors, it may be 
concluded that diphtheria arises from a specific poison, taken into 
the system, which, acting through the blood, produces a true con- 
stitutional disease, exhibiting its local manifestations in the forma- 
tion of false membrane upon mucous and abraded cutaneous 
surfaces, and becomes capable of transmission from one to another, 
without any recurrence to the original source of the poison. 

If these views be accepted as correct, the importance of remov- 
ing all the children in a family, as soon as any one is taken with 
the disease, will be obvious to all. This precaution, if early ob- 
served, will, I am fully convinced, be the means of saving many 

In the majority of instances children are the subjects of diph- 

There has been quite a difference of opinion among physicians 
with respect to diphtheria and scarlet fever, some intelligent observ- 
ers contending for the identity of the two, maintaining that diph- 
theria was but an altered form of scarlatina, or, those cases where 
the eruption has not come well out, or coming gut, has receded. 
Indeed, when we come to compare the symptoms, we find a strong 
resemblance existing between the two diseases. They are each 
preceded by a fever of about the same duration. There is head- 
ache, flashes of heat, chilliness, sore throat, enlargement and 
tenderness of the glands of the neck. Many cases of pure, diphtheria 
are attended with an eruption, which, at times, resembles measles ; 
at others, it is of a bright red, like scarlet fever. " Indeed, the 
eruption in diphtheria would seem to be a sort of a cross between 
that peculiar to measles and scarlet fever." — Dr. Ludlum, on 


Diphtheria. Besides, the sequels, or secondary affection which 
follows the diseases, are almost identical. 

Scarlet fever and diphtheria appear as contagions epidemics in 
the same neighborhood, at the same time ; indeed, we have had 
the two diseases existing at the same time, in the same family. 

"In the same house, the father and mother had well-marked 
scarlet fever severely, while the three children had all the marked 
symptoms of diphtheria, without much feverishness and no rash, 
though attended by the same premonitory symptoms, the cases 
occurring at the same time." — Brit. Med. Jour., June 8th, 1858, 
p. 449. 

For my own part, though acknowledging the similarity of the 
two diseases, I do not by any means consider them identical. 
That scarlet fever invites diphtheria is quite manifest ; it has been 
the painful experience of every physician to have scarlet fever 
patients swept off by diphtheria. 

It is a matter of general observation and remark, that all dis- 
eases occurring during an epidemic of diphtheria, and especially 
those affecting the throat, have a tendency to become complicated 
with that disease. Sore throats, that in ordinary seasons would 
amount to but a slight inflammation during such seasons, almost 
certainly become diphtheritic, just as diarrhoea during an epidemic 
of cholera, has a tendency to pass into that disease. 

Symptoms. — Some authors, both for reasons real and imaginary, 
have divided diphtheria into numerous species, forms, and varieties. 
We can see no good reason for this division. On the contrary, 
there are many objections to the arrangement. Diphtheria is, in 
fact, with all its degrees of severity and apparent differences, a 
single and distinct disease, produced by one cause, inducing similar 
results, however much they may vary in gravity, and no more 
requiring than does dysentery to be divided into the many forms 
too often ascribed to it. t 

According to my observation, diphtheria, in the majority of 
instances, commences as does an ordinary cold or influenza, 
with slight chills and flashes of heat; some little irritation of 
the throat, but no great amount of pain or difficulty in swallow- 
ing ; stoppage of the nose or fluent discharge ; aching in the 
bones ; general prostration and weariness, occasionally with high 
fever and severe pain in the head ; disordered stomach and loss of 
appetite ; followed in the course of twenty-four or forty-eight 
hours by a more or less decided aggravation of the throat trouble, 


the glands about the neck becoming sensitive and swollen, with an 
increased flow of saliva or water into the mouth. In many in- 
stances, the onset of disease is so insidious that its true nature 
would hardly be suspected, were the patches of false membrane 
not seen in the throat ; and not unfrequently it is with no little 
difficulty that the parents can be persuaded that anything which 
may prove serious is the matter with the child. 

In cases somewhat more severe, the patient early complains of 
soreness of the throat and stiffness of the neck ; externally, the 
tonsils are found enlarged and tender ; internally, the inflamma- 
tion is plainly visible, sometimes appearing bright and glassy ; at 
others, almost purplish, and dotted over with spots of false mem- 
brane. These spots may vary in size from a split pea to a half 
inch in diameter. When the membrane becomes detached, it 
leaves the surface beneath in appearance not unlike a piece of raw 
meat. There is more or less fever, with headache, in many cases, 
almost unbearable ; the breath is extremely offensive. A charac- 
teristic symptom, and one not accounted for by the amount of 
local mischief going on in the throat, is the extreme prostration 
with which all these cases are attended. However, under judi- 
cious treatment, convalescence can usually be established in from 
eight to ten days, although it may be weeks, or, indeed, months, 
before the debility and nervous depression can be removed, and 
the vigor and elasticity of the system entirely restored. 

The above may be taken as a fair example of diphtheria, as it 
ordinarily appears. But it must not be imagined that the disease 
always presents itself in this benignant manner, because it does 
occasionally assume a malignity truly terrific to behold. 

It may be the patient is suddenly seized with rigors, and vomiting 
of a thin, white, yellowish matter of a very offensive nature ; then 
purging of a fluid of a similar appearance and smell. These symp- 
toms, subsiding after an hour or two, are followed by prostration 
and stupor. After a period varying from six to sixteen hours, the 
stupor passes off, and delirium, often of a violent character takes 
its place. — "Lancet" 1859, p. 183. "When the onset of the dis- 
ease is thus sudden, it runs its course with great rapidity ; a few 
hours, often, being sufficient to place the patient beyond all hope 
of remedial assistance. In all cases of marked severity, the most 
striking symptom is the extreme prostration, at once indicating 
that the system has been overwhelmed by some powerful morbific 
influence. These sudden attacks explode a train of symptoms, 



which startles the most stoical observers. Whatever may be the 
particular feature of the assaults, the characteristic exudation 
quickly appears iu the throat, and rapidly spreads. The glands 
about the neck become enlarged and tender ; there is high fever, 
great excitement of the pulse, and severe headache ; or the surface 
may be cool and clammy ; swallowing becomes difficult, or even 
impossible. Though threatened strangulation is sure to be pro- 
duced by every effort to swallow, the attempt must frequently be 
made to get rid of the saliva and other fluids, which collect in the 
throat. Whenever food or medicine is taken, it is violently 
ejected from the nose and mouth. The breath, which for some 
time has been extremely offensive, now becomes horribly so ; in- 
deed, the case becomes so repulsive that even the patient's best 
friends, — those who are most anxious to assist him, — cannot even 
come near him without feelings of aversion. 

As the disease progresses breathing becomes difficult, from an 
extension of the membrane into the air passages, and all hopes of 
the case become futile. The countenance assumes a leaden hue ; 
the skin is cold and shrivelled ; the patient throws himself from side 
to side, fighting for breath, — a heart-rending spectacle to all 
whose duty compels their presence, — until death finally closes the 

A no less fatal, but more insidious, form of the disease is occa- 
sionally met with. It steals upon the patient without sounding a 
single note of alarm, until it has, so to speak, gotten the whole 
system entirely within its grasp. The general symptoms attend- 
ing ordinary cases may be entirely wanting. The local soreness 
of the throat, which, for a day or two, attracts but little attention, 
by degrees begins to cause some inconvenience ; when, all at once, 
from an extension of the diphtheritic deposit, the child is taken 
with croupy breathing, and is either in a few hours beyond all 
hope of recovery, or he may live after this alarming symptom sets 
in, for two or three days, at times brightening up, exciting hopes 
in the minds of his parents that he may possibly escape ; but it is 
all illusive, for these radiant moments are but the last flickerings 
of the expiring lamp. 

A careful internal examination of a diphtheritic sore throat dis- 
plays a condition varying in appearance, according to the severity 
of the attack, and the stage at which it is observed. If observed 
early, the tonsils, palate, and back part of the throat present a 
red, shiny appearance, as though the parts had been brightly 


painted, and then varnished. To the casual observer, or one unac- 
customed to diphtheria, this condition of the throat would occasion 
no anxiety, and might very readily be considered an ordinary case 
of tonsilitis. Not so, however, with the experienced man ; he ex- 
pects it ; and is well aware that unless the disease is arrested, the 
condition of his patient, in a few hours, will be very materially 

If the disease has made some progress, before attention is called 
to the throat, a careful examination will disclose spots or patches 
of false membrane dotting over the palate and tonsils ; these spots 
may be, at first, few in number, small and indistinct, but they are 
quite sufficient to warn one who is acquainted with the disease to 
arm himself for a conflict which the inexperienced would hardly 
anticipate. This false membrane, first observed in small, appar- 
ently insignificant spots, scattered over those parts hitherto so 
brilliantly red, may in a wonderfully short period of time conglom- 
erate into one thick, plastic deposit, covering the palate, tonsils, 
and fauces, and sometimes extending into the nasal cavities. In- 
deed, it has been observed to cover the whole mucous membrane 
of the throat and mouth, within twelve hours from the first 
complaint, so that, on looking into the mouth, it appeared as 
though lined with gray velvet. — Lon. Lancet, Aug . 20th, 1859, 
p. 183. It has also been observed that the skin, when abraded, 
has become covered with false membrane, and blistered surfaces 
are especially liable to become affected in this way. 

In those cases which have come under my immediate observa- 
tion, the membrane was first observed at one or more spots on the 
tonsils of about the size of a split pea ; from these points it has 
spread to the surrounding parts. I have never had it become 
general and extend to the windpipe and bronchial tubes, although 
it frequently does so, and always, I believe, proves fatal. 

The physical appearance of the^membrane is similar to that 
thrown out in true inflammatory croup, except it is soft, and 
appears, as indeed it really is, saturated with fluids. In color it 
is described as a yellowish-white, gray, or light brown ; some com- 
pare it to gray velvet, others to wet chamois. Portions taken from 
the windpipes are lighter colored than that found in the mouth. 
It adheres with moderate tenacity to the mucous membrane be- 
neath ; when its edges become loosened, as frequently happens, a 
•bloody secretion of a fetid odor exudes from beneath. 

Treatment. — In all cases of diphtheria, no matter how mild 


it may appear, the patient should, without delay, be placed under 
the care of an intelligent homoeopathic physician. Until such 
services can be secured, give Kali-bicliromicum, and Proto-iodide 
of Mercury (Mercurius-iodatus), in alternation every hour, or 
every two or three hours, according to the urgency of the case. 
I usually dissolve about a grain of the first trituration of Kali- 
bich. in a glass half full of water — just enough to tinge the 
water yellow — and give one dessert-spoonful of the solution 
at a dose. Of the Mercurius, I give the third trituration, about 
as much of the powder as you could hold upon a five-cent piece. 
Many physicians prefer the high attenuation. These two remedies, 
repeated every hour or two, will suffice to cure nearly every case. 
— Marcy & Hunt's " Theory and Practice" vol. I. p. 764. 

Aconite. — In many cases this remedy will be called at the 
commencement of an attack, especially, if there should be consid- 
erable fever ; heat of skin ; rapid and full pulse ; dry tongue ; 
offensive breath ; the inflammation of the throat being of a dusky 
redness. If, in addition to these symptoms, there is a patch or 
two of wash-leather exudation upon the tonsils and far back in 
the throat, give Aconite and Bryonia, in alternation, every hour. 

Belladonna. — Inflammation of a bright, scarlet redness, extend- 
ing uniformly over the mucous membrane ; enlargement of the 
tonsils ; fever, and severe headache. 

Rhus-tox. — When the inflammation is of a dark red, with dark 
crimson patches scattered over the surface. 

Arsenicum. — " The breath fetid ; the lining of the nostrils dis- 
charging a viscid, foul secretion ; great and increasing prostration 
of strength. After the separation of the false membrane, it may 
remove the extreme tenderness which remains, as well as keep up 
the vital energies." 

Kali-chlor. — " Is especially indicated if there be extreme depres- 
sion, imperfect vitalization of the blood, a septic condition gener- 
ally, and a tendency to stupor." — Dr. Snelling. 

Numerous other remedies are recommended and used for diph- 
theria ; among them, we have Capsicum, Colchicum, Tartar-emetic, 
Nitric-acid, Amonium causticum, Oantharis, Lachesis, Borax, Spon- 
gia, Separ-sulph., Bromine, Lycopodium, Muriatic acid, Iodine, 

Administration of Remedies. — Where directions have not 
already been given, dissolve twelve globules in six spoonfuls of 
water, and give one spoonful of the solution at a dose. Repeat it 
every six hours. 


Diet and Regimen. — The inain danger in uncomplicated cases 
of diphtheria evidently arises from debility ; and hence it has been 
insisted on, by nearly all practitioners, that a good, nourishing diet 
is essential, and stimulants often desirable. In every genuine case, 
at the outset, there is more or less febrile action going on : you 
will find heat of skin and acceleration of the pulse. During this 
stage, stimulants would be highly injurious ; but this period is 
usually of short duration. The patient should be closely watched ; 
and the moment the pulse begins to flag, the skin to get cool, and 
the characteristic weary prostration to show itself, we should at 
once adopt a sustaining regimen. An early resort to a good nour- 
ishing diet, judiciously combined with stimulants, I am satisfied, 
will very much diminish the period of convalescence, which, in too 
many instances, drags its weary length along through weeks and 
months. The amount of both stimulants and diet will, of course, 
depend upon the peculiar circumstances of each respective case ; 
but, in order to insure a sufficiency, they should be various, admin- 
istered in small quantities, at regular and frequent intervals. A 
great deal will depend upon the digestibility of the articles used, 
and their adaptation to the wants of the stomach. It must ever be 
borne in mind, that the digestive apparatus shares in the extreme 
depression of the system, and that, as it can no longer convert 
crude materials of aliment into the life-giving current, it will not 
do to choose food or stimulus hap-hazard, and to gorge the pa- 
tient with it, blindly supposing that this will afford him support. 
Not by any means. That which is taken into the system, and not 
digested, becomes a source of irritation, from which untold mis- 
chief may result. In the majority of instances, beef-tea will be 
better adapted to the wants of the patient, perhaps, than any other 
article that can be selected. Beef-tea should be made after the fol- 
lowing receipt : " Take a pound of perfectly lean, juicy beef ; cut 
it in little squares, and put it into a wide-necked bottle, with a suit- 
able quantity of salt ; tie a piece of muslin over the mouth, and 
place it in a kettle of hot water, and let it simmer over the fire for 
six hours ; then remove the juice. When done, the meat should 
be quite white and tasteless." The tea should be seasoned palata- 
bly to the sick persons, and they may be allowed to take as much 
of it as they choose. In some cases, it will be necessary to give it 
to the patients, especially when they loathe all nourishment, by the 
spoonful, every half-hour or hour, telling them that it is medicine. 
In cases of extreme prostration, where the beef-tea is rejected by 
the stomach, it must be given by enema. 


In cases where the stomach refused all nourishment, rejecting 
whatever was administered, I have often found clam-broth to act 
like a charm, settling the stomach and giving the patient a relish 
for other kinds of food. 

The soft parts of oysters, either raw or stewed, will often relish, 
and make a good substitute when the patient gets tired of beef-tea. 

As stimulants, port wine, claret, champagne, milk-punch, and 
brandy and water, are all, when judiciously administered, of vast 
benefit. Eggs, beaten up with brandy, hot water, and sugar, make 
a good, nutritious stimulant, next, perhaps, to milk-punch. 

For children, the best stimulant is wine-whey, or beef-tea mixed 
with port wine, or port wine and arrow-root. 

As a beverage, when the patient is thirsty, barley-water or toast- 
water, acidulated with a little lemon-juice, is not objectionable. 
Perhaps, however, cold water, to which has been added a little 
raspberry or strawberry syrup, is to be preferred. 


Definition. — Symptoms. — Under the above names are usually 
arranged the following symptoms : a gnawing or a burning sensa- 
tion at the pit of the stomach, accompanied with or followed by 
sour, acid eructations, or belchings, attended with nausea, cold- 
ness of the extremities, and often with faintings. 

As you will readily observe, these are but symptoms of a dis- 
turbed digestion, the forerunners or accompaniments of dyspepsia. 
These disagreeable symptoms are always aggravated when any- 
thing is taken into the stomach which does not exactly agree 
with it. 

When these symptoms are isolated, that is, apparently uncon- 
nected with any other derangement, the following remedies will be 
found of service. 

A more detailed account has been given under the general head 
of " Dyspepsia," which see. 

Treatment. — For water-brash — Nux-vomica, Pulsatilla, 
Chamomilla, Arsenicum, Silicea, Carbo-veg., China, Belladonna, 

For heart-burn. — Nux-vomica, Pulsatilla, Arsenicum, China, 
Sepia, Sulphur. 

For flatulency, or frequent rising of wind. — Nux-vomica, 
Carbo-veg., China, Graph. Phosphorus, Pulsatilla, Sulphur. 


For sour stomach, — Chamomilla, Nux-vomica, Pulsatilla, Phos- 
phorus, Sulphur. 

For flatulence, when it occurs after eating, and is accompanied 
with hiccough and sour risings, take China. When such symp- 
toms arise from eating fat food, take Pulsatilla. If attended with 
colic, Nux-vomica. 

When sour stomach occurs in nursing infants, Chamomilla, Ipe- 
cacuanha, or Nux-vomica will be of service. Sometimes a little 
sugar-water will afford relief when nothing else will. 

Sour stomach of pregnant females may sometimes be remedied 
with a few teaspoonfuls of lemonade. 

Administration op Remedies. — Dissolve, of the selected rem- 
edy, twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of water, and give the 
child one spoonful of this solution every hour, or oftener, if neces- 
sary. An adult may take six or eight globules every hour. — See 
" Colic." 

nausea, vomiting, and regurgitation oe milk. 

Definition. — Owing to the imperfect development of the in- 
fant's stomach, vomiting and regurgitation takes place with great 
readiness. Nausea and vomiting, as a general thing, in children, 
is simply an act of nature, kindly intended to rid the stomach of 
any excess of food it may have received. Nursing infants, when 
in the very best of health, are very apt to vomit or regurgitate, 
after having nursed abundantly. This, of course, arises from 
having overloaded the stomach, and is salutary. The milk is 
ejected just as it was drawn from the mother, or perhaps slightly 

Older children also have their spells of nausea and vomiting, 
which not unfrequently follow an expedition to the grape-vine or 
apple-orchard ; or especially among^city children, from having 
partaken of too great a variety of rich things, or from eating some 
indigestible substance. This kind of vomiting always affords re- 
lief, and it is fair to conclude that the act has been a beneficial 
one. We should thank nature for her kind assistance, instead of 
misinterpreting her, as people too frequently do, and concluding 
that the child needs a little " doctoring." 

Sometimes, however, vomiting arises from other causes, and, in- 
stead of only a portion, the whole of the food is thrown up ; and not 
only that, but mucus and bile may be ejected, either with or after 


the contents of the stomach. This, of course, is not salutary, and, 
therefore, does need attention. 

Teeatmnet. — Ipecacuanha. — This is the first remedy, and will 
generally be all that is required. 

Pulsatilla. — Should there be much flatulence, and distention 
of the abdomen, after Pulsatilla, give Antimonium-crud., if only 
partial relief is afforded. 

Chamomilla. — When the disease is attended with diarrhoea or 
with convulsions ; diarrhoea, with greenish stools ; pain in the 
stomach ; great restlessness. 

Nux-vomica or Bryonia — May be given where vomiting is at- 
tended with constipation. When vomiting arises from a natural 
weakness of the stomach, Nux-vomica, followed by Bryonia, will 
often be of service. Chronic cases, or cases of long standing, call 
for Calcarea or Sulphur. 

Cina. — For vomiting caused by worms. Should no relief fol- 
low its use, give Mercurius or Ferrum. 

Administration op Remedies. — The medicine may be given dry, 
three globules at a dose, for an infant ; or you may dissolve twelve 
globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of water, and give, of the solution, 
one spoonful every four hours. In severe cases of vomiting, the 
remedy may be repeated every fifteen minutes, or every half-hour. 
— See " Dyspepsia.'-" 


Definition. — The common term " biliousness " is, to my mind, 
rather indefinite. Some people call everything " biliousness." 
Nine out of every ten patients that I prescribe for, among their 
other complaints, usually inform me that they are a " little bilious." 
If a child loses his appetite, has a cough, or any other slight ail- 
ment, it is because he is " so bilious." Should there be sickness at 
the stomach, tongue coated, accompanied with a giddy, dizzy head- 
ache, it is because " there is too much bile on the stomach," and 
the patient must have an emetic. The contents of the stomach are 
thrown off, and, at last, from the very bottom, up comes the " vil- 
lanous bile." Against this irrational mode of practice, permit me 
to enter my protest. 

The common belief, that bile collects in the stomach, is erro- 
neous. The bile-duct, or canal, leading from the gall-bladder, 
enters the intestines more than six inches below the stomach. 
Now, do you suppose that this fluid is going to travel up-hill, for the 


sake of tormenting a poor patient ? Not a bit of it. But perhaps 
you will say, how is it that bile is thrown off the stomach, if there 
is none there. I will tell you. Suppose a patient is complaining. 
Aunt Susan, or some other good old lady, is sent for. She at once 
perceives, or, what amounts to the same thing, thinks she does, that 
bile' has taken possession of the stomach. So Mr. Ipecac, is sent 
down with a writ of ejectment, and, at his command, everything is 
turned topsy-turvy, and heaved out ; but no bile is found. " Oh ! 
but, Mr. Ipecac," says the old lady, " I know there is bile on his 
stomach. You must try him again." So away he goes, with the 
hearty determination not to leave the premises again till the in- 
vader is found and ejected. Immediately after his second visit, 
the poor stomach, almost worn out with exhaustion, gets an ink- 
ling of what is wanted, and forthwith sends to her next neighbor 
below — the duodenum 1 — for a little bile, which she feebly drops 
at the feet of her conqueror. Now behold Aunt Susan, as, with a 
twinkle of triumph, she points to her conquered foe, really believ- 
ing, and therefore positively asserting, that, now the invader is 
taken, the danger is past. That is the way in which bile is ob- 
tained from the stomach. 

To show you that I am not alone in this belief, I shall quote a 
few lines from a work on physiology, by Dr. Calvin Cutter, p. 126 : 
" If bile is ejected in vomiting, it merely shows, not only that the 
action of the stomach is inverted, but also that of the duodenum. 1 
A powerful emetic will, in this way, generally bring this fluid from 
the most healthy stomach. A knowledge of this fact might save 
many a stomach from the evil of emetics, administered on false 
impressions of their necessity, and continued, from the corroboration 
of these by the appearance of bile, till derangement and perhaps per- 
manent disease are the consequence." 

Now, do you not see the folly of attributing every little ailment 
to " biliousness," and the worse than folly, the barbarousness of 
administering emetics ? In nine cases out of every ten, you do 
more harm than good. As Dr. Cutter intimates, in removing some 
trifling temporary ailment, you produce a serious permanent one. 
But, perhaps, after all, you do not belong to the "bilious" school, 
or, at least, when you speak of biliousness, you do not mean that 
there is " an overflow of bile," or that there is an actual collection 
of fetid bile within the stomach, but rather that the patient is suf- 

1 Duodenum, from the Latin word duodenus, meaning twelve, as if twelve fingers in 
breadth. The first part of the small intestines. 


fering from a number of symptoms, originating perhaps from some 
gastric derangement, and which, for want of a better name, you 
call " biliousness." If so, then we exactly agree. 

Now, in regard to emetics, under certain circumstances I do not 
doubt their utility. I do not see how we could get along without 
them ; but still their use is very limited. I do not hesitate at all 
to say that we ought never to make use of them, except when we 
wish to remove some foreign substance from the stomach, which 
has been swallowed either through indiscretion or by accident. 

Symptoms. — The patient at first appears dull and languid, 
complains of headache, or, rather, a giddy sensation in the head ; 
great oppression, and a fulness at the pit of the stomach, with 
nausea, sometimes vomiting ; eructations of offensive gas, smelling 
like stale meat or rotten eggs. The tongue is covered with a 
thick, slimy, yellowish coating; there is a disagreeable, bitter, 
putrid, or slimy taste in the mouth, especially in the morning. 
Bowels are either constipated or quite loose ; the passages are 
dark, very offensive, and accompanied with a great deal of fetid 
wind. The eyes are dull and heavy ; at times they have a yellow- 
ish cast; also, the skin, particularly around the mouth and nose, 
looks yellow. 

Treatment. — The remedies are Bryonia, Ipecacuanha, Mercu- 
rius, and Pulsatilla. 

Bryonia. — This remedy is called for, when, in addition to the 
above symptoms, there is chilliness, followed by fever, rapid pulse, 
and headache. 

Pulsatilla. — When the disorder is occasioned by eating fat 
meat, or greasy substances, with offensive eructations. 

Ipecacuanha and Mercurius are valuable remedies, and will be 
found sufficient in the majority of cases. They may be given in 

Administration of Remedies. — Give, of the selected remedy, 
one dose of six globules every hour or every two hours. Should 
no improvement take place in the course of ten or twelve hours, 
choose a second remedy and use in the same way. 

Diet and Regimen. — All meats and soups are strictly for- 
bidden ; nothing should be taken but gruel, — and oat-meal makes 
the best, — dry toast, or milk toast, crackers, plain bread, with 
but little butter, Graham bread, oranges, and cold water. Some 
persons are in the habit of taking a few drops of lemon-juice ; 


this is not objectionable, unless there should be diarrhoea, and then 
the coarse bread should also be abandoned. — See " Dyspepsia." 


Causes. — Treatment. — This unpleasant affection arises from 
one of several causes ; for instance it may arise from decayed 
teeth ; from inflammation or other disorder of the gums ; 
from ulcers in the mouth, or from want of careful attention to 
cleanliness, allowing particles of food to collect and remain be- 
tween and around the roots of the teeth. Where bad breath 
arises from decayed teeth, or from the accumulation of tartar 
about the roots of the teeth, consult a good dentist immediately ; 
or, if this is not convenient, clean out the hollow teeth yourself, 
either with cotton or rolls of paper, and fill the cavities with 
white wax, or, what I think is better, gutta percha ; this you can 
easily procure, and, after making it soft by immersion in hot 
water, plug the cavities. Before filling, either with wax or gutta 
percha, the cavity should be thoroughly dried with bits of cotton, 
or rolls of paper. 

The mouth and throat should be rinsed with cold water, and 
the teeth thoroughly brushed with a soft brush, after every meal. 

When offensive breath arises from a deranged stomach, or from 
other diseases, the proper treatment will be found under the head 
of such disorders. 

In other cases, where it is the chief symptom, and its origin can 
be traced to no apparent or perceptible cause, the following reme- 
dies may be employed. 

If it appears only in the morning, Nux-vomica, Belladonna, or 

In the morning and at night, Pulsatilla. 

If after a meal, Sulphur or Ohamomilla. 

If in young girls, at the age of puberty, Aurum, Pulsatilla, 
Belladonna, Sepia, Sulphur. 

If caused by worms, Cina or Sulphur. 

If caused by previous salivation with calomel, Oarbo-v., Hepar- 
sulph., Nitric-acid. 

Administration of Remedies. — Of whichever remedy chosen, 
one dose may be given every night and morning, either dry, upon 
the tongue, or dissolved in water. For a dose, when given dry, 
six or eight pills. When dissolved, put about the same number in 


twelve spoonfuls of water, and give one spoonful of the solution 
at a dose. 

Bad breath, caused by eating onions or garlic, may be removed 
by taking a little wine, or drinking a glass of milk, or eating a 
pear, or a piece of boiled beet. — See, also, " Dyspepsia." 


Definition. — All severe pains in the abdomen not dependent 
upon inflammation are called colic, but from the different causes, 
and attendant circumstances of this disorder, it is variously denom- 
inated, and divided into several varieties. When its principal 
symptoms are sharp and griping pains, it is called spasmodic colic 
"When the pain is accompanied with nausea and vomiting, it is 
called bilious colic. When caused by wind, or when the abdomen 
is much distended, and relief is afforded by the passage of wind, 
then it is called wind colic. We will consider these three varieties, 
commencing with 


Symptoms. — Sharp, spasmodic, cutting, griping, crampy pains. 
Sometimes the pain commences gradually, and continues to in- 
crease until it becomes so violent that it seems one cannot bear it ; 
then it will gradually die away, to return again in live or ten min- 
utes, with renewed violence. The patient writhes and twists him- 
self around ; is covered with perspiration ; presses his abdomen 
with his hands ; curls himself up, or lies across the edge of the 
bedstead, or presses against any hard substance ; lies upon his 
face with a tightly folded pillow under him. The pain is princi- 
pally confined to the region of the navel. 

For colic, presenting these symptoms, give Colocynih ; one dose 
of five or six pills every few minutes, until relief is obtained. If 
this does not answer, try Chamomilla, Belladonna, or Nux-vomica. 


Symptoms. — In addition to severe cutting, writhing pain of 
spasmodic colic, we have nausea and vomiting, with thirst and 
great anxiety. These symptoms usually come on after the patient 
has been indisposed for a few days, with a " bilious attack ; " 


tongue coated ; bad taste in the mouth, and other symptoms of a 
disordered stomach. If diarrhoea supervenes, the evacuations con- 
sist of bilious matter. 

The remedies for this form of colic are Nux-vomica, Colocynih^ 
3£ercurius, Pulsatilla, Qhamomilla, and Plumbum. 

The treatment may commence with Nux-vomica ; a dose of 
which may be given every five or ten minutes. If no relief is 
afforded after five or six doses, another remedy should be chosen, 
and given in the same manner. 


Definition. — Causes. — This a very frequent and very trouble- 
some disorder of young children. It arises from various causes, 
but most frequently from cold ; or it may, and frequently does, arise 
from some sudden or violent emotion of the mother ; such as a fit 
of anger, grief, or chagrin, improper food, or a confined state of 
the bowels. Some parents, and not unfrequently, experienced 
nurses, appear to think that a new-born infant should take a dose 
of something. Each one has her little innocent, domestic remedy, 
which is soon concocted, and the child forced to swallow it down. 
Now this is frequently the cause of stomach and intestinal de- 

Symptoms. — Flatulent complaints of children do not always 
terminate in colic. The only noticeable symptom may be a dis- 
turbed sleep ; the child rolls its eyes, distorts its features, kicks 
out its feet, draws up its knees, moans ; its sleep is broken and 
uneasy. It may amount to nothing more than this, or it may in- 
crease in severity ; the child commences to cry out ; writhes its 
body, draws up its knees, kicks out its feet ; the abdomen becomes 
tense and swollen, with rumbling in the bowels. These attacks 
of pain sometimes become so severe that the poor child seems to 
be in the greatest anguish. It writhes and screams ; nothing can 
appease it ; it will not take the breast ; or, if at times it does, it 
soon lets go, with another fit of screaming ; the face turns pale ; 
the little sufferer trembles all over ; a cold sweat breaks out, and 
the child seems entirely exhausted. Sometimes the belching up, 
or passing of a little wind affords momentary relief. The child 
appears easier when carried about in a sitting posture. Severe 
attacks of this kind, unless speedily relieved, may end in spasms 
or convulsions. 


Treatment. — Chamomilla may be given in most cases, espe- 
cially if there be distention of the abdomen; excessive crying; 
writhing and twisting of the body ; drawing up of the knees ; and 
coldness of the extremities. If, in addition to these symptoms, 
there is nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea, give Pulsatilla, and par- 
ticularly if there is rumbling of wind, shivering, paleness, and 
tenderness of the abdomen. If the passages are fermented, and 
have a putrid odor, give Ipecacuanha. In case the bowels are con- 
stipated, Nux-vomica should have precedence. 

Grief and sadness on the part of the mother frequently injure 
the child's digestion. Ignatia will be found the most effectual 
remedy when colic arises from such causes. Should it, however, 
fail to afford relief give Chamomilla. In cases where the pain 
apparently has all subsided, but still the child cannot go to sleep, 
is restless and uneasy, give Coffea. 

For colic, caused by worms, give Cina, Sulphur, or Mereurius. 
— See " Worms." 

For colic in pregnant women, Chamomilla, Nux-vomica, Pulsa- 

Menstrual colic, — Pulsatilla, Coffea, Belladonna, Cocculus. 

Administration of Remedies. — For young infants, put two or 
three of the globules dry upon the tongue, or dissolve the same in 
a few teaspoonfuls of water, and give it to them often, part of a 
teaspoonful at a dose. For adults and the older children, you 
may give of the selected remedy, five or six pills every fifteen 
minutes, half hour, hour, or two hours, according to the severity 
of the case. 

Most cases of colic are attended with constipation : a free evac- 
uation of the bowels often affords instant relief. In severe cases 
it is desirable, therefore, that we should get a movement from the 
bowels as soon as possible, and the most simple and efficient way 
to accomplish this is by an injection of tepid water, or, perhaps, it 
may be advisable to add a little salt to the water. If the first 
injection should not produce a movement, a second one should be 
tried. Whenever you do give an injection, give one large enough 
to have some effect. Hot applications to the abdomen are also 
serviceable, and should always be made use of. 


Definition. — This disease is characterized by great anxiety; 
painful and violent gripings ; with copious and frequent vomiting 


and purging ; coldness and cramps of the extremities. The grip- 
ing pain evidently proceeds from violent spasmodic contractions of 
the alimentary canal, causing the repeated and frequent ejection 
of their contents by vomiting and purging. 

Causes. — Intense heats of summer, especially when the days 
are hot and the evenings cool, with heavy dews ; sudden atmos- 
pheric changes ; cold drinks, when the body is overheated ; and 
the incautious use of ice. Sudden suppression of habitual dis- 
charges ; diarrhoea ; cutaneous eruptions ; vexation ; fits of anger ; 
errors in diet ; partaking of unhealthy food, or in an improper 
quantity or quality ; unripe or indigestible fruits, particularly 
melons, cucumbers, pine-apples, green apples ; poisonous or irritat- 
ing food of any kind. Large doses of cathartic drugs, not unfre- 
quently produce it by their irritating qualities. 

Symptoms. — Cholera morbus generally attacks suddenly, with- 
out any premonitory signs, with vomiting and purging, accom- 
panied by severe griping pains in the stomach and bowels ; great 
anxiety ; the patient tossing from one side of the bed to the 
other in quest of rest. The discharges from the bowels consist, 
first, of faeces ; afterwards of watery, bilious matter ; each evacua- 
tion is preceded and accompanied with violent burning and cut- 
ting colicky pains, especially in the region of the navel. In severe 
cases, the spasms extend to the arms and hands, with pinched 
features ; paleness of the surface ; sunken eyes ; cold, clammy 
skin ; great anxiety, and general depression. 

The substance vomited consists at first of the contents of the 
stomach mixed with bilious matter ; afterward of a watery liquid ; 
and, finally, nothing is thrown up, but still the gagging and retch- 
ing continue. 

The severe symptoms often continue for some hours without the 
patient's strength being reduced, so that it is no uncommon thing 
for a patient to suffer a severe attack of this disease at night, and 
by morning have entirely recovered. 

Treatment. — The principal remedies are, Ipecacuanha, Cham- 
omilla, Colocynth, Arsenicum, Veratrum, Cuprum, Chinchona. 

Chamomilla. — When the attack has been induced by a fit of 
anger ; also, when there are severe pains, or colicky pains in the 
region of the navel ; greenish evacuations ; tongue coated yellow ; 
sour vomiting, and watery diarrhoea ; cramps in the calves of the 

Ipecacuanha. — Especially when vomiting predominates. It 



may be given at the commencement of an attack, in alternation 
with Veratrum. When there is severe pain in the abdomen ; fre- 
quent and small evacuations, with severe pressing-down pain, Nux- 
vomica may be given in alternation with Ipecacuanha. 

Colocynth. — For extreme pain in the abdomen, as though the 
bowels were jammed between two stones ; green vomiting, with 
violent colic ; crampy pains and constrictions in the bowels, or 
cutting pains, as from a knife. 

Arsenicum. — For cases attended with rapid prostration ; insati- 
able thirst ; great restlessness ; violent vomiting and diarrhoea of 
greenish or blackish matter; tongue and lips dry, cracked and 
bluish ; severe cramps in the fingers and toes ; clammy perspira- 
tion ; burning sensation at the pit of the stomach. 

Veratrum. — Violent vomiting, with severe diarrhoea ; excessive 
weakness ; cramps in the calves of the legs ; coldness of the ex- 
tremities ; countenance pale ; eyes hollow or sunken ; shrivelled 
appearance of .the skin; violent pain in the region of the navel. 
This remedy will cure almost every case of cholera morbus without 
other assistance. 

Cuprum. — When there are severe spasms of the limbs ; violent 
cramps in the fingers and toes. 

Chinchona. — Especially for the debility remaining after severe 
cases ; also, when there is vomiting of undigested food, and when 
the evacuations contain undigested matter. — See, also, " Colic." 

Administration of Remedies. — Immediately upon an attack, 
a remedy should be selected, and promptly given a dose of six 
pills, and repeat it every few minutes, until relief is obtained. If, 
after a reasonable length of time, no relief is afforded, select and 
administer another remedy. As the patient grows easier, the 
interval between the doses should be lengthened. 

Diet and Regimen. — For some little time after an attack of 
this disorder, the patient should be very careful of his diet, avoid- 
ing all vegetables, and all other articles of diet that he has the 
least reason to suspect will disagree with his stomach. — See 

cholera infantum. 

Definition. — The common name of this affection is summer 
complaint. A correct definition of it can scarcely be given, except 
by a complete enumeration of its symptoms and characteristic 
features. The chief seat of lesion appears to be in the secretory, 


— that is, the glandular apparatus of the stomach and intestinal 
canal, — but is chiefly confined to the large and lower part of the 
small intestines. It seldom, except in severe cases, extends to the 
stomach. By many physicians this disease is looked upon as an 
inflammation of the glandular structure of the intestinal tract. 
But I can hardly consider it as such, except in its last stages, or 
in very severe cases. Ordinary cases of cholera infantum, pre- 
senting little or no febrile movement, seem to me to consist of 
simple catarrh, or simple irritation, arising either from the evolu- 
tion of the teeth, or, — what is more probable — the effect of an 
improper diet. However, in severe acute cases, and those termi- 
nating fatally after lingering a long time, we generally find traces 
of inflammation and its results, ulceration, softening, and thick- 

Causes. — This disease is seldom met with, except during the 
three summer months, — June, July, and August. 

All writers agree in considering the heat of summer to be a 
powerful predisposing cause. It is true we but seldom meet with 
well-marked cases of cholera infantum in the cool seasons of the 
year. Nevertheless, heat alone cannot be charged with all the 
mischief ; for, at the south, where the seasons are much hotter, 
and of longer duration, the disease is less frequent than with us. 
Besides, we seldom hear of it in the country, even within a few 
miles of the city, where it prevails extensively. It would, there- 
fore, seem that in order to have heat produce the disease to any 
great extent, it must be combined with close, unwholesome air. 
Here we have just such an atmosphere, loaded with impurities, 
exhaled from the gutters, lanes, and dirty streets of our cities. 

Teething may also be set down as a prolific cause of this, as 
well as of all other diseases of the digestive apparatus. During 
the whole period of teething, the child's system is in a peculiarly 
excitable condition ; so that apparently slight causes, which at 
other times might produce no perceptible effect, — as slight errors 
in diet, exposure to night-air, fatigue, vexation, etc., may now 
usher in alarming symptoms of bowel disorders. But the chief 
causes are, in my estimation, errors in diet. As I have already 
asserted at more than one place in these pages, the deprivation of 
the breast, and the early resort to an artificial diet, is the chief pre- 
disposing cause of all gastric and intestinal diseases. Indeed, we 
can often date the commencement of an attack to the period of 
weaning, and the resort to artificial food. The fact of a child's 



being weaned at a very early age, or fed upon artificial diet from 
birth, is a most unfortunate circumstance in every case of cholera 
infantum. On the contrary, where the child has not been weaned, 
and can depend upon the breast for a sufficient supply of nutri- 
ment, the disease seldom reaches an alarming state of severity ; 
and when convalescence does begin, the case progresses much 
more rapidly toward a happy termination. 

Wonderful it is how perfectly reckless some parents are in re- 
gard to the diet of their children, letting them eat anything and 
everything. There is not a particle of doubt but this is a frequent 
source of the disease in question. One of the worst cases I think 
I ever saw was a teething child, eighteen months old ; and was 
occasioned by eating new potatoes for dinner, and a quantity of 
apples and of watermelon through the afternoon. How in the 
world any but a crazy woman could ever allow a child to eat such 
articles is entirely beyond my comprehension. I have frequently 
known the disease to arise from eating the smallest quantity of 
unripe fruit. Over-feeding may also be enumerated as another 
cause of the disease ; also the preparation of the food in too thick 
and too rich a manner ; for, by this means, the stomach is over- 
tasked, and thereby disarranged. The child's stomach is incapa- 
ble, especially during the early months, of digesting any but the 
simplest kinds of food, and that should be prepared very thin, and 
not too rich. 

In fact, the diet of small children, till after the completion of : 
first dentition, should resemble as much as it is possible for us to 
make it, the proper aliment supplied by nature. Its chief con- 
stituent should be milk, to which can be added fine rice, or barley- 

It is astonishing, what slight causes will excite the disease in 
some children, or rather in some families of children, compelling 
one almost to believe in the existence of a hereditary predisposi- 
tion to it. Certainly the disease is more prone to attack children 
whose constitutions are feeble and delicate, or of a nervous, irrita- 
ble tendency ; children of scrofulous or consumptive parents. — See 
" General Remarks," at the head of this chapter. 

Symptoms. — This disease is extremely variable in its mode of 
invasion. It may be sudden or gradual. A child, who to all 
appearance is enjoying good health, may be suddenly attacked 
with severe diarrhoea, accompanied with, or soon followed by vom- 
iting, great exhaustion, anxious and contracted countenance, cold- 


ness and paleness of the skin, — symptoms indicative of real 
cholera in adults. As a general thing, however, its mode of 
attack is gradual, commencing with a diarrhoea of no great impor- 
tance, but which proves obstinate, and after running a few days, 
more or less, becomes associated with nausea and vomiting. 
Attacks like these are usually preceded a few days by feverish 
restlessness ; the child is unusually fretful and indifferent about 
eating or nursing. The mother lays it to the teeth, or calls the 
child cross, when in reality it is sick. 

The most important symptom is the diarrhoea. The dejections 
becoming more frequent and abundant than is natural, they begin 
to be spotted, and streaked with green. As the disease increases, 
the green color predominates, and the passages look like chopped 
up greens, or spinach, and are mixed with particles of undigested 
food. At first they are thick, mushy-like, sometimes mixed with 
water of a yellow or greenish cast ; they are often fluid, running 
directly through the diaper ; occasionally they contain some blood 
and mucus. Their odor is bad, decidedly so, very fetid ; some- 
times it is so offensive that you will be compelled to raise the 
windows, and open the doors, and even then you can scarcely 
get rid of it. The passages are not as frequent as in dysenteria ; 
sometimes they will not number over six or eight in twenty-four 
hours ; in severe cases they may run up as high as twelve or even 

During each evacuation, there is more or less pain, the child 
will fret, toss about, and be restless and uneasy ; some time before 
an evacuation, and when the passages have a dysenteric appear- 
ance, that is, — contain blood and mucus, — there is generally severe 
straining and pressing-down pain when at stool. 

The vomiting, which is generally present at the commencement 
of an attack, is sometimes very frequent and distressing ; so much 
so that everything, no matter how slight it may be, is thrown off 
with great violence as soon as taken into the stomach. The 
substances vomited consist of the contents of the stomach, — undi- 
gested food, mixed with phlegm, mucus, and bilious matters. 
At other times, there are frequent retchings and efforts to vomit, 
but nothing is thrown off.- The frequency and severity of the 
vomiting, like all the other symptoms, depend upon the violence 
of the attack ; sometimes, as just stated, it is very severe ; again 
it may occur but two or three times throughout the day, or only 
when food is taken, and it may be absent entirely. It seldom 


continues throughout the sickness, but, as a general thing, subsides 
after the first few days. 

At first, the tongue is coated with a dirty-white or yellowish- 
brown fur, with the exception of the tip and edges, which are 
generally reel. In cases of long standing, the tongue acquires 
a dry, smooth appearance ; the mouth is hot and dry ; thirst is 
intense ; the appetite is variable ; sometimes the child will eat 
voraciously everything you will give it ; again it is diminished, and 
in some cases entirely wanting. 

There is always more or less fever ; in slight cases it is hardly 
perceptible, except at night, when there may be quite a flush. In 
cases of great severity, the fever is high, usually of a remittent 
type. In all cases, the fever is higher during the afternoon and 

The abdomen is seldom tender ; but you will always find it dis- 
tended and tense. 

The temperature of the surface is not generally even through- 
out ; the head and abdomen being hot, while the extremities are 

Emaciation is rapid, so that, in a short time, if the disease is not 
checked, the countenance and whole appearance are so changed, you 
would scarcely recognize it as the same child, who, but a few 
days before, with its bright face and merry laugh, made the whole 
house happy. In cases that have been neglected or improperly 
treated, this emaciation is one of the most marked symptoms. 
The skin becomes dry and harsh ; it has a withered appearance, 
and hangs in folds about the face, neck, arms, and thighs. The 
child has an old look : the eyes are hollow, the nose pointed, and 
the chin prominent. In fact, it looks as though some one had 
made a mistake, and the child had got into the skin of old age. 

The sleep is disturbed and unrefreshing ; the eyes are never en- 
tirely closed, but partially open, leaving the white of the eye 
exposed. The child always wakes up crying. 

Duration. — The duration of cholera infantum depends, in a 
great measure, upon the treatment pursued. Old-school physicians 
have but little control over it ; and, when treated by them, it runs 
an indefinite course of from six weeks to six months. The severity 
of their treatment soon undermines the delicate constitution, mak- 
ing it, in the last stages, a difficult matter to distinguish from 
which the child is suffering most, — the original disease, or the 
medicine given for its removal. As a last resort, the physician ad- 


vises a prompt removal to the country, wisely concluding that a 
change of air will do more towards the restoration of the little suf- 
ferer than a continuance of his treatment. 

The homoeopathic treatment of cholera infantum, when promptly 
applied at the commencement of an attack, is productive of the 
most satisfactory results, cutting short the disease before it has had 
time to reduce the child to any great extent. 

Treatment. — Dentition being, as we have already observed, a 
powerful predisposing cause of the disease, we should never neglect, 
at the commencement of our treatment, closely to examine the 
state of the gums ; and if they are found swollen, hard, hot, and 
shiny, they should be freely lanced. This can be done just as well 
with a penknife as with a surgeon's lancet. Place the point of the 
blade directly over the tooth, and make a free incision down to it. 
This operation should never be performed unless you can see or 
feel the tooth through the gum. 

This simple operation is often of great service : it sometimes 
affords immediate relief, allays all irritability, and renders the dis- 
ease more tractable to the remedies administered, by removing one 
of its prominent and important causes. 

The principal remedies are, first, for recent or acute attacks, 
Ipecacuanha^ Veratrum, Arsenicum, Mercurius, CJiamomilla, Bry- 
onia, and CJiincJiona; second, for chronic or cases of long stand- 
ing, Calcarea, Sulphur, Arsenicum, Mercurius, and Carlo-veg. 

Ipecacuanha — will be the first remedy called into use in nine 
cases out of every ten, — that is, recent cases, — and generally 
will arrest the disease at once. It is specially indicated when the 
following symptoms are present: nausea and vomiting of food 
or drink, or of mucous or bilious looking matter, attended with 
watery diarrhoea, green or fermented stool, with white flocks ; 
coated tongue ; great thirst, and loss of appetite. The next 
important remedy is Veratrum) it may be given for cases that 
have lasted some time, or when the attack has been violent, with 
great exhaustion from vomiting, especially when the vomiting 
comes on in paroxysms, while drinking, or when the slightest 
movement produces retching ; loose, brownish, or watery evacua- 
tions, coldness of the extremities ; pale face, with sunken eyes ; 
great thirst for cold water. 

Chamomilla. — Mucous or sour vomiting ; diarrhoea ; evacua- 
tions, looking like stirred eggs ; or green and slimy, with colicky 
pains in the bowels. This remedy is specially adapted for teething 


children, when they are very cross, fretful, and uneasy. Fever, 
with nightly exacerbations. 

Magnesia-c. — Diarrhoea, with stools like scum of a frog-pond, 
green and frothy. Chronic sour diarrhoea. 

Podophyllum. — Diarrhoea, with cramp-like pains in the abdo- 
men, light-colored stools, exceedingly offensive, frothy mucous, 
and slimy stools. The child moans while asleep, sleeps with its 
eyes half closed, and rolls its head from side to side. 

Mercurius. — For cholera infantum, attended with colic, and 
straining when at stool; evacuations scanty, greenish, and sour; 
frequently the evacuations are mixed with blood and slime. The 
child smells sour. Diarrhoea is worse at night. 

Chinchona. — For diarrhoea occurring immediately after eating, 
with fetid stool, containing undigested portions of food; loss of 

If the stools are very thin, have a putrid smell, and are attended 
with burning pain, give Bryonia or Carbo-v. 

Arsenicum. — For extreme cases, where there is great prostra- 
tion, nausea, and vomiting, after partaking of the least food or 
drink. The child nurses with avidity, probably from intense 
thirst. Evacuations green, brown, or yellowish, very offensive, 
putrid, and undigested. If the lips and tongue become dry, 
cracked, and black ; skin dry, like parchment, or cold and clammy ; 
abdomen hard and distended; sleep disturbed by moaning and 
grating of the teeth. 

Calcarea. — is especially indicated at a late period of the dis- 
ease, or in cases of long standing, where there are swelling and 
hardness of the abdomen ; great emaciation and debility ; diar- 
rhoea of mushy, clay-colored stools ; the skin is dry and withered ; 
hair looks dry and dead ; nervous system becomes very sensitive ; 
child is cross, easily vexed. Calcarea generally acts better after 

Sulphur. — is a valuable remedy for protracted cases, especially 
when the evacuations are greenish, watery, and frequent; dis- 
tension of the abdomen ; countenance pinched ; skin shrivelled ; 
great emaciation. 

Should head symptoms manifest themselves, give Aconitum, 
Bryonia, or Helleborus. 

Administration of Remedies. — In sudden attacks of small 
children, you may dissolve twelve globules in twelve teaspoonfuls 
of water, and give of this solution one teaspoonful at a dose. 


The dose may be repeated as often as every fifteen minutes, or 
every half hour, until the severer symptoms have subsided, when 
the intervals ought to be lengthened. In chronic cases, the dose 
should not be repeated oftener than once in two hours. 

Diet and Regimen. — Upon this point, it is necessary to be 
explicit ; for a successful treatment of cholera infantum depends, 
in a great measure, upon a proper regulation of the diet. 

If the disease appears in an infant at the breast, and the nurse 
has enough for it, no change need be made ; and nothing else 
should be given, except it be cold water, of which the child can 
have as much as it wants to slake thirst. 

If possible, a child should not be weaned until after the second 
summer. If, however, you are forced to adopt an artificial diet, 
either partially or wholly, you will have to be governed, in the 
selection of food, in a great measure at least, by circumstances or 
previous habits. No specific articles can be named which will 
agree with the peculiarities of every child's stomach. 

In all cases, it is equally important to regulate the quantity as it 
is the quality. Overloading the stomach with good food would prove 
just as injurious as small quantities of bad. I have often found it 
necessary to restrict the quantity of food given to the smallest 
amount, especially in those cases where everything taken into the 
stomach excites nausea and vomiting. There is no other way to 
succeed in keeping anything upon the stomach but to give it often ; 
and even then it will not always stay. 

I am fully persuaded that fresh cow's milk should form the prin- 
cipal ingredient of a child's diet. It should be diluted with about 
one-third water, boiled for ten or fifteen minutes, and moderately 
sweetened with loaf-sugar. For a change, to this may be added 
rice-flour, arrow-root, sago, tapioca, or wheat-flour. 

Rice-flour gruel makes a very good diet for children with bowel- 
complaints. It should be prepared as follows : take one table- 
spoonful of flour and one table-spoonful of milk ; stir them together ; 
then add a little salt and nearly a pint of warm water ; stir well, 
and boil for fifteen minutes ; when cold, this is about the thickness 
of starch. Add a little finely powdered white sugar when feed- 
ing it. 

Though a child in good health may be able to digest milk, either 
pure or diluted with a third part water, it may fail to do so when 
its stomach is weakened by disease. In such cases, a further re- 
duction should be made, or, what is sometimes better, you may 


take one part cream to five of water, and to this add a little arrow- 
root, rice-flour, or almost any other farinaceous article. A still 
better article is that recommended by Dr. Meigs, which I have 
quoted on page 142. 

In some cases of cholera infantum, when there is excessive vom- 
iting, you should give nothing but a little gum-water, or rice or 
arrow-root water, one teaspoonful at a time, until the vomiting 

Fresh air is just as important as good diet. This is so well 
understood now, that those who can, without waiting for the dis- 
ease to attack their children, remove to the country before the hot 
months, and thus avoid it altogether. But then all cannot do this. 
It is very important that the child should spend a large part of its 
time in the open air ; and this can be done even by those whose 
circumstances will hot allow of their going into the* country. The 
child can be carried about the yard, or in the street ; or, what is 
still better, you can make short trips with it into the adjoining 
country, or out upon the water. New Yorkers need never want for 
places to make such excursions to. Our beautiful bay and rivers 
are threaded with steamers, that, in half an hour, will land them 
upon shady spots, as free from city dust and air as though they were 
a thousand miles away. 

If the child is too sick to be taken out, it must be carried through 
the house upon a pillow, when the doors and windows are open 
and a free ventilation established. 

Cool, fresh air and bathing are important, and cannot be too 
highly recommended. The bath — not cold, but tepid — should 
be used frequently. Sponging may be preferred to bathing in 
severe cases, where there is great exhaustion, or where the bath 
annoys or worries the child. 

The dress should be adapted to suit the weather, and changed 
to suit the changes of temperature, care being taken not to clothe 
the child too warmly. 


Definition. — To understand aright the pathology of dyspepsia, 
it is first necessary to know the physiology of digestion ; or, in 
other words, rightly to understand what constitutes digestive 
disease, it is first necessary to know what constitutes digestive 


The theory of digestion is simple and easily understood. The 
first preparation of food for its introduction into the system, con- 
sists in its proper mastication, or its reduction into fine particles 
by the act of chewing; and while undergoing this process, the 
food is moistened, or rather mixed with a considerable quantity 
of saliva from the salivary glands, which are situated within the 
mouth. This facilitates its easy passage into the stomach, where 
it immediately comes in contact with the gastric juice. 

The food, on reaching the stomach, is subjectedto a double pro- 
cess ; first, the solvent power of the gastric fluid ; second, the 
churning process of the stomach. The churning is produced by 
the presence of food, which excites a contractile action of the 
muscular coat of the stomach, and by this means the position of 
the contents of the stomach is changed from one part of this cav- 
ity to another. Each particle of food, thus brought in direct con- 
tact with the mucous coat of the stomach, becomes saturated with 
gastric juice, the action of which, together with the constant agi- 
tation that it is subjected to, reduces the whole to a homogeneous 
mass, of a creamy consistence, called chyme. As fast as the food 
becomes converted into chyme, it is passed into the duodenum, 
which is the upper portion of the small intestines ; its presence 
here creates an action not only in the duodenum, but also in the 
liver and pancreas. The liver secretes the bile, which first comes 
in contact with the food we swallow here within the duodenum, 
and not within the stomach, as many suppose. The pancreas, 
which is a small gland, situated just behind the stomach, secretes 
the pancreatic fluid, which enters the duodenum with the bile ; 
the mucous surface of the duodenum also throws out a secretion. 
And thus the chyme from the stomach being mixed with, and 
acted upon, by these three fluids, is converted or transformed into 
a milk-like liquid, called chyle. This is the substance from which 
blood is made. The chyle thus formed, now passes along the tract 
of the intestines where it comes in contact with the lacteal vessels. 
These are little delicate tubes, spread over the mucous surface of 
the small intestines, and whose office it is, to imbibe or take up 
the chyle and transfer it through the mesenteric glands into the 
thoracic duct, through which it is conveyed into a large vein at 
the lower part of the neck. In this vein the chyle is mixed with 
the venous blood, and soon reaches the heart, to be distributed 
throughout the system. The veins of the stomach and intestines 
also act as absorbents. 


The residuum, or excrernentitious matter left in the intestines 
after the lacteals have absorbed the chyle, is conveyed into the 
large intestines, through which it is passed along and excreted 
from the system as effete matter. 

In the process of digestion you will observe the food is sub- 
jected to five different changes. 1st. The chewing and admixture 
of the saliva with the food. This process is called mastication. 

2d. The change through which the food passes in the stomach 
by its muscular contraction, and the secretion from the gastric 
glands ; this is called chymfiication. 

3d. The conversion of the homogeneous chyme by the agency 
of the bile and the pancreatic secretion into a fluid of milk-like 
appearance ; this is cliylification. 

4th. The absorption of the chyle by the lacteals, and its trans- 
fer, through them and the thoracic duct, into the subclavian vein 
at the lower part of the neck. 

5th. The separation and excretion of the residuum. 

Perfection of the second process of digestion requires thorough 
and slow mastication. The formation of proper chyle demands 
appropriate mastication and chymification ; while a healthy action 
of the lacteals requires that all the anterior stages of the digestive 
process be as perfect as possible. 

Having fully comprehended the physiology of digestion, we 
have now arrived at a stand-point from which we can take an 
intelligent view of dyspepsia. 

The term dyspepsia, in its literal sense, means difficult diges- 
tion ; or, if you like it better, indigestion. Any condition or state 
of the stomach, in which its function of digestion is disturbed or 
suspended, giving rise to a train of multifarious symptoms, such 
as want of appetite, sudden and transient distension of the stom- 
ach, eructations of various kinds, heart-burn, water-brash, pain in 
the region of the stomach, uneasiness after eating, rumbling noise 
in the bowels, sometimes vomiting, and frequently constipation or 
diarrhoea, with an endless string of nervous symptoms, usually 
passes for dyspepsia. 

Chronic inflammation of the stomach is quite a common disor- 
der ; it deranges the function, and perverts the feelings of the 
stomach to such an extent that digestion is suspended, or but 
imperfectly performed, and the patient rendered miserable from 
the dyspeptic symptoms which are sure to follow. Perhaps this 
state of things might not properly be called dyspepsia ; but, nev- 


ertheless, the larger part of all the causes of indigestion originate 
from some similar condition. 

Dyspepsia may consist in a derangement of all or any one of 
the five several different processes whose combined healthful ac- 
tion goes to make up the phenomenon of digestion. For instance, 
imperfect mastication, or the introduction of coarse and indigesti- 
ble substances into the stomach ; the absence of the natural quan- 
tity or quality of the gastric juice ; an imperfect churning or agi- 
tation of the contents of the stomach from . muscular debility, 
caused by too frequent or over-taxation. 

Indigestion may be, and no doubt frequently is, simply debility, 
or a defect of muscular power in the stomach ; a want of vital 
power and strength. 

Some persons are fond of attributing dyspepsia to some derange- 
ment of the liver, thinking perhaps that a perverted secretion 
from this organ is thrown into the stomach. This is incorrect ; 
bile is the natural stimulus of the intestines ; and when this secre- 
tion is obstructed or perverted, the bowels may become sluggish, 
and the general health disturbed, but still stomach digestion 
remain good. 

Causes. — " Indigestion, although not confined to any period of 
life, occurs most commonly between the ages of twenty and forty- 
five, and in its simple form more frequently in the female than in 
the male sex. The upper classes of society and the middle ranks 
of life are most subject to this variety of the complaint. It is 
more prevalent in cold and temperate than in warm climates, and 
in the winter than in the summer ;• but whatever may be the tem- 
perature of the climate or of the season, damp weather and a 
moist atmosphere may be regarded as among its most active pre- 
disposing causes. The predisposition to this disorder is sometimes 
hereditary, particularly in persons of a weak, relaxed fibre, with 
high nervous susceptibility, and general debility of constitution. 
Those in whom the functions of the stomach are naturally weak, 
and feebly performed, the circulation languid, the temperature 
of the extremities, below the natural standard, and the secretion 
generally disordered, or more abundant than usual, are also con- 
stitutionally predisposed to dyspepsia. Sedentary occupations, 
especially when carried on in close rooms and factories ; indolent 
habits either of body or mind ; long and intense study ; insufficient 
exercise in the open air ; addiction to debilitating excesses and in- 
jurious indulgences, luxurious modes of living, indulgence in sleep 


or in bed, breathing impure air, and confinement to close or ill-ven- 
tilated apartments, remarkably predispose to this complaint. In 
persons thus predisposed, the slightest excess or irregularity, or the 
most trivial exciting cause, is often sufficient to bring on an attack 
of indigestion ; while a repetition of such causes, or long exposure 
to'their action, in those of a stronger habit and more vigorous con- 
stitution, cannot fail to have a similar effect." — Copeland's Med- 
ical Dictionary. 

Whatever tends to impair the condition of the digestive func- 
tion is an active cause in producing dyspepsia. 

" Indigestion," says an eminent "writer, " is the prevailing mal- 
ady of civilized life. 

" The principal exciting cause of indigestion is imperfect masti- 
cation. The fact is, we as a nation have not time to eat ; busi- 
ness or pleasure is too pressing." 

Tom Moore, the poet, truly says, — 

"No digest of laws like the law of digestion; " 

but of this we seem to be oblivious. Seven eighths of the persons 
one meets in society, display an ostrich-like willingness to devour 
the most indigestible substances, and to imbibe fluids which tend 
first to excite and afterwards to paralyze the stomach. That dys- 
pepsia has become a "National Disease" with us, is not to be 
wondered at, when we come to consider our " bill of fare," and 
how we partake of it. We are the swiftest eaters in the civilized 
world, and the most dyspeptic of all people. From childhood to 
old age we are in the habit of I' bolting " our food, as if our teeth 
were in our stomach and we could masticate it at our leisure, like 
a ruminating animal. The stomach, especially of children, is 
unable to digest solid lumps, or tough masses of food, and what- 
ever passes it undissolved receives but little digestive aid from the 
duodenum. Of course the lacteals — whose duty you will remem- 
ber it is to absorb the milk-like liquid, chyle, as it comes from the 
duodenum — refuses to pick up crude chunks of bread, meat, or 
potatoes. And thus the food partaken of passes through the 
whole digestive apparatus without even having undergone the first 
natural change. And instead of nourishing the system, it but 
taxes the vital energies, and finally either becomes impacted in 
the large intestines, producing constipation, or acts as a constant 
source of irritation, producing, and, if continued, maintaining an 
exhausting diarrhoea. All this, you will observe, arises from im 


perfect mastication. Again, a weak, dyspeptic stomach acts 
slowly, or not at all, upon solid lumps and tough masses of food. 
The delayed morsels undergo spontaneous changes, promoted by 
the warmth and moisture of the stomach ; gases are extricated ; 
acids are formed ; perhaps the half-digested mass is at length 
expelled by vomiting, or it passes undissolved into the duodenum, 
and becomes a source of irritation and disturbance during the 
whole of its journey through the intestines. — Watson. 

Festina lente was inscribed on the walls of the old Uoman ban- 
quet-halls. It signifies " Hasten slowly," and should be printed in 
letters of gold upon the border of every dinner-plate in the United 
States. In order that digestion may be perfect, it is requisite that 
the food be in a state of minute division, so that when it enters 
the stomach it may be readily incorporated with the gastric juice 
and reduced to chyme. 

We should eat slowly, not only that we may reduce the food to 
a state of comparative fineness, but that the salivary glands in the 
mouth may have an opportunity to pour out their secretion. Now, 
no doubt but one great source of indigestion arises from the fact, 
that we eat so rapidly that the food passes through our mouth and 
is swallowed before the salivary glands are even excited to action, 
and so the food passes into the stomach scarcely moistened. This 
tends to induce disease, not only in the salivary organs, by leaving 
them in a state of comparative inactivity, but in the stomach, by 
the deficiency of salivary stimulus. 

" Persons who eat rapidly generally drink large quantities of 
water, tea, or coffee ; this retards digestion by partially suspending 
salivary secretion, also by diluting, and thus lessening the energy 
of the gastric juice. Besides, all liquids taken into the stomach 
while eating must be removed by absorption before digestion 
proper can commence." — Cutter. 

As we have before remarked, v chronic inflammation of the 
stomach is not unfrequently the cause of indigestion. This 
chronic inflammation is, in the majority of cases, caused by indi- 
gestible substances or irritant condiments which we have swal- 
lowed. There are certain things upon which the gastric juice has 
no power: the green coloring matter of certain vegetables, the 
cores of apples, the skins of many fruits. No doubt you have ob- 
served that dry currants, the husks of apple-seeds, and raisin-skins, 
swallowed entire, reappear unchanged among the egesta. These 
things while in the stomach, subjected to the agitation which every- 


thing in transit there receives, must necessarily, from their harsh 
nature, irritate the coats of the stomach, and excite at least a low 
degree of inflammation. Food prepared for the dainty palates of 
the people of this generation is so saturated with condiments of 
various kinds, including black pepper, red pepper, allspice, cloves, 
mustard, horseradish, ginger, nutmeg, cinnamon, and other irri- 
tating substances, that the wonder is, not that we suffer from 
dyspepsia, but that our stomachs are not entirely destroyed. If 
any doubts that to put such irritating substances into the delicate 
organization of the stomach is wrong, just let him put a little 
pepper or mustard into his eyes or nose, or retain them a little 
while in contact with the mucous membrane of the mouth. Why, 
apply mustard, pepper, horse-radish, or almost any of these articles 
to the external gross organization of the skin, and you will soon 
excite an inflammation and even ulceration. Is it reasonable to 
suppose, that such substances can be put into the stomach with 
impunity, especially into the stomachs of children ? 

Another fruitful cause of indigestion is the habit we have of 
going immediately from severe mental or bodily exercise to our 
meals. All organs, while in action, require and receive more 
blood and nervous fluid than when at rest. The increased amount 
of blood and nervous power supplied to any organ, during extra 
functional action, is abstracted from other parts of the system. 
Now, of course, those parts of the system which supply this de- 
mand do so at their own expense, and thereby, to a certain extent, 
become enfeebled and prostrated. Suppose a child comes in after 
severe bodily exercise. Perhaps she has been jumping the rope, 
rolling the hoop, or otherwise actively engaged, so that the mus- 
cular system has demanded and received an extra amount of blood 
and nervous force from the balance of the system. The stomach 
has, of course, supplied its share, and is now in a state of comparative 
debility, and consequently unfit to digest food. She eats a hearty 
meal. What is the consequence ? It is not digested, — that is quite 
certain, and will not be, either, until the increased action of the ar- 
teries and nerves abate, and a due supply of blood and nervous fluid 
is sent to the stomach, or until an equilibrium of action in the system 
is re-established. The result generally is, the child suffers from a 
fit of indigestion. The mass of food may pass the stomach, and 
become a source of disturbance during the whole of its journey 
through the intestines ; or, as we before remarked when speaking 
of other causes, the delayed morsels may undergo spontaneous 


changes, promoted by the ■warmth and moisture of the stomach : 
gases are extricated, acids are formed, and the whole digestive appa- 
ratus thrown into a state of derangement. It is equally as injurious 
to digestion that we should enter upon severe mental or physical toil 
immediately after as immediately before eating. If you wanted your 
boy to help you grind your knife, you would not expect to find him 
turning the stone, would you, when you had just set him to cutting 
wood ? But, still, you will set your brain to work to supply the 
nervous power to carry on some mental or manual labor, and, at 
the same time, expect digestion to progress. You might as well 
expect to grind your knife without the stone revolving. An Eng- 
lish gentleman once fed two dogs upon similar articles of food. He 
permitted one to remain quiet in a dark room ; the other he sent 
in pursuit of game. At the expiration of one hour, he had them 
both killed. The stomach of the dog that had remained quiet was 
nearly empty ; the food had been properly changed, and carried 
forward into the alimentary canal. In the stomach of the dog that 
had used his muscles in chasing game, the aliment remained nearly 

Now, from what has previously been said, you will readily see 
why one dog digested his food, and the other did not. This ap- 
plies as well to children and men as to dogs. If our brain or 
muscles are intensely engaged soon after eating, the stomach will 
not be sufficiently stimulated by blood and nervous fluid to change 
the food in a suitable period of time ; and the result will be, a fit 
of indigestion, just the same as in the case where the patient eats 
a hearty meal immediately after severe exertion, either mental or 

Another cause of indigestion is eating late at night or just 
before retiring. If the boy goes to sleep and stops turning, of 
course you cannot grind your knife. So, if the brain goes to sleep 
and withholds its power, of course digestion stops. That is plain 
enough, I am sure. It is no unusual thing for those persons who 
have eaten heartily just before going to bed, to have unjxleasant 
dreams, to be disturbed in their sleep by all sorts of visions. The 
brain has gone to sleep, or at least has become partially dormant, 
and does not impart to the digestive organs the requisite amount 
of nervous influence. The nervous force or stimulus being defi- 
cient, or entirely withheld, the food remains in the stomach un- 
changed, causing irritation of this organ. 

Here we have a common cause of dyspepsia and an easy pre- 


Among the numerous causes of indigestion, Dr. Cutter, in his 
valuable school-book upon " Anatomy, Physiology, and Higiene," 
remarks : " The condition of the skin exercises an important 
influence on the digestive apparatus. Let free perspiration he 
checked, either from uncleanliness or from chills, and it will di- 
minish the functional action of the stomach and its associated organs. 
Restricting the movements of the ribs and diaphragm impairs 

digestion It is noted of individuals, who restrain the free 

movements of the abdominal muscles by tight dresses, that the 
tone and vigor of the digestive organs are diminished. The re- 
stricted waist will not admit of a full and deep inspiration, and 
so essential is this to health, that abuse in this respect soon enfee- 
bles and destroys the functions of the system." 

There is not the slightest doubt but that many a young lady 
has died of consumption from tight-lacing. Not that tight dresses 
directly caused the disease, but they ruined the digestive function 
by compressing the digestive apparatus into an unnatural and 
constrained position. The result, indigestion, enfeebled and 
wasted away the system, the latent seeds of consumption shot 
forth, and the patient was soon carried away ; whereas, had the 
functions of digestion and assimilation remained perfect, consump- 
tion might never have shown its hideous form. Its seeds would 
have remained dormant through life. Hereditary diseases are 
like weeds : when the shell that contains the germ or seed be- 
comes broken, or commences to decay, they sprout forth and grow 
luxuriantly, overtopping and destroying all other plants whose 
fruits we wish to cherish. 

Any sudden intelligence, a violent fit of passion, or of great 
joy, sometimes instantly brings on an attack of indigestion. 
Grief, anxiety, envy, jealousy, indulgence in tender feelings, re- 
peated disappointment, reverses in fortune, night-watching, etc., 
are active causes in exciting the disease. 

Another very frequent cause of dyspepsia, in this country, is the 
excessive use of cathartic medicine in the shajpe of pills. No 
wonder that patent medicine-venders, who advertise specifics, drive 
a lucrative business in the sale of these pretended remedies. 
"Were we to give the amount of the latter, — cathartic pills, — 
annually swallowed in the United States, the statement would not 
be believed, and yet we have it from good authority, namely, that 
of the manufacturer himself, that one establishment in New York 
city turns out by the aid of steam no less than ten barrels per 


day — 3130 bbls. per year! — and this is by no means so exten- 
sive as some others of a similar kind. These pills, which are 
highly drastic, are used by immense numbers of people, not only 
in cases of actual illness, but in time of health, as prophylactic, 
preventive remedies. The consequences are easily predicted. In 
addition to this, great quantities of bitters are used, in which 
brandy, wine, or some alcoholic liquor forms the principal ingre- 
dient ; and, on the occurrence of the least feeling of discomfort, 
recourse is had to the panacea, till at length the powers of the 
stomach are exhausted, and derangements, either functional or 
structural, take place. We could wish that the epitaph of the 
Italian count could be placed so as to be seen by every man, 
woman, and child: ' I was well, wished to be better, took physic, and 
here I am' 

" Much of this evil is doubtless owing to physicians, who have 
been too much in the habit of pouring down drugs empirically in 
every case of illness, slight or severe, in order to humor a popular 
notion, that the materia medica must furnish a remedy for every 
disease, and a popular prejudice, that want of success is a sure 
indication of poverty of resource on the part of the practitioner." 

The above quotation is from an eminent allopathic physician, 
Dr. Copland. And I have no doubt it will be endorsed by every 
physician in the land. The open assertion, however, which the 
doctor makes in regard to physicians themselves consenting to 
dose their patients, for some trivial disease, until their digestion is 
ruined, simply to humor a popular prejudice, must be rather humil- 
iating to his colleagues, and certainly will not go very far toward 
establishing that feeling of mutual confidence which should exist 
between physician and patient. 

I do not know of a physician, neither do I believe there are 
such, who would intentionally ruin a patient's constitution, simply 
that he ever after, or at intervals^ might be a patient. I have not 
the least doubt, however, but that many a stomach has been ru- 
ined, while acting as a distributing reservoir for large, compli- 
cated, and nauseous prescriptions. How, for instance, can you 
expect to take with impunity into your stomach a prescription 
which the physician cautions you against permitting to come in 
contact with your teeth, as it will injure them. Is your stomach 
less susceptible to injury than your teeth ? I think not. We fre- 
quently hear patients complaining of dyspepsia, which they have 



had ever since an attack of fever, years before, or ever since Dr. 
So-and-so salivated them. 

A transient attack of dyspepsia, to which all children are liable, 
occasioned, as it generally is, by a surfeit of what people call 
" good things," and which a judicious restriction in diet would 
remove in a short time, without any medicine at all, is frequently 
rendered permanent by this eternal habit of drugging. 

What has been said applies almost exclusively to adults and the 
older children. Almost exclusively, I say, because indigestion in 
nursing infants is frequently caused by these very excesses in the 
mother. We frequently see children suffering from indigestion, 
attended with vomiting, acid eructations, and diarrhoea, in conse- 
quence of the mother's having indulged in a very rich diet, and 
particularly in vegetables and fruits. Who has not seen a nursing 
infant suffer from indigestion, the next day after its mother had 
attended a party or a ball, where she had partaken of a variety of 
choice cakes, fruits, ices, etc., danced considerably, returned home 
late, and nursed her child ? 

Indigestion in infants is frequently caused by an unhealthy state 
of the milk of the nurse. 

I would here remark that indigestion of young infants is a very 
common disorder. Dyspepsia, in fact, is a very frequent affection 
during the whole period of childhood. As the infant's stomach is 
very delicate, it takes but the least thing to derange it. 

What has been said in the article upon" Diet during Nursing," 
might not inappropriately be quoted here ; but instead, the reader 
in referred to it on page 124. Also to the article on the " Diet op 
Infants, " and to " General Eemarks," at the commencement of 
this chapter. 

Symptoms. — I shall describe the symptoms of indigestion, first, 
as it occurs in adults and in children as young as ten or twelve 
years ; secondly, as it occurs in younger children, and in the nurs- 
ing infant. 

Dyspepsia may be either transient or habitual. By the former, 
I mean what is usually called " a slight attack of indigestion," 
such as arises from over-eating, or from partaking of some indi- 
gestible or unwholesome article of food, occasioning a tempo- 
rary derangement of digestion. By habitual indigestion, I mean 
what would perhaps be called chronic, — those cases, from what- 
soever cause originating, which are continued in consequence of a 
persistence of the cause. The stomach loses its digestive power, 


and perhaps months, even years, will elapse before the patient will 
be able to digest any but the simplest kind of food. This state of 
things not unfrequently arises from the quantities of drugs taken 
to remove some little gastric derangement caused by eating too 
much rich or unwholesome food. Frequently, some persons, in 
anticipation of a " bilious attack," will take a few doses of anti- 
bilious pills as a preventive ; but this just produces what they 
wanted to avoid. You will find that those individuals who are al- 
ways taking bitters, pills, and patent medicines, are just the ones 
who look sallow and unhealthy ; and are always complaining of 
being " bilious." • They think that, unless they keep drugging 
themselves, they will not be able to keep about ; whereas the 
very medicine they are constantly taking is the very thing that 
produces all their ill feelings. 

An occasional attack of indigestion is characterized, chiefly, by 
a sense of distention of the stomach ; by aerid or acid eructations 
and flatulence soon after a meal ; by loss of appetite, or loathing 
of food ; and occasionally by nausea or vomiting. These symp- 
toms, however, vary with the nature and quantity of the food. 
Some persons, though possessing weak and debilitated stomachs, 
will manage to dispose of a light, easily-digested meal about as 
well as ever ; but a meal of rich meats, or a hearty meal of any 
description, will invariably produce heart-burn, putrescent eructa- 
tions, and a feeling of weight or oppression in the region of the 

The tongue is generally pale, flabby, or slimy ; or it becomes 
dry, clammy, or loaded with a thick coating, especially on rising in 
the morning. 

There is generally present, headache, languor, and a general 
indisposition to look upon the bright side of anything. Eancid, 
oily, indigested substances are eructated, or brought off the stom- 
ach with nausea or retching. K nausea and vomiting take place, 
the contents of the stomach are thrown up either partially or alto- 
gether undigested. The matters thus thrown up are most usually 
sour. Vomiting does not always take place. Mostgenerally, I think, 
there is repugnance to food ; sense of weight, and fulness at the 
pit of the stomach, and some pain, aggravated by pressure ; fre- 
quent gaseous eructations, sometimes very offensive ; also eructa- 
tions of sour or acrid fluids. When vomiting does take place, 
instant relief is afforded. 

Attacks of this description, as we have before observed, arise 


from some errors in diet, and, for their prompt removal, only need 
a proper restriction of diet. 

Habitual indigestion, or chronic dyspepsia, may come on grad- 
ually, almost imperceptibly, as a consequence of the foregoing. 
The acute attacks are liable to pass into the confirmed, or chronic 
state of the complaint, especially when they occur frequently, or are 
improperly treated or neglected. 

As dyspepsia becomes confirmed, various additional symptoms 
and sympathetic affections appear. The patient at first complains 
of local and general debility. All the physical and mental functions 
betray more or less inactivity. The sleep is disturbed or unrefresh- 
ing, sometimes heavy and prolonged. The appetite, in the morn- 
ing, is impaired and capricious, savory articles being chiefly 
relished ; and a sense of soreness or relaxation in the throat is 
complained of. A full meal is followed by heaviness, yawnings, 
stretchings, and by an almost irresistible disposition to sleep ; by a 
sense of fulness, weight, flatulence, or by rancid or acrid eructa- 
tions, etc. As the disorder continues, the appetite is more impaired 
and more capricious. The bowels become costive and irregular ; 
the discharges being scanty, offensive, discolored, or more copious, 
or frequent, and sometimes containing imperfectly digested por- 
tions of food. — Copland. 

Flatulence is troublesome, particularly when the stomach is 
empty ; the mouth is clammy, and the tongue coated or furred, 
especially in the morning. The countenance becomes pale or 
unhealthy, and the body occasionally enlarges about the trunk or 
abdomen. Yertigo, loss of memory, lowness of spirits, apathy, in- 
difference, and numerous associated and sympathetic disorders en- 
sue, according as the weakness of the stomach extends to the du- 
odenum and intestinal canal, or the secreting organs of the viscera. 

The symptoms referred directly to the stomach are often very 
severe. Indigestion is, in many instances, attended with scarcely 
any pain ; while, in others, the pain is very tormenting. In many, 
it does not amount to a pain, or, rather, they do not describe it as 
such, but complain of great discomfort, and a sense of a load ; of 
an uneasiness, or a sensation of gnawing in the stomach. Others 
complain of a burning sensation, which is greatly aggravated by a full 
meal or by pressure. One form of pain connected with indigestion 
is popularly called heart-bum. This appears to be more of a per- 
manent uneasiness than an actual pain. A second form of pain in 
the stomach is when it occurs immediately after taking food, and 


continues during the whole process of digestion, or until vomiting 
ensues, which gives instant ease. In such cases, we have reason 
to suspect the existence of chronic inflammation of the mucous 
membrane of the stomach. A third form of pain in the stomach 
comes on at uncertain intervals in most violent paroxysms. This 
is properly called cramps or spasms of the stomach. It is often accom- 
panied by a sensation of distention, much anxiety, and restlessness. 
In females, it is very frequently combined with hysterical symp- 
toms. I have lately had under my charge a case of this descrip- 
tion, which had been treated by a neighboring physician, over six 
months, as if womb complaint." A fourth variety of dyspeptic 
pain makes its appearance in from two to four hours after a meal, 
and continues for several hours. This is the most common form 
of the complaint. 

Water-brash is another modification of pain or uneasiness and 
disorder of the stomach, of which the distinguishing feature is the 
vomiting, or rather the eructation of a thin, watery liquid, some- 
times sour, but usually insipid and tasteless, and often described 
by the patients themselves as being cold. In some cases of dys- 
pepsia, the only observable symptom is a loss of the natural 
appetite. The patient refrains instinctively from certain kinds of 
food, or feels, perhaps, absolute repugnance and disgust at the very 
thought of eating. The appetite may even be morbidly craving 
and ravenous, or capricious and uncertain. 

Nausea and vomiting are, in some instances, the most distressing 
results and symptoms of dyspepsia. Sometimes nausea comes on 
soon after the food is swallowed. Sometimes there is no nausea ; 
but, after the lapse of a certain period, an hour or two, generally, 
the food is rejected by vomiting ; the matters thus thrown up are 
usually sour, and not unfrequently mixed with bile, especially if 
the retching has been violent or long continued, and then the 
patient is ready to ascribe the whole of his complaint to an " over- 
flow of bile," although, in fact, the secretion of the liver has 
nothing whatever to do with it. If bile is ejected in vomiting, it 
merely shows that the action, not of the stomach only, is inverted, 
but also that of the duodenum. A powerful emetic will, in this 
way, generally bring bile from the most healthy stomach. 

Belching and flatulence are not only distressing, but exceedingly 
annoying symptoms ; they are produced by gas, which is evolved 
from the undigested food which is detained in the stomach and 
undergoing fermentation. Gases are sometimes generated ap- 


parently by the stomach itself; for the flatulence and eructations 
frequently come when the stomach is entirely empty of food. 

Dyspepsia is almost always accompanied by a sluggish state of 
the bowels. The evacuations are most commonly dry, scanty, and 
deficient in healthy color and odor. 

" There are innumerable sympathies of distant parts with a 
dyspeptic stomach, in respect to which I can do little more than 
barely enumerate a few. Thus, indigestion is often accompanied by 
pain in the head, with some confusion of thought, or, at all events, 
with a loss of mental energy and alertness ; together with a violent 
headache, there are frequently nausea and vomiting ; and the 
complaint popularly known by the name of ' sick headache] or, 
in the fashionable jargon of the day, as a ' bilious headache? " — 

While an immense number of diseases originate in neglected or 
protracted indigestion, various disorders are entirely sympathetic 
with it. Diseases of the urinary organs, of the liver and bowels ; 
palpitations of the heart ; irregularities of the pulse ; fits of 
asthma ; menstrual irregularities ; womb affections ; nervousness ; 
hysterical symptoms ; eruptions on the skin, and many others thus 

The brain and the organs of sense are often much affected by 
indigestion. Some writers argue that functional disorders, thus 
sympathetically induced in the brain, may pass into organic 
disease. Headache is one of the most common and severe affec- 
tions sympathetically excited by this complaint. The manifesta- 
tions of the mind are often more or less disturbed ; memory is 
almost sure to be impaired ; attention is unsteady, and cannot be 
long continued ; the disposition is more fickle, and the temper 
more irritable than natural ; there is often confusion of thought 
or of ideas ; lowness of spirits ; despondency and vertigo, particu- 
larly in old, chronic cases. Sight becomes weakened ; specks 
appear before the eyes ; hearing is frequently impaired. These 
symptoms depend upon a weakness of the nerves. — Copland. 

Dr. Cullen, in speaking of Hypochondriasis, — a disease charac- 
terized by languor or debility, depression of spirits, or melan- 
choly, with dyspepsia, a species of insanity, — says : "In certain 
persons there is a state of mind distinguished by the occurrence 
of the following circumstances ; a languor, listlcssness, or want of 
resolution and activity with respect to all undertakings ; a disposi- 
tion to seriousness, sadness, and timidity ; as to all future events, 


an apprehension of the worst or most unhappy state of them, and, 
therefore, often upon slight grounds, an apprehension of great 
evil. Such persons are particularly attentive to the state of their 
own health, — to the very smallest change of feeling in their bodies ; 
and from any unusual feeling, perhaps of the slightest kind, they 
apprehend danger, and even death itself. In respect to all these 
feelings and apprehensions there is commonly the most obstinate 
belief and persuasion." 

Cases like this are of no uncommon occurrence. We meet 
with them every day. Your " one idea " people belong to this class 
of afflicted mortality. Pick out the advocates of " Woman's 
Rights," " State Rights," " Spiritualism," and other like crazy 
notions, and you will find them to be long-faced, bilious-looking 
individuals, whose mental faculties are as warped and withered 
as their external features. All their functions and faculties are 
blunted and despoiled. Everything they look upon is as " through 
a glass darkly," and if they do not see " trees as men walking," 
they behold other things equally strange. 

The influence of dyspeptic complaints, in producing affections 
of the lungs, was referred to in the first part of this article. The 
debility, caused by protracted disorders of the digestive organs, 
calls latent tubercles into activity, or rapidly develops them. 

In females, dyspepsia not unfrequently occasions difficult, too 
frequent, or delayed, or irregular menstruation, leucorrhosa, chlo- 
rosis, hysteria, and painful affections of the spinal nerves, with 
tenderness and soreness of the back. 

We come next to consider the symptoms indicative of indiges- 
tion in infants and young children. Indigestion in infants, like 
that of adults, may be either transient or habitual. 

All children are liable to occasional attacks of indigestion. 
The symptoms come on soon after the child has nursed freely, 
or after a hearty meal of artificial food. The child becomes rest- 
less and peevish ; it moans and cries ; it turns pale ; contracts 
its face ; shows unmistakable signs of nausea ; occasionally it 
retches and perhaps vomits ; there is distension of the abdomen, 
with wind, eructations, and in many cases, diarrhoea. When 
vomiting takes place, the milk thrown up is curdled, and its 
rejection is followed by immediate relief. 

In some cases, there is a complete loss of appetite ; the infant 
cares neither for the breast nor for any other food that may be 
offered it. It nurses but little, is soon satisfied, and even the 


small quantity taken is soon regurgitated, or thrown up. Some- 
times there is an unnatural craving for food ; the child wishes 
to nurse all the time. But, though it sucks much, the milk 
evidently does not set well upon the stomach, for, soon after 
nursing, it begins to worry and cry, and appears to be in much 
pain until it has vomited. Habitual indigestion produces a train 
of symptoms similar to those just described, except that they 
are more severe. Nausea and vomiting are present after every 
meal ; diarrhoea is a common accompaniment ; there is constant 
restlessness and discomfort; the child frets and worries all the 
time, especially at night, when it ought to be asleep ; it is never 
contented, except when dragging at its nurse. The milk it gets 
does not agree with it, or, at least, it produces pain and suffering, 
and is soon ejected by vomiting. The milk thrown up is curdled 
and sour. In some cases there is no vomiting and no pain after 
eating, but the child is distressed by frequent acid or offensive 
eructations ; its breath has a sour or nauseous smell, and its 
evacuations have a most fetid odor. — West. 

The child has " constant fits of most violent screaming from 
colic, sometimes lasting for hours ; " there is also a " dull and 
languid expression of the countenance, or else an uneasy, con- 
tracted look, like that produced by continued suffering ; more 
or less emaciation ; failure of the natural growth in stature and 
size, so that the child is small and puny for its age." The child 
" suffers unusually from cold, as shown by the coldness of the 
hands and feet." — Meigs. 

Indigestion in children that are " brought up by hand," and 
those who are fed considerably upon an artificial diet, as well as 
those who have been entirely weaned, is a very common disorder. 

Children, who have completed their first dentition, and are 
allowed to partake of a varied and rich diet, not unfrequently 
suffer from severe attacks of transient indigestion. The attacks 
usually begin within a few hours, or a day, after the child has 
partaken of some indigestible substance, with languor, perhaps 
chilliness, headache, pain in the stomach, nausea, and very often 
a disposition to drowsiness and sleep. When these attacks end 
in vomiting, which they not unfrequently do, the child appears 
perfectly well from the time the offending substance is ejected. 
If, however, vomiting does not take place, fever usually sets in, 
the skin becomes flushed, hot, and dry; tongue, coated; thirst, 
considerable ; the child is restless and uneasy ; keeps tossing from 


side to side, or lies in an uneasy, drowsy state ; there may be also 
frequent starting or jerking of the limbs or crying out. Symp- 
toms of this description are frequently followed by convulsions. 
Attacks of indigestion, in children of from three to five years 
of age, are not unfrequently followed by convulsions, and, when 
symptoms indicative of a tendency in this direction are present, 
the patient should be carefully watched and the accident guarded 

Gastric derangements, such as we have just described, generally 
continue until nature relieves the stomach by vomiting or diar- 
rhoea, or until the proper remedies have been administered. A 
judicious restriction of diet and an occasional dose of the appro- 
priate remedy will soon restore the healthy action of the stomach, 
whereas, when the case is left entirely to nature, and the child 
permitted to indulge its appetite, a perfect restoration will take 
place slowly, or not at all. Transient attacks of indigestion, when 
neglected, or what is still worse, improperly treated, are very 
apt to leave the digestive organs in an irritable or debilitated 
condition, from which it will require time and great care on the 
part of the physician and nurse to make a permanent cure. 

Habitual indigestion in children, who have completed their first 
dentition, " is a condition analogous to, if not identical with, the 
dyspepsia of the adult. The symptoms of this form are the 
following: the general appearance of the child is delicate, as 
shown by a pallid or sallow tint of the skin, instead of the ruddy 
complexion of health ; as, also, by thinness and flaccidity of the 
muscular tissue. There is an habitual air of languor and listless- 
ness, with absence of the usual gayety and disposition to play 
natural to its age, and the child often complains of being tired. 
The appetite is feeble or uncertain, being sometimes absent, and 
at other times too great ; or it is peculiar, there being a willing- 
ness to eat of dainties, but a refusal of food of a simple character. 
The tongue presents nothing peculiar ; it is, however, more fre- 
quently somewhat furred than clean and natural. The temper 
is usually irritable and uncertain. The child rarely sleeps well ; 
on the contrary, the nights are restless and much disturbed, the 
sleep being broken and interrupted by turning and rolling, by 
moaning or crying out, and by grinding of the teeth. These 
latter symptoms, together with picking at the nose, which is a 
frequent accompaniment, are almost always referred by the parents 
and nurses to worms, and it is often impossible to convince them 



to the contrary, even though frequent and violent doses of vermi- 
fuges have failed to show the existence of entozoa (worms). 

. . . . This form of indigestion, like dyspepsia in the adult, 
is generally a very chronic affection, seldom lasting less than 
several weeks or months, and sometimes for years." — Meigs' 
Diseases of Children. 

Treatment. — To facilitate as much as possible the treatment 
of this complicated disease, we make the following divisions with 
the remedies attached to each variety. Before selecting a remedy, 
consult its details below. 

For dyspepsia of Adults. — Aeon., Ant.-c, Arn., Bell., Bry., 
Cal.-c, Carb.-v., Cepa, Cham., Chin., Hepar-s., Ipecac, Lach., 
Merc, Nux-v., Phos., Puis., Sepia, Sulph., Verat. 

Of Children. — Aeon., Bry., Calc, Cham., Ipecac, Puis., Sulph. 

Transient, or acute dyspepsia. — Aeon., Arn., Ant.-c, Bell., Bry., 
Ipecac, Merc, Nux-v., Puis. 

Habitual, .or chronic dyspepsia. — Ars., Bell., Cal.-c, Chin., 
Hepar-s., Lach., Merc, Nux-v., Phos., Puis., Sepia, Sulph. 

Arnica. — When the disorder is caused by a fall, a blow upon 
the stomach, or by lifting heavy weights, with pain, and a sensation 
as if the small of the back was broken. Also, when there is great 
sensitiveness and nervous excitement ; frequent eructations, with a 
putrid or bitter taste ; tongue covered with a thick, yellowish coat ; 
some nausea, with inclination to vomit ; head full and giddy ; also, 
a heaviness of the limbs. Should Arnica not suffice, try Nux- 

Aconitum. — When, at the commencement of the attack, there 
is considerable fever, with thirst and nausea. Or, at any time 
during the disease, when the fever runs high, or partakes of an 
inflammatory nature. Also, where there is much heat, redness 
and soreness of the mouth or throat. 

Antimonium crudum. — This remedy is particularly useful when 
the disorder arises from an overloading of the stomach, and the 
following symptoms are present : frequent eructations, which taste 
of the food last partaken of; or a gulping up of particles of undi- 
gested food soon after eating, either with or without sickness at 
the stomach. The tongue is coated with a white, or yellowish 
mucus ; the stomach feels distended, and is tender to the touch ; 
there is, besides, flatulency, accompanied with griping pains, or 

Belladonna. — When there is painful distention of the abdomen, 


Avith griping pains, as if the bowels were grasped with the fingers ; 
flatulent colic ; hiccough ; bitter eructations ; nausea, with loathing 
of food ; vomiting of water, or bile. Also, when, in addition to 
the derangements of the stomach, there is dulness of the head, 
or congestion of blood to the head. 

Arsenicum, — In serious chronic cases, where there is great 
prostration of the vital powers ; countenance sunken ; extremities 
cold ; face blanched ; dark circle around the eyes ; nose pointed ;• 
tongue white, or of a brownish color, dry and trembling ; pulse 
irregular, small, frequent, and weak. Also, when there are severe 
cramps in the stomach, with a sensation of coldness or much heat ; 
when vomiting becomes excessive, everything taken is returned 
from the stomach ; the skin hot and dry ; the patient becomes 
emaciated, and the countenance cadaverous. If Arsenicum does 
not soon produce a favorable change, give Lachesis. 

Bryonia. — - This is an important remedy for dyspepsia, especially 
when it occurs in summer, or when the weather is warm and 
damp ; also, when it is accompanied with chilliness, headache, 
pain in the limbs, small of the back, etc., — symptoms such as fol- 
low a cold. 

Tongue dry and red, or coated over with a whitish-yellow fur ; 
loss of appetite ; great aversion to food, — even the smell of food 
causing great disgust ; sometimes there is a great craving for 
food, an unnatural appetite, the child literally gorging itself if 
allowed to have its own way ; or there may be loss of appetite 
alternating with unnatural hunger ; craving for acid drinks ; 
much thirst ; insipid, clammy, sweetish or bitter taste in the 
mouth ; eructations ; gulping up of particles of food after every 
meal ; vomiting of food, particularly at night ; inclination to 
vomit after every meal ; morning nausea ; water-brash ; distention 
of the stomach, especially after a meal, even though ever so little 
has been eaten ; burning in tlib stomach ; constipation of the 
bowels, especially in infants ; temper restless, irritable, and ob- 
stinate ; also, when anger excites or aggravates the derangement, 

Bryonia may follow Aconite when the patient complains of dry- 
ness of the mouth and considerable thirst. Should Bryonia pro- 
duce little or no improvement, it may be followed by Rhus. 

Cepa. — When there is no hunger, but considerable thirst, ful- 
ness of the head, pain in the bowels from wind, tongue coated, 
especially near the root. 

Carbo-vegetalilis. — Loss of appetite ; aversion to meat ; disten- 


tion of the stomach after eating. Empty eructations, or belching 
up of air tasting of the fat and food which had been eaten. Flatu- 
lence, fetid and offensive ; wind-colic ; rumbling in the abdomen ; 
water-brash ; hiccough ; contractive or burning pain in the stom- 
ach ; nausea in the morning ; offensive diarrhoea. 

Calcarea-carbonica. — Particularly for children of a scrofulous 
tendency, or those who are backward about learning to walk, or 
very fat children, whose circulation is torpid and sluggish. Fre- 
quent eructations ; acid stomach ; water-brash ; sour eructations 
and sour vomitings ; fulness and swelling in the region of the stom- 
ach, with tenderness to touch ; pressure in the pit of the stomach ; 
gnawing or griping pains ; enlargement of the abdomen, particu- 
larly in scrofulous children. Sour-smelling diarrhoea of children. 
Chronic dyspepsia of adults, with heart-burn after any kind of food ; 
vomiting of food ; eructations ; morning nausea ; aversion to meat 
and warm food ; loss of appetite, at other times canine hunger ; 
distention of abdomen ; pain in the stomach after eating, followed 
by nausea and vomiting ; desire for wine, salt things, or dainties. 

Ghamomilla. — Especially for gastric derangements brought on 
by a fit of passion, which sometimes happens even in females, or 
by standing in a draft when perspiring. Bitter or sour eructations ; 
regurgitation of food ; nausea ; vomiting of food, green phlegm, 
or bile ; cramps in the stomach ; distention of the stomach ; some- 
times constipation, but generally diarrhoea, especially in children, 
while the evacuations are green and watery. Headache, fulness, 
giddiness, and staggering in the morning when getting up. Sleep 
disturbed, tossing about, frequent awaking. Face red and hot ; 
obscuration of the eyes ; mind very sensitive. 

China. — This remedy is especially applicable for that form of 
dyspepsia which is caused by an impure atmosphere, — an atmos- 
phere that is overloaded with exhalations of decayed vegetable 
matter ; also for indigestion which precedes or accompanies chills 
and fever, and is caused by the same miasmatic influence which pro- 
duces that disease. 

Pressure in the stomach, as if from a load ; a constant feeling as 
if one had eaten too much ; constant eructations ; gulping up of 
particles of undigested food, especially after supper ; aversion to 
food and drink, with feeling of fulness ; flat or bitter taste in the 
mouth; desire for a variety of things, — this or that dainty, — 
without knowing which ; after eating, drowsiness, oppressive ful- 
ness in the stomach and abdomen ; heart-burn, with flow of water 


in the mouth ; ineffectual retching ; morbid craving for some- 
thing strong, sharp, or sour. Weakness and tired feeling ; a dis- 
position to lie down, without being able to remain quiet. The 
patient yawns, bends, and stretches his limbs, from a sense of weari- 
ness ; is melancholy and morose. 

Kepar-sulpliur . — This is an important remedy for correcting a 
chronic derangement of the stomach, caused by taking blue-pills or 
other preparations of mercury ; or in those cases where the stom- 
ach appears to be very sensitive and easily deranged, though the 
patient may be healthy, and very correct in his general habits. 
Nausea in the morning, with eructations, or vomiting of sour, bil- 
ious, or mucous substances. Appetite only for something sour and 
piquant ; aversion to fat ; desire for wines. Distention in the pit 
of the stomach, as from wind ; one cannot bear tight clothes. 
Bowels constipated ; stools hard and dry, or, in children, a sour, 
whitish diarrhoea. 

Ipecacuanha. — This is the principal remedy for indigestion of 
children, arising from imperfect mastication or from partaking 
of improper food. It should be given at the commencement of an 
attack, especially when the following symptoms are present : 
tongue coated with a white or yellowish coating ; nausea, with 
empty eructations ; vomiting of undigested food, or of bile, or of 
bitter, acrid-smelling water and jelly-like mucus ; vomiting with 
diarrhoea ; easy vomiting, generally attended with coldness of the 
face and extremities ; diarrhoea, with fermented stools ; diarrhoea, 
with nausea, colic, and vomiting. 

Also for adults, when the tongue is not coated, although the 
patient is sick at the stomach and vomits ; aversion to food, par- 
ticularly to fat, rich food, such as pork, pastry ; or for dyspepsia, 
caused by eating such things. Headache, attended with nausea 
and vomiting ; stitching headache, with heaviness of the head ; 
pressure in the forehead ; nausea and vomiting ; vomiting, with 
diarrhoea ; bilious headache — that is, sick headache. 

Lachesis. — In cases where Hepar has been insufficient, or for 
indigestion, which is worse immediately after eating, and for 
severe cases, such as described under Arsenicum. 

Mercurius. — Acrid, bitter eructations ; putrid, sweetish, or bit- 
ter taste in the morning ; bilious vomiting ; repugnance to solid 
food and meat ; pressure at the pit of the stomach after eating ; 
weak digestion, with constant hunger. Suits well before or after 


Nux-vomica. — This remedy is specially adapted to those persons 
who lead a sedentary life, seamstresses, school-girls, and the like ; 
also those who possess a lively, restless, irritable temperament, in 
whom anger, chagrin, or anything which crosses them is apt to 
induce a fit of indisposition. And for those who are fond of dis- 
sipation, keep late hours, sip wine, etc. 

The following symptoms call for JSfux-v. : head confused ; reeling, 
giddiness, or dulness in the head; heaviness in the back part of 
the head ; headache, unfitting one for, and increased by, mental ex- 
ertion ; tearing pain in the head and cheeks ; ringing in the ears ; 
drawing in the teeth, sometimes above and sometimes below. The 
headaches are deeply seated in the brain, often confined to one 
side, or the back part of the head, coming on chiefly in the morn- 
ing, after a meal, or in the open air. Tongue coated white ; 
mucus collects in the mouth ; metallic, bitter, sour, or putrid taste, 
chiefly in the morning or after eating. At times, there is no taste 
at all, or all kinds of food taste insipid. Heart-burn ; bitter eruc- 
tations ; nausea and inclination to vomit, especially early in the 
morning and after eating ; periodical attacks of vomiting ; vomit- 
ing of undigested food. Distention and pressure in the stomach 
and pit of the stomach after eating. Distention and pressure, as 
from a stone in the abdomen ; a feeling of tightness of the clothes 
around the waist; wind-colic ; the abdomen is sensitive to pres- 
sure or contact. Constipation ; ineffectual urging to stool ; and 
hard, difficult stool, streaked with blood ; blind piles. 

Pulsatilla. — This is another important remedy for dyspepsia, 
and is peculiarly adapted to persons of a lymphatic tempera- 
ment, — those ardent, enthusiastic, good-natured individuals, who 
easily laugh or weep, and have pale faces, blue eyes, and blonde 
hair. Pulsatilla should be given in all transient, or recent, cases 
of indigestion, especially when it has been caused by eating any 
kind of food which produces flatulency ; by over-eating, or by the 
use of pork, mutton, or pastry, or any greasy substance ; and 
when there are eructations tasting of the food which has just 
been eaten ; or sour, bitter eructation ; inclination to vomit, espe- 
cially after eating or drinking ; taste flat or putrid, resembling 
bad meat or tallow. Aversion to food, especially to meat, bread, 
butter, milk, and anything warm. Pressure in the pit of the 
stomach, especially after eating ; wind-colic after supper or at 
night ; rolling and rumbling in the abdomen ; slow, small evacua- 
tions or diarrhoea ; frequent urging to stool ; water-brash. The 


patient feels chilly, is weak, cross, sad, melancholy, annoyed at 
every trifle, not inclined to talk. 

Phosphorus. — Empty eructations, especially after eating ; sour 
regurgitations ; vomiting after eating ; burning in the stomach ; 
pressure and fulness in the stomach ; acidity and sour taste in 
the mouth ; drowsy and lazy after eating ; chronic looseness of 
the bowels. 

Sepia. — For chronic dyspepsia, with or without sick headache ; 
eructations, sour, bitter, or tasting of the food ; loathing of food ; 
putrid or sour taste ; nausea before breakfast, also after eating ; 
nausea of pregnant women ; distention of the stomach, with pres- 
sure as from a stone. This remedy suits well for nervous, hyster 
ical persons. 

Sulphur. — This remedy acts well after Nux-vomica and Mercu- 
rius, in cases of long standing, or when there is loss of appetite ; 
aversion to meat ; difficulty of breathing ; nausea after eating ; 
belching or vomiting of food ; colic immediately after eating ; 
water-brash ; sour stomach ; flatulency and constipation. Mental 
depression ; morose irascibility ; dissatisfied with everything and 

Veratrum. — When Ipecac, has proved insufficient, or where, 
after the use of Ipecac, there is still left diarrhoea, with griping 
pains in the bowels. Also, for cases attended with vomiting and 
diarrhoea ; thirst for cold drinks ; empty, sour, or bitter eructa- 
tions ; nausea, with great prostration ; coldness of the hands, and 
shuddering all over ; vomiting of the food ; burning in the whole 

Hhus, Sulphuric-acid, Natrum, Cocculus, Thuja, and a few other 
remedies, in addition to what we have enumerated, are sometimes, 
but not often, called for. 

Administration op Remedies. — In all transient or recent 
cases of indigestion, especially if there should be much pain and 
sickness at the stomach, a dose of the selected remedy may be 
given every half-hour, until relief is obtained. As soon as the 
severity of the symptom begins to abate, the interval between the 
doses may be lengthened. For recent attacks of indigestion of 
ordinary severity, the doses may be taken from one to three hours 
apart. In chronic cases the remedy may be repeated about three 
times a day. Dose, for an adult, ten globules; for an infant, two. 

Diet and Regimen. — Perhaps there is no class of diseases in 
wliich it is more important to adhere strictly to dietetic regula- 


tions than in those which consist in some derangement of the di- 
gestive apparatus. 

Our opponents are very fond of attributing our cures to the strict 
attention which we pay to all the laws of Hygeia. This I consider 
One of the highest compliments ever paid to our branch of the 
profession, and at the same time one of the severest censures ever 
applied to the other schools, even by their most bitter enemies. 
If we can, and do, as they assert, by a simple regulation, and 
restriction of diet, cure our patients of serious disorders, then 
how, in the name of suffering humanity, can they justify them- 
selves in giving such enormous quantities of drugs for slight ail- 
ments ? 

Of course, we maintain that our remedies are active in this or 
in any other disease ; but, at the same time, are perfectly willing 
to admit that we do not, by any means, place our whole reliance 
for the cure of disease upon the administration of " infinitesimal 
doses " of medicines, because we know full well that unless the 
diet of the dyspeptic patient be duly regulated, medical means 
will be employed in vain. We think that a large number of all 
the cases of indigestion, if put under proper dietetic regulations, 
would get well without any medicine at all ; not as promptly, how- 
ever, as they would if a judicious hand administered proper doses 
of the proper remedy at the proper time. Therefore, considering 
the subject of diet in connection with digestive diseases to be an 
important one, our remarks upon this point will be somewhat 

In speaking of diet with reference to indigestion generally, we 
shall remark upon, 1. The kinds and quality of food. 2. The 
quantity of food. 3. The time of eating, or the periods which 
should intervene between meals. 4. The kind and quantity pf 
drinks. 5. The conditions deserving notice in connection with 
eating and drinking. 

The Kinds and Quality op Food. — Although a healthy per- 
son, leading an active life, may eat, with impunity, almost every 
variety of food, there are a great many articles of diet which 
ought to be preferred, and others which must be avoided, by the 
dyspeptic. Vegetables are slower of digestion than animal and 
farinaceous aliments, and more liable to undergo fermentation in 
weak stomachs, and to occasion acidity and flatulence. Pat and 
oily meats are also very indigestible, and give rise to acid or rancid 
eructations and heart-burn. Soups and liquid food are acted upon 


by the stomach with great difficulty, and if the diet consists chiefly 
of them, they furnish insufficient nourishment, and never fail of 
producing the more severe forms of dyspepsia, and the diseases of 
debility. Soups are hurtful when taken at the commencement of 
a full meal ; but, when little or no annual food is eaten along with 
them, and rice or bread is taken with them, so as to promote their 
consistency, they are digested with greater ease. — Copland. 

Animal food is easier of digestion than vegetable food, because 
there is less " conversion " required ; it is already nearer, in its 
composition, to the textures into which it is to be incorporated by 
assimilation. It is well known that vegetable food, when the 
stomach is weak, produces more flatulence than animal ; this is 
simply because digestion is slow and incomplete. The most digest- 
ible meal that can be taken by a dyspeptic, in my estimation, is a 
fair proportion of both animal and vegetable food, — a mixture 
of the two. This is better than a rigid adherence to either kind 
of aliment singly. Well-cooked animal food, either beef, mutton, 
venison, or game, eaten with a moderate quantity of bread, or 
with roasted, mashed, or dry, mealy potatoes, or with rice, will 
seldom disagree even with a very delicate stomach. The kind, 
however, of animal food, and the mode of cooking it, should de- 
pend much upon the peculiarities of each individual case and the 
stage of the disorder. One of the greatest evils of the present 
generation is modern cooking, — the art of rendering food unhealthy. 

One of the best aids to digestion we know, is good cookery. 
By bringing out the flavor, it increases the nutritiousness of food, 
which bad cooking toughens and deprives in part of its nourishing 

Dyspeptics should avoid all cured meats, such as ham, tongue, 
salted, smoked, or pickled meats, sausages, etc. All raw vegeta- 
bles, also, must be eschewed ; salads, cucumbers, pickles, etc., 
must be banished. 

Fish holds an intermediate rank between animal and vegetable 
food, as respects digestibility. It is less nutritious than mutton or 
beef; therefore a larger quantity is requisite to satisfy the appetite. 
Fish is most digestible when boiled; is less so when broiled; and 
the least so when fried. Shell-fish are slow of digestion ; raw 
oysters are more digestible than crabs or lobsters ; but oysters, 
when stewed or otherwise cooked, are heavier than either. Fruits 
in general are refreshing and wholesome, but not very nutritious ; 



when the stomach receives them, and suffers no inconvenience, 
there can be no reasonable objection to their use. 

The Quantity op Food. — One great and indispensable principle 
in the treatment of indigestion is that of restricting the quan- 
tity of food at any time. Those who lead sedentary lives, and 
whose circumstances admit of free living, are peculiarly liable 
to dyspeptic complaints. This is owing chiefly to the quan- 
tity of food indulged in. The quantity of food should always be 
proportioned to the digestive powers of the stomach, and the wants 
of the system. When digestion is liable to be easily impaired, 
it is of great importance, not only to refrain from those sub- 
stances which are known to be indigestible, but, also, to avoid 
mixing together in the stomach different substances which are of 
different degrees of indigestibility. You will here see the reason 
why it is salutary to dine off one dish. 1st. Because we avoid the 
injurious admixture just adverted to ; and, 2d. Because we escape 
that appetite, and desire to eat a large quantity, which is pro- 
voked by new and various flavors. One great cause of over- 
eating, is the hasty manner in which we partake of our food. We 
do not pay sufficient attention to the preliminary process of masti- 
cation. The consequence is, too much food is received in a short 
time, in a state of insufficient preparation, and the stomach is 
overloaded before the sensation of hunger is completely appeased. 
Of course it is impossible to lay down any rules respecting the 
quantity of food that should be taken. This, however, you can 
take for granted, that the first intimations of a satisfied appetite 
are warnings to stop eating. Dyspeptics, especially, should remem- 
ber this, and heed it. 

The Times op Eating, or the period which should intervene be- 
tween meals. At least six hours should elapse between one meal 
and another. Even healthy stomachs require from three to four 
hours to digest an ordinary meal. Of course, dyspeptics require a 
much longer time. 

" The stomach also requires an interval of rest, after the process 
is finished, in order to enable it to enter upon the vigorous diges- 
tion of the next meal. As a general thing, breakfast about half 
an hour or an hour after rising, will be found most beneficial. 
The dyspeptic, especially, ought never to travel, or to enter upon 
any exertion with an empty stomach, and never with an over- 
loaded one." 

As a general rule, not more than six hours should elapse from 


breakfast till dinner. For children and youth that are growing 
rapidly, as well as for convalescents and persons taking active ex- 
ercise in the open air, the interval may be somewhat shortened ; 
but for sedentary persons it may be somewhat prolonged. The 
habit of eating between meals is especially injurious ; some chil- 
dren's stomachs are kept constantly at work digesting, or at least 
making an effort at all sorts of trash. This constant taxation 
must prove injurious. See what has been said, at the commence- 
ment of this chapter, under head of " General Kemarks ; " also, 
supplementary, " Diet of Children." 

The Kind and Quantity of Drinks. — Dyspeptic patients are 
very importunate to know what they may drink, as well as what they 
may eat. They may think a little bitters of some kind are neces- 
sary to aid digestion, and many are in the habit of taking malt- 
liquor, wine, or brandy, with or after every meal. Some allowance 
must be made, no doubt, for custom, but my impression is, that 
teetotal abstinence would be more conducive to health than "the 
use of any of these articles. Dr. Beaumont says that the use of 
ardent spirits, wine, beer, or any intoxicating liquors, when con- 
tinued for some days, invariably produces morbid changes in the 
stomach. Drinks which are followed by evident disturbance and 
discomfort, are manifestly injurious. It is very easy, indeed, for 
me to say that pure spring water is the best possible drink, either 
for a sick or a well person, but perhaps it would not be so easy 
for me to vindicate the assertion. Nevertheless, I do believe it to 
be true, that pure, cold water is the best drink, and the only 
one of which nature ever intended that we should make use. Per- 
sons suffering from transient attacks of indigestion should never 
drink anything but water, toast-water, or whey. Stimulating 
beverages will prove injurious to them, and greatly increase the 
liability of the disorder becoming chronic. Persons should always 
drink when thirsty, and then only. Frequent sipping, or drinking 
by mouthfuls, will quench thirst better than large draughts ; be- 
sides, large . draughts suddenly distend the stomach and lessen 
the energy of the gastric juice by its dilution, and thus retard 
digestion. The dyspeptic ought never to drink largely, either 
during, or soon after, a meal. As we strongly advocate the con- 
stant use of cold water, perhaps we should say, that, by cold water 
we do not mean ice water. Ice-cold water is injurious, from the 
fact that it so suddenly reduces the temperature of the stomach. 
Dr. Beaumont says that a gill of water at the temperature of 55°, 


when put in the stomach, reduces the heat of the organ from 99° 
to 70°. The shock which the constitution . thus receives, from 
having the temperature of the most vital and central organ so 
suddenly and remarkably depressed, paralyzes all the other vital 
movements. Dr. Dunglison states that laborers in Virginia are 
frequently killed by drinking copiously of cold water when over- 
heated. Such examples are frequent in cities. 

The Conditions deserving Notice in Connection with Eating 
and Drinking. — Dr. Caldwell remarks that dyspepsia commences 
perhaps as often in the brain as in the stomach. By this he means 
that care, anxiety, envy, and excessive mental exertion impede 
digestion ; and no doubt this is true. In considering the causes 
of dyspepsia, we had occasion to refer to this. It is important 
that there should be rest of body and tranquillity of mind, both 
before and just after eating. The Spanish practice of having a 
" siesta," or sleep, after dinner is far better than the custom of the 
Americans, who hurry from their meals to the store, shop, or study, 
in order to save time, in holy horror of losing a single moment. 
" The practice of the Spaniards may be improved by indulging for 
an hour before resuming toil in moderate exercise of the muscular 
system, conjoined with agreeable conversation and hearty laughter, 
as this facilitates digestion, and tends to ' shake the cobwebs from 
the brain.' " That is what Dr. Cutter says, — sensible man ! The 
same author sums up his observations upon digestion, as follows: — 
" Digestion is most perfect when the action of the cutaneous ves- 
sels is energetic ; the brain and vocal organs moderately stimu- 
lated by animated conversation ; the blood well purified ; the 
muscular system duly exercised ; the food of an appropriate qual- 
ity, taken in proper quantities, at regular periods, and also prop- 
erly masticated." 

The importance of the subject is my only apology for the length 
of this article. 


Definition. — As a general thing, there should be one evacua- 
tion, at least, from the bowels every day. By constipation, or 
costiveness, as it is also called, we understand a prolonged reten- 
tion of the fasces, or slow, imperfect, or difficult evacuation of 

Causes. — Constipation of infants generally arises from an 


improper mode of living, on the part of the nurse or child. It 
most frequently appears in those children who are wholly or par- 
tially fed upon an artificial diet, and in those whose nurses or 
parents are similarly disposed. 

Constipation of the adults and the older children is frequently 
caused by improprieties in diet, by stimulating and astringent 
aliments and drinks, too long indulgence in sleep, inattention to 
the first intimation of a desire to evacuate the bowels, sedentary 
habits, impaired or torpid condition of the digestive function, and 
the habitual use of aperient medicine. 

Symptoms. — Constipation is always accompanied by a train of 
symptoms more or less definite. In fact, constipation itself is, in 
the majority of instances, but a symptom of some actual derange- 
ment, — usually indigestion, — and in such cases you will find the 
tongue coated at the root, while the sides and point are red ; the 
urine high-colored ; the pulse slower than natural, usually a little 
quicker an hour after a meal. There is also slight sallowness of 
the countenance and skin, and more, or less distention and uneasi- 
ness about the lower portion of the abdomen ; also, there is fre- 
quently much flatulence, and almost always more or less headache. 

Constipation of small children is usually attended with disten- 
tion of the abdomen. The child is restless, cries a good deal, 
and breathes heavily. In some cases constipation is followed by 
jaundice, and may be followed by convulsions. 

Treatment. — If there is any point in the whole range of thera-'. 
peutics, where allopathia and homoeopathia stand in direct opposk"^*- !<■ 
tion to each other, it is just here. Allopathia, looking upon thisWi*. *V 
abnormal condition as a simple obstruction of the intestinal canal, ^t^*., 
orders a cathartic, thinking that if the bowels are once opened/ j^/^ 
the case is cured. It is true, it is admitted that it may return! fc £ 
again in a few days, but then, as drugs are plenty, take another I 
dose. Homoeopathia takes quite^a different view of the case, and [ J 
says, " Correct the system ; remove the cause of the disorder ; the ( 
bowels will take care of themselves." >*-* 

Allopathia may be compared to a scavenger, who, with physic \/ J 
for his shovel, removes the collection, while Homoeopathia goes toA 
the fountain-head, to the original source, and administers a cor j ; 
rective, or turns the stream in another direction, well knowing/ ^* < 
that if the cause is removed, the difficulty itself, as a matter of ) ;», 
course, must soon disappear. Which is the more rational mode \ */ 
of procedure, I will leave the reader to decide. j ** 

^rf^. e 


, • -/ ^ ' i . A -> ^7 


- -Now, that cathartics are not the proper medicines for constipa- 
t^-o-tx. ^ on 5 i s J us * as easily demonstrated as that two and two make 
? four. Take a person in health, and give him a dose of physic ; 
^ what is the effect ? Diarrhoea at first, it is true ; but does not 
/ constipation soon follow ? The secondary, or lasting effect of all 
t-w k. . cathartics is the very reverse of their primary or first effect. 
They first produce a few free evacuations, but the final result is 
constipation, and constipation will be your eternal companion if 
*^*^you persist in taking aperient medicines. 
*—*■%- Patients often come into our hands so thoroughly imbued with 

a sense of the necessity of an occasional downright scrubbing-out, 
. * that they look back and sigh for a good old-fashioned dose of physic. 
H&t*J*-£c3& is hard to deprive them of such a luxury, but then it is neces- 
sary for their health. Nevertheless, when we point out to them 
the absurdity of their former habit, they generally come to the 
conclusion that their late physician recommended it as but a tem- 
porary relief, well knowing that he would soon have an oppor- 
tunity to prescribe for them again, and thus double the fee. In 
fact, that he would thus keep them vibrating like a pendulum — 
upon a one dollar tick — between cathartics and astringents. 

Many a slight case of constipation, which, if left to nature, would 
have disappeared, leaving no ill consequences, has, by an ill use 
of cathartics, been converted into habitual constipation, fairly em- 
bittering existence, and predisposing the constitution to a variety 
of diseases in after life. 

The principal remedies for constipation are Nux-vomica, Bryonia, 
Platina, Lycopodium, Mercurius, Opium, Sulphur, and Plumbum. 
... Nux-vomica. — When there is frequent but ineffectual urging to 

: stool ; disagreeable taste in the mouth ; inclination to vomit ; loss 
of appetite ; distention of the abdomen ; irritability ; frequent 
complaining. Also when constipation is preceded by diarrhoea, or 
accompanied by a feeling of general depression. 

Should Nux prove inefficient, give an occasional dose of Bryonia, 
and especially if the disorder occurs in warm weather, or is ac- 
companied with disordered stomach. 

Opium is sometimes useful in alternation with Nux-vomica, 

especially should there be a total absence of all inclination to stool. 

Opium is also useful when there is an inclination to evacuate, but a 

•• . »\ feeling as if the anus were closed. Determination of blood to the 

head : redness of the face ; and headache. 

Platinum. — When, after much straining, the fceces are evacu- 


ated in small, hard lumps. If not relieved, try Magnesia-mur., 
especially if the stool consists of hard lumps, like small marbles. 
Platinum., when there is shuddering over the body after an evacua- 
tion. Should Platinum fail, give an occasional dose of Lycopo- 

Zycopodium is an excellent remedy when there is painful urging, 
severe bearing down, but inability to pass the hardened faeces. 

Sulphur. — For habitual costiveness, particularly should the 
patient be troubled with piles ; or when there is a disposition to 
haemorrhoids, either blind or bleeding ; or where there is a fre- 
quent inclination to go to stool, but without the desired result. 

Plumbum. — For obstinate constipation; tenacious, hard, diffi- 
cult stools, sometimes in hard lumps or balls. 

For constipation of pregnant women, Nuz-v., Opium, Sepia. 

For constipation of lying-in women, Bryonia, Nuz-v. 

For constipation of nursing infants, Bryonia,* Nuz-vomica, 
Opium, Sulphur. 

Administration of Remedies. — Give, of the selected remedy, a 
dose about once in four hours. The remedies may be given dry, 
or dissolved in water. When given dry, put six pills upon the 
tongue, and let them dissolve. For an infant, two or three pills 
will be a dose. When given in water, dissolve six globules in 
about as many teaspoonfuls of water, and give one spoonful for a 

Injections. — In addition to the remedies above mentioned, you 
will find that great assistance may be derived from a proper use of 
injections. Some people are disinclined to make use of them, for 
fear of establishing a habit from which it will be difficult to escape ; 
but no fear need be had upon this point, if you, at the same time, 
use the remedies above recommended. You are aware that an 
injection affords but temporary relief, at best ; but this is infinitely 
preferable to physic, because it does not affect the general system. 
It simply acts as an attendant, to prevent the further accumulation 
of faeces, while, in the meantime, the remedies taken are actively 
engaged in removing the cause of the disorder ; and, when this is 
accomplished, the injections may be discontinued. It is erroneous 
to suppose that an injection of tepid water — and nothing else 
should ever be used — can prove injurious. I have no doubt that 
injections, as some people make them, often do permanent injury, 
producing piles, weaknesses, etc. But this is never the case with 
simple water-injections. 

I have often, by their timely use, succeeded in removing alarm- 


ing symptoms, for which it never would have answered to wait the 
slower action of remedies. Injections are indispensable ; and 1 
would advise you, upon all occasions where prompt relief is desira- 
ble, to make use of them. They may be repeated as often as 
necessary, until a normal action of the bowels can be brought about 
by proper medication. But never give physic, nor incorporate any 
of it, with your injections. 

Diet and Regimen. — For a prompt and permanent cure of 
constipation, as much depends upon a proper mode of living as 
upon medical treatment ; perhaps more. When constipation is 
caused by sedentary habits, of course the remedy is a larger 
amount of exercise. Children who spend most of the day in 
school, whose out-door exercise is restricted, and who are permitted 
to lie abed late in the morning, are generally troubled with this 
disorder ; while those whose out-door sports are not so limited, — 
those who are provided with hoops, ropes, and balls, and are permit- 
ted to use them, — who spend the larger part of their time out of 
doors, are not troubled with constipation. Their systems are not 
sluggish ; . their appetites are keen ; bowels regular ; they sleep 
well at night ; are up with the lark in the morning, bright and 
happy. But then fashionable people call them rude, and imagine 
they look coarse, because their cheeks are plump and red, and 
their skin sunburnt, instead of being white, or rather, pale and 

Those persons who are habitually constipated, should be careful 
to avoid all articles of diet of a binding nature, such for instance, 
as animal food ; especially salted meats, cheese, wheaten flour in 
any shape, stimulating drinks, high-seasoned dishes, etc. And, on 
the other hand, take a liberal allowance of all kinds of fruits and 
vegetables, soups, coarse bread, and such other things as experi- 
ence has taught us to be of a laxative nature. Above all other 
things, see that children masticate their food well ; do not allow 
them to do, as most grown people do, bolt it. 

Make free use of cold water as a drink. A good drink of cold 
water, on going to bed, has been found beneficial. 

Another very important point demanding your attention, as 
parents, is to see that the children attend regularly to the calls of 
nature. The best time, probably, is in the morning. Once accus- 
tom them to attend to this at a certain hour every day, whether 
there is a desire or not, and you will be surprised to see what uni- 
formity will be soon established. 



Definition. — By the term diarrhoea is understood a too fre- 
quent evacuation from the bowels, without any perceptible symp- 
toms of an inflammatory action ; without fever ; such as physi- 
cians would call " a mere functional derangement." That is, a 
diarrhoea existing without any anatomical or structural lesion; 
and this constitutes the great difference between diarrhoea and 
dysenteria. The first is simply a failure on the part of the diges- 
tive apparatus to perform its accustomed duties, and an effort to 
rid itself of some offending substance; while the second consists 
of an actual injury to the parts affected ; as inflammation ; the 
mucous membrane becoming swollen, thickened, red, softened, and 

Causes. — Diarrhoea is a frequent ailment of children, and may 
arise from an Unhealthy diet, or from over-feeding, from taking 
cold, from sudden atmospheric changes, fright, vexation, too close 
confinement in unwholesome or ill-ventilated apartments, and 
dentition. — See causes of " Cholera Infantum," and " General 
Remarks," at the head of this chapter. 

Treatment. — Although diarrhoea affords sufficient evidence of 
a disordered action going on within the system, it is not always 
best to interfere with it ; for we should ever remember that this is 
one of nature's ways of relieving herself, by expelling some offen- 
sive or irritating substance ; and, when this is accomplished, the 
diarrhoea will pass away without requiring any assistance on our 
part. We should not be in too great haste to give medicine. 
Most people are very fond of giving something, and usually astrin- 
gents of some kind are chosen. They little think or little know 
how much risk they are running by throwing back upon the sys- 
tem that matter which may prove most injurious. 

Nature is wise in all her dealings ; and these changes are often 
salutary and conservative. Would it not, therefore, show more 
wisdom on our part to assist by judicious treatment, rather than 
to interfere with one of nature's laws. 

In the proper treatment of this disease, as much depends upon 
a judicious regulation of diet as upon the administration of reme- 
dies. — See " General Remarks," at the beginning of this chapter ; 
also " Cholera Infantum." 

In commencing the treatment of a case of simple diarrhoea, first 
forbid the use of all food that is not perfectly easy of digestion ; 



also acids, coffee, everything highly seasoned, vegetables, fruits 
fresh or dried, as well as fresh meats, and meat-soups of every 

The patient may be allowed toast, rice, boiled milk, oatmeal, 
hominy, arrow-root, sago, etc. When the patient begins to improve, 
and the appetite begins to return, a little mutton-broth, thickened 
with rice or wheaten flour, may be allowed. 

The remedies are Cliamomilla, Ipecacuanha, Dulcamara, Chin- 
chona, Mercurius, Pulsatilla, Nux-vomica, Rheum, Podophyllum. 

Dulcamara. — For diarrhoea which is caused by taking cold, 
evacuations watery, worse at night, attended with no great pain. 
If this fails to afford relief, give Bryonia. 

Ipecacuanha. — For thin mucus ; frothy, fermented evacuations, 
or small, yellow stools, with pain in the rectum ; very offensive 
evacuations, with great weakness ; dysenteric stools, with white 
flocks, and subsequent pains, as though more would pass ; great 
prostration, inclination to lie down, paleness of "the face. Where 
Ipecacuanha gives but partial relief, follow it with Rheum. Ipe- 
cacuanha may be given to nursing infants, when diarrhoea arises 
from overloading the stomach, accompanied with nausea and vom- 
iting, frequent crying, stool yellowish, or green and streaked with 
blood, and very offensive. 

Chamomilla. — Especially for infants ; evacuations slimy, green 
or yellowish, or of undigested matter, looking like chopped straw, 
and smelling like rotten eggs ; distention of the belly ; tongue 
coated ; thirst ; want of appetite ; rumbling in the bowels. The 
child draws up its legs, frets and worries, wants to be held or car- 
ried all the time. 

Chinchona. — For profuse, watery, and brownish diarrhoea, inter- 
mingled with portions of undigested food. For painless diarrhoea, 
with a great deal of wind ; undigested milk in the stools. 

Podophyllum. — Diarrhoea* with cramp-like pain in the abdomen ; 
stools light-colored and exceedingly offensive ; frothy mucus, and 
slimy stools. The child moans, and rolls its head from side to 
side while asleep. Sleeps with its eyes half open. 

Magnesia-c. — Diarrhoea with stools like scum of a frog-pond, — 
green and frothy. 

Rheum. — For sour-smelling evacuations ; thin, slimy, fermented 
diarrhoea, common to small children ; sour smell proceeding from 
the child, which washing will not remove ; diarrhoea from acidity 
of the stomach ; distention of the abdomen ; colic ; crying, both 


before and after an evacuation : ineffectual urging before and after 
stool. If Rheum does not relieve, give Cliamomilla. 

Mercurius. — This remedy suits for almost any diarrhoea, espe- 
cially when accompanied with griping in the bowels before, and 
burning in the anus after, a passage ; diarrhoea with ineffectual 
urging ; cold perspiration and trembling ; evacuations bilious, 
slimy, or frothy, or mixed with blood ; violent colic ; fetid breath ; 
loss of appetite. When Mercurius does not relieve, give Nicx- 

Pulsatilla. — Diarrhoea from indigestion, with pap-like, or 
watery and offensive evacuations ; green, bilious, slimy stool, or 
when each stool is of a different color from the preceding one ; 
nausea, disagreeable eructations, or vomiting. When the slimy 
evacuations are mixed with blood, and attended with great strain- 
ing, give an occasional dose of Mercurius. 

Nux-vomica. — When there are frequent but scanty evacuations, 
accompanied with much straining and pressing-down pain in the 

When teething children are attacked with diarrhoea, do not be 
in too great haste to check it ; rather wait a day or two, and if no 
other symptoms set in, it may not be necessary to give anything ; 
or whenever loose evacuations afford relief from any disorder, 
from which the patient is suffering, wait a while before you give 
any medicines ; and only where, by its long continuance, or its 
severity, it becomes necessary to check it, make a selection from 
the above list of remedies. 

Administration op Kemedies. — Of the remedy best indicated, 
dissolve six globules in twelve teaspoonfuls of water; and of the 
solution give one teaspoonful for a dose, every half-hour, hour, or 
two, or three hours, according to the severity of the pain, and fre- 
quency of the evacuations. Should the liquid produce nausea, 
give the pills — three or four at*a dose — dry, upon the tongue. 


Definition. — Dysenteria — sometimes called bloody flux — is 
characterized by frequent evacuations of scanty, bloody, and mu- 
cous stools, containing little or no faecal matter. It is essentially an 
inflammation of the mucous lining of the large intestines, accom- 
panied with an alteration or retention of the natural excretions, 
and general constitutional disturbance. The mucous membrane 


is found swollen, thickened, red, and softened, and in severe cases, 

Dysenteria is not, as many seem to suppose, an aggravated form 
of diarrhoea. It is quite different from that disorder ; in fact, it 
is just the reverse ; it is constipation, with a constant desire for an 
evacuation. This constant desire and straining is not caused by 
the presence of fseces, as in health, but by the inflammation. The 
swollen and congested parts are tender and painful. 

Causes. — Dysenteria most frequently makes its appearance in 
the autumn, when the days are hot and the evenings cool. It is 
frequently epidemic. It may be excited by cold, exposure to wet ; 
unripe or sour fruit, stale vegetables or meat ; drinking cold water 
when in a heated state, or when perspiring freely. It also fre- 
quently manifests itself without any obvious cause. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of dysenteria are too well known to 
need any lengthy description. In mild cases, there is little or no 
fever ; while in severe attacks, there is high fever during the first 
few days, marked by frequent pulse ; hot, dry skin ; excessive 
ing thirst, etc. 

It often, but not always, begins with diarrhoea ; the evacuations 
at first containing some faecal matter, soon become thin, scanty, 
and streaked with blood. Blood sometimes passes in considerable 
quantities, either black, or of a dark-reddish color, resembling the 
washings of meat. 

There is constant straining and desire to stool, with pain and 
burning in the lower bowels. There is also severe pain just before 
and after each evacuation ; a painful constriction of the anus, 
termed tenesmus. Small children manifest this suffering by rest- 
lessness, drawing up of the lip, etc., about the time of an evacua- 
tion. There is always more or less fever, nausea, sometimes vomit- 
ing and headache. 

The number of stools varies, according to the severity of the case, 
from three to thirty or even forty in twenty-four hours. When 
fseces reappear in the stools, or the stools increase in consistency, 
though they may be streaked with blood, it is an indication that 
the inflammation is subsiding, and the case decidedly advancing 
toward convalescence. 

Treatment. — The treatment of dysenteria under homceopathic 
administration is very satisfactory indeed. It is often asserted by 
our opponents, that we never meet with the severer cases. This, 
I am inclined to think, is quite true, but attribute the fact to dif- 


ferent causes from what they do. Dysenteria, occurring under 
severe epidemic visitations, makes sad havoc, when assisted by 
cathartics, alteratives, astringents, or other forms of regular treat- 
ment. In view of the happy termination to which this disease is 
so speedily brought, under what allopathic physicians choose to 
call the " do-nothing " treatment, one would think a shadow of 
doubt as to the utility of excessive medication would occasionally 
steal over them, and they would be tempted, if not induced, to 
put their patients under proper dietetic regimen and bread-pill 
treatment. Then, perhaps, they too would meet with a few of 
those mild cases which providentially fall to our lot to treat. And 
then, could they be induced to put these few under homoeopathic 
remedies, they might have the happy satisfaction of seeing their 
patients promptly recover, without relapse or provoking sequel oe. 

The principal remedies for dysenteria are, Aconitum, Arsenicum, 
Belladonna, CJiamomilla, Colocynth, Bryonia, Mercurius, Nux- 
vomica, Colchicum, Sulphur, Veratrum. 

Aconitum. — For the following symptoms : pain in the bowels ; 
bilious, or thin, watery evacuations mixed with mucus, and some- 
times streaked with blood, with rheumatic pains in the neck, 
shoulders, and limbs ; the patient of a full habit ; pulse strong 
and fast ; face hot and red ; great thirst ; loss of appetite ; urine 
hot and red. Inflammatory dysenteria, with high fever, and in- 
tense remittent colic. 

Arsenicum. — In severe cases, where the stools pass involun- 
tarily, and have a putrid smell ; red or bluish spots appear on the 
skin ; the patient is very weak ; the pain in the bowels is burning ; 
also, when the patient is restless and uneasy. If Arsenicum fails 
to have the desired effect, give Carbo-v. 

Belladonna. — When Aconite, which seemed indicated, fails to 
afford relief ; when there is dryness in the throat and mouth ; 
tongue coated and red at the tip ; tenderness of the abdomen ; 
constant bearing-down pain ; frequent small evacuations of blood. 

Chamomilla — is sometimes of service after Aconitum, when there 
is still fever, with thirst, headache, nausea, foul tongue, and 
accompanied with great agitation and tossing about. Chamomilla 
is especially called for, when the disease has been brought on by 
a sudden check of perspiration. 

Colocynth. — When there is severe pain in the bowels, the dis- 
charges mixed with green matter, or else slimy, sometimes mixed 
with blood. — See " Colic." 


Podophyllum. — Diarrhoea, with cramp-like pains in the abdo- 
men ; light-colored stools, exceedingly offensive ; frothy mucus 
and slimy stools ; the child moans and rolls its head from side to 
side while asleep ; sleeps with its eyelids half open. 

Mercurius. — This is by far the most important remedy for dys- 
enteria that we have, and is useful in all cases. Its special indica- 
tions are, severe tenesmus or painful constriction of the anus ; 
urgent desire to evacuate, as if the intestines would force them- 
selves out ; after much straining, there is a discharge of light blood, 
sometimes streaked with mucus or greenish matter ; at other times 
the evacuations resemble scrambled eggs as much as anything; 
violent straining, both before and after an evacuation ; frequent 
small mucous- stools ; violent colic 5 nausea ; shivering and shud- 
dering ; great exhaustion and trembling ; thirst for cold drinks ; 
aggravation of pains at night. 

When there are severe colicky, griping pains, which cause the 
patient to bend double, Oolocynth may be given in alternation with 
Mercurius. Mercurius is useful in dysenteria of children, where 
there is much crying and screaming. 

Nux-vomica. — Frequent small stool, consisting of bloody mu- 
cus ; violent cutting pain about the navel ; intense heat ; great 
thirst. The pains calling for Mercurius are increased by an evac- 
uation, while those of Nux are relieved by a movement. The 
symptoms of Mercurius are worse during the afternoon and even- 
ing, while those of Nux are worse after midnight and in the morn- 

Colcliicum. — Dysenteric stools, consisting of white transparent, 
jelly-like mucus. 

Sulphur may be given in obstinate cases, and when the other 
remedies do not afford permanent relief. An occasional dose will 
be sufficient. 

Administration op Remedies. — The remedies may be either 
given dry or in solution. When given in solution, which is the 
better way, dissolve ten pills of the selected remedy in twelve tea- 
spoonfuls of water, and give one teaspoonful every hour, or every 
half hour, if necessary, until eight or ton doses have been given, 
when the medicine may be withheld for a couple of hours to await 
its effect. If then necessary, repeat the same, or select another 
remedy. As soon as amelioration takes place, lengthen the inter- 
val between the doses. 

Diet and Regimen. — Dysenteria often arises from taking cold, 


and is most frequent when the days are hot and the evenings cool. 
Care should be taken that children are not exposed to the evening 
air too thinly clad. Children should never be allowed to sit upon 
the bare, cold stone steps of the stoops, as they are very liable to 
take cold there. 

A patient, suffering from dysenteria, ought to lie in or upon 
the bed constantly ; this is very important. Small children should 
not be put upon the floor, nor older ones allowed to run around, 
even during convalescence. 

For food you can make use of water-toast, arrow-root, sago, 
gruels, and the like. "When recovering, a little mutton-broth may 
be allowed. The patient should eat often and but little at a time. 
For a drink use cold water, or, if preferred, toast-water or barley- 
water. All kinds of animal food and wines should be avoided, 
even during convalescence. 

Dr. Hering, of Philadelphia, when speaking of epidemic dysen- 
teria, remarks : " If you have one patient in your house, there 
will soon be more from the use of the same privy. The surest, 
easiest, and cheapest way of disinfecting, is a solution of copperas, — 
sulphate of iron, — one part of copperas to twenty parts of water ; 
some of this solution should be mixed with all the discharges of 
the patient, and a quart or two of it poured every few days into 
the privy." 


Definition. — By prolapsus ani is understood a protrusion or 
falling down of the lower part or extremity of the bowels. This 
complaint, when first witnessed by a young mother, causes great 
and unnecessary alarm, — unnecessary alarm, because there is 
really nothing dangerous about it. 

In health, every time there is an evacuation from the bowels, a 
small portion of the mucous or- lining membrane protrudes and 
goes back as the parts contract. Now, properly speaking, prolap- 
sus ani is a protrusion of this mucous lining beyond what is nat- 
ural. It is very common in infancy, and, indeed, it is not uncom- 
mon at any period of life. 

Causes. — No doubt the most frequent cause of this accident is 
a natural laxity of structure. It also arises from habitual costive- 
ness, straining at stool, diarrhoea, hoemorrhoids, drastic purgatives, 
worms, and other causes. 

Treatment. — The first thing to be done is to replace the pro- 


traded membrane. This should be accomplished as speedily as 
possible. Sometimes it will return itself, if the child is laid upon 
its back, with a pillow under the hips, so as to raise them up a lit- 
tle. If it does not return of its own accord, then, after protect- 
ing the protruded parts by laying over them a piece of soft, smooth 
cloth, wet with warm water, or sweet oil, embrace it with the ends 
of the fingers, and gently and steadily press it upward, not using 
a great deal of force until it slips in, which it will do in a minute 
or two if the operation is rightly performed. If it has become red, 
swollen, and inflamed, do not be in a hurry to reduce it, but place 
upon it rags wet in a weak solution of Arnica water, and give a 
dose — three pills — of Nux-vomica every half-hour. As soon as 
the inflammation subsides, the bowel may be returned. "When 
once returned, great care should be taken to prevent a repetition 
of the trouble, and happily we have remedies which will diminish 
the tendency to this troublesome disorder. 

Ignatia is one of our principal remedies. It may be given once 
every twenty-four hours for six or eight days ; then discontinue 
for a few days, and, if not better, give a dose of Sulphur every 
other evening for one week. 

Nux-vomica. — When there is a great deal of pain and straining, 
especially in young children, and those subject to constipation. 
Give same as Ignatia. 

Sulphur. — This is an excellent remedy for both recent and 
chronic cases. A dose of three globules may be given every twelve 
hours. Sulphur may be given in alternation with Nux-vomica. 
Give Sulphur in the morning, and Nux-vomica, at night for one 
week, then discontinue for one week ; if not better follow with 

Calcarea. — A dose of three globules, every twelve hours. Oal- 
carea is an excellent remedy for obstinate chronic cases where 
other remedies have failed. 

Mercurius. — When the protruded intestine is much swollen, or 
is bluish, or bleeds and pains much when at stool. Follow Mercu- 
rius with Ignatia. Dose, same as of Ignatia. 

This treatment will be greatly assisted if care is taken to keep 
the bowels in a regular condition. The child should be accus- 
tomed to use the chamber at regular intervals. The ordinary 
chamber is faulty in its construction, and unfit for children suffer- 
ing from this disorder ; the hole is too large and of an improper 
shape. Instead of being round, it should be oval and about half 
the ordinary size. The child should be watched to prevent its 


over-straining while sitting .upon its chair, or remaining upon it 
too long, particularly if the bowels are any way constipated. 

Cold hip baths, or sponging with cold water, and sometimes cold 
water injections, are of great service. The temperature of the water 
should be graduated according to the age and vigor of the child. 

Diet. — The diet should be the same as that observed in de- 
rangements of the digestive organs in general. If possible the 
diet should be so governed as to prevent either constipation or 
diarrhoea. The child may be allowed as much cold water as it 
wants to drink. 


Definition. — Varieties. — Frequency. — By the term rupture, 
or hernia as physicians call it, we are to understand a swelling 
formed by the protrusion or escape of a portion of intestine from 
the cavity of the abdomen. The places, at which these swellings 
most frequently make their appearance are the navel and the 
region of the groin. 

The point of egress selected by the hernia gives it a particular 
name to express its position ; as, umbilical, when it appears at 
the umbilicus or navel ; inguinal, when it appears in the groin. 

There are several varieties of hernia, but three only are especially 
met with in children, namely : umbilical, inguinal, and oblique in- 
guinal. The latter variety is where the intestines have intruded 
into the scrotum. 

Hernia is termed reducible, when it can at any time be returned 
into the abdomen, and irreducible, when, without inflammation or. 
obstruction to the passages of faeces, it cannot be returned to the 
cavity of the abdomen, either owing to adhesions or entangle- 
ment of the intestines. Strangulated, when the protrusion is not 
only incapable of being reduced, from constriction of the aperture 
through which they passed, but the circulation is arrested ; the 
passages of faeces towards the anus cut off; inflammation sets in; 
the tumor becomes hard, and tender to the touch ; pain, nausea, 
and vomiting occurs, accompanied by other alarming symptoms. 

The first two varieties of hernia are not of uncommon occur- 
rence in children of all ages. 

Causes. — Children whose muscular development is not com- 
pact, but, on the contrary, relaxed and flabby, leaving the natural 
outlets of the abdomen unusually large, or capable of easy en- 
largement, are more prone to accidents of this nature than those 



who are robust and strong, having their muscular fibres closely and 
firmly knit together. The weakest parts are those at which the 
accident most frequently occurs. And in children where there is 
general or local muscular debility, either from imperfect develop- 
ment or recent indisposition, the most trivial circumstance, as cry- 
ing, coughing, or straining, may produce hernia ; but in other 
cases, where no such predisposition exists, the protrusion only takes 
place under great bodily exertion, or in consequence of external 

Symptoms. — Umbilical hernia need not be mistaken for any 
other tumor. Those appearing at the groin, however, are some- 
times so closely simulated by other diseases, that mistakes may 
readily be made by any but a physician. The general symptoms 
of hernia are an indolent tumor upon some part of the abdomen, 
usually, in children, at the navel or groin. The tumor appears 
suddenly, is developed above, and descends. It is subject to 
changes in size, being smaller when the patient lies upon his back, 
and larger when he stands upright. The tumor diminishes when 
pressed upon, and grows larger when the pressure is removed. It 
is larger when he is coughing, sneezing, or drawing a long breath. 
Vomiting, constipation, and colic are often present in consequence 
of the unnatural situation of the bowels. 

Treatment. — In every case of hernia, no matter how slight or 
trivial it may appear to your inexperienced eyes, send immediately 
for your family physician, and ascertain from him its precise nature 
and probable termination. It is of the utmost importance that a 
cure should be effected during childhood ; otherwise the individual 
will, in after years, suffer great inconvenience, be unfitted for any 
kind of manual labor, and may any day be in danger of losing his 

Rupture at the navel is by far the most frequent form in which 
hernia appears in young children. It is generally first observed 
about two months after birth. You will readily recognize it by the 
unnatural protrusion of the navel. The navel, instead of closing, 
as it should have done, remains open, allowing a portion of intes- 
tine, covered by the skin and integuments, to escape from the 
cavity of the abdomen. 

The hernia, or swelling, thus formed varies in size from a hazel- 
nut to a walnut, always, however, increasing in size when the 
child strains, either by coughing or otherwise. It is not often pain- 
ful, unless it becomes very large. 


The first point to be obtained, in the treatment of these cases, is 
to keep the intestines permanently within the cavity of the abdo- 
men, so as to give nature an opportunity of closing the opening. 
This can best be accomplished by covering a piece of cork or paste- 
board with soft muslin, and then binding it over the opening with 
a broad bandage. You had better, for the first time at least, let 
your physician prepare your compress, and show you how to apply 
it. Physicians use different appliances, — some one thing and 
some another. The object to be attained by all, however, is as 
above stated ; and whatever is best adapted to the particular case 
is always the best, no matter of what it consists. 

You should take particular pains to inquire how, and precisely 
where, the compress is to be applied, and be careful to keep it 
always in place. Whenever it is removed, either for the purpose 
of bathing the child or to apply a fresh bandage, the nurse should 
invariably place her finger over the navel, to guard against the 
bowels coming through the opening. This will require constant 
care and watching ; but perseverance will generally prove success- 
ful. The cure will be much facilitated by frequent bathing in cold 
water. The only remedies that it will be necessary to give, are an 
occasional dose of Nux-vomica or Sulphuric acid. I prefer the 
Sulphuric acid, and generally give a dose of three globules every 
evening for about a week. 

Rupture at the groin is much more troublesome to treat than that 
at the umbilicus, as it is impossible to keep a truss, or any other 
mechanical means properly applied to the parts, especially with 
children under a year or eighteen months old. At least, such has 
been my experience. You may try a truss, if you feel disposed ; but, 
be as vigilant as you may, the instrument will become displaced 
in spite of you ; the straps constantly getting soiled, irritating the 
child, making it cross and fretful, until you will be compelled to 
abandon all hope of help from mechanical appliances, at least until 
a later period. " Moreover, the very fretfulness caused by wearing 
the instrument at this time and under these circumstances tends to 
increase the size of the rupture. You must be content to bathe the 
parts with cold water night and morning, and keep the child as tran- 
quil as possible to avoid crying." Nux-vomica and Sulphur are 
highly recommended, not only for simple rupture, but also for the 
peculiar disposition or habit which leads to the formation of hernia. 

The Sulphur may be given every morning for four successive 
days, to be followed every evening by Nux-vomica for the same 


length of time. Then wait eight days, and, if there is no manifest 
improvement, repeat the remedies. 

If there should be diarrhoea, give a dose — three pills — of 
Chamomilla, every three hours. 

When hernia results from a fall, or an injury of any kind, Ar- 
nica or Rhus will be the appropriate remedies, and may be given 
from two to four hours apart. 

You will generally succeed, by this treatment alone, in effecting 
a cure long before the time arrives when a truss can be usefully 
resorted to. 

Wherever and whenever a truss is used, care should be taken, 
that the bowel is properly returned to the cavity of the abdomen. 
If the patient perceives, after the truss has been adjusted, that 
something still protrudes, it is a sure sign that the truss is either 
good for nothing, or has been improperly applied. 

It is of great importance to know how hernia should be re- 
duced. In order to accomplish it properly, the patient should lie 
uponjiis back, with a pillow under his hips, so that the ruptured 
part will be higher than the rest of the abdomen ; he should then 
incline a little to the ruptured side, so that the muscles of the 
abdomen may relax as much as possible. And then the reduction 
may be accomplished by gentle pressure upon the tumor with one 
hand, while, with the fingers of the other hand, the tumor is 
grasped, so as to direct it backward through the aperture from 
whence it protruded. The effort should be continued gently and 
patiently a sufficient length of time gradually to effect the reduc- 

Alarming symptoms sometimes accompany hernial protrusions. 
Should there be violent burning in the abdomen, as from a hot 
coal, with tenderness of the tumor, the least touch giving pain ; 
sickness at the stomach, with bitter bilious vomiting ; nervousness 
and cold perspiration ; give Aconitwn, a dose every half-hour. In 
case Aconitum only alleviates the symptom for a short time, with- 
out any permanent good, try Veratrum, in the same manner, for 
two hours. If your efforts should fail to reduce the hernia, give 

Now, I have given you the above synoptical directions, in regard 
to the reduction of hernia, not for the purpose of fitting you 
to take charge of such cases, but simply that you may under- 
stand the nature of the disease, and its appropriate treatment. 
Should you be so circumstanced, as to meet with a case where no 


physician can be had, you might in such extremity offer some as- 
sistance to the sufferer. Cases will occur, when necessarily three 
or four hours must elapse before a physician can be had ; in such 
emergency you can, with perfect propriety, make use of the means 
which I have pointed out. 

I do not deem it safe for any but a competent physician, or sur- 
geon, to take charge of a case of hernia ; therefore I would not 
have you assume the responsibility, unless it were in a case of ex- 
treme necessity. 


Definition. — By physicians this disease is called Icterus, which 
is the Greek name for a bird with golden plumage, — the golden 
thrush, — the sight of which by a jaundiced person was death to 
the bird and recovery to the patient ; at least so Pliny tells us. — 

Jaundice is not specially a disease of childhood ; nevertheless, 
it appears sufficiently frequent in children to claim a passing no- 
tice in such a work as this. 

It is characterized by yellowness of the eyes and skin ; whitish 
stool ; urine having the color of saffron, and communicating a 
yellow tinge to white linen; deranged digestion, and sometimes 
pain in the region of the liver. 

Causes. — Duration. — Jaundice depends upon various and 
very different internal causes. It may arise from inflammation of 
the liver, from obstruction of the gall-duct, from diseases of the 
bowels, and from fevers. And frequently we cannot ascertain, at 
all, even in the simplest cases, what the precise cause may be. It 
is not unfrequent among the studious and indolent — those leading 
sedentary lives, or lives of inactivity, — and is common to all ages 
and sexes. 

The most frequently recognized, exciting causes are, severe men- 
tal emotions ; as rage, fright, grief, anger, despondency, and irri- 
tability of temper. Also particular kinds of food, the excessive 
use of strong coffee, acids, unripe fruit, and indeed any error in 
diet, which has a tendency to disarrange the digestive apparatus. 
It is not unfrequently caused by the inordinate use of quinine, 
rhubarb, or calomel. 

Its duration depends in a great measure upon the exciting cause, 
the constitution of the patient, and the treatment which he is 
under. It may last a few days, or it may last a week, and, in- , 


deed, if improperly treated, it may last for years. When it depends 
upon some mental or moral cause it is of much shorter dura- 
tion than when it depends upon some organic disease. 

Symptoms. — This disease generally makes its appearance pre- 
ceded by, or accompanied with, great languor, depression of spirits, 
slight chills, or rigors, and flushes of fever, loss of appetite, giddi- 
ness, constipation, flatulence, sour eructations, and sometimes there 
is nausea and vomiting ; there is also a sense of weight and unea- 
siness about the chest and abdomen, with some pain in the region 
of the liver. There is frequently a disagreeable itching or tingling 
sensation in the skin before the discoloration appears. The yellow 
tinge begins in the eyes and extends to the temples, brow, and 
face, then to the neck, chest, and whole surface of the body. In 
some spots the color is deeper than in others, especially so in the 
folds and wrinkles of the skin. The color varies from a light 
yellow to a deep lemon or a greenish-brown. 

Constipation is generally present ; the evacuations are scanty, 
and of a pale-clay color, indicating an absence of bile. The 
urine is commonly high-colored, at first yellow, afterward of a 
deep-saffron color. Bilious sweat sometimes occurs, staining the 
patient's linen yellow. 

The characteristic yellow hue of the skin is owing, no doubt, to 
the presence of bile, or its coloring matter in the blood, and the 
deep tint of the urine is derived from the same source. 

There is, for the most part, but little fever attending the milder 
forms of this disease, but in bad cases there frequently is a high 
degree of fever accompanied with a stupid sleep from which it is 
difficult to arouse the patient. This latter symptom is caused, we 
presume, by the retained bile which acts upon the nervous system 
like a narcotic poison. When the disease assumes this aspect 
which fortunately is not common, it is regarded as dangerous, and 
death may follow in a short time. 

Jaundice, as we ordinary meet with it, is not a dangerous 
disease, and you will seldom find any difficulty in successfully 
combating it with the following 

Treatment. — Mercurius will be found the best remedy in most 
cases, provided the patient has not already abused this drug. A 
dose of six pills may be given once in four hours. If not better 
in the course of three or four days, give Hepar-sulphur or Sul- 
phur, in the same manner. Or Chinchona and Mercurius may be 
given, in alternation, once in four hours. Mercurius is specially 


indicated when the disease appears to have arisen from a derange- 
ment of the digestive system. 

When jaundice arises from a fit of passion, Nux-vomica is about 
the best remedy ; it may be given in alternation with Chamomilla. 

Nux-vomica is specially indicated in those cases which are occa- 
sioned by indolence, or sedentary habits ; also, when jaundice is 
accompanied by constipation, or by constipation alternating with 

Sulphur or Lachesis will be most suitable to eradicate the dispo- 
sition to the disease. They may be given alone, or in alternation, 
one dose of six pills every other night. 

Where bilious symptoms appear, with yellowness of the skin, in 
persons who have taken much calomel, give Chinchona or Hepar- 
sidphur. One dose every night and morning. 

Diet and Regimen. — The diet should be light and free from 
stimulants of every kind, either in the form of condiments or 
drinks. Avoid all indigestible substances or coarse food ; live 
rather upon soups, broth, gruels, plain puddings, and the like. 

Baths of lukewarm water are often of great service. 

The constipation, which is sometimes very troublesome, may be 
relieved by cold-water injections, assisted by friction of the abdo- 
men and sides. 

The patient should be kept warm and of an even temperature ; 
perspiration should be encouraged as much as possible. In chronic 
cases the patient should take active out-door exercise. 


Definition. — Frequency. — Cause. — It often happens in in- 
fants of two or three days old, that the skin assumes a yellowish 
hue, presenting, as far as appearance goes, a perfect picture of 
jaundice. Appearances, however, are sometimes deceptive ; they 
are especially so in cases like this. This peculiar tinge of the 
skin, which appears a few days after birth, we have good reason to 
believe is not jaundice, and has no relation whatever to the bil- 
iary organs. In fact, it has no resemblance to the icterus of 
adults or of older children, except the color of the skin ; it 
causes little or no constitutional disturbance, — the child, in fact, 
to all appearance, remaining perfectly well. 

It is accounted for differently by different authors. Dr. Watson, 
in speaking of this disorder, says : " The surface of an infant at 


its birtli is frequently of a deep red, from congestion of blood, 
presenting a condition which falls little short of a mild but uni- 
versal bruise. By degrees the redness fades, as bruises fade, 
through shades of yellow into the genuine flesh color." Others ^ 
finding fault with this explanation, attribute the discoloration to 
defective respiration, and the impaired or imperfect performance 
of the function of the skin, which is no explanation at all. 

However, it matters but little as I know of, what causes this 
peculiar hue of the infant's skin ; it is seldom of any consequence 
producing no disturbance or sickness in the child, and hardly ever 
continuing over two or three days. 

Of course, true jaundice may, as well as most other diseases, 
befall children of all ages, — even the infant born only yesterday, 
— but it is rare indeed. 

The treatment of this simple form of jaundice may be embraced 
in a few words : Chamomilla may be given at first, one dose of 
one or two pills, every four hours, especially should the child be 
nervous, or irritable, or if the bowels are loose. Should this fail 
to remove the disorder, give China in the same manner. 

If the child is wakeful and extremely cross, and, especially, if, 
in addition, there is constipation, give Nux-vomica. 

Now let me tell you what not to give, — saffron tea. It has no 
resemblance whatever to the disease except its color. It never 
did, and it never can do any good ; therefore, do not use it. 

A species of true jaundice, does attack nursing children, from 
the affect of grief, anxiety, or a fit of passion on the part of the 
mother or nurse. The treatment in such cases will be obvious to 


Description, Varieties, Seat, Frequency. — In commencing 
this article I would state, that I am an unbeliever in the orthodox 
faith of worm affections. Not that I doubt the existence of worms 
in children, nor that they aggravate existing diseases. But I do 
most assuredly doubt that worms were ever yet the sole and orig- 
inating cause of any disease either in the child or the adult. That 
worms do exist in the alimentary canal of all children is a fact 
beyond dispute ; but all modern writers agree that their signifi- 
cance has been greatly overrated. Popular opinion, I am aware, 
attaches great importance to them, and can see proofs of their 
presence and depredations in almost every case of gastric or intes- 


tinal disease. But it is next to impossible to find an educated 
physician who will point out to you a disease and affirm that it 
was caused by worms. On the contrary, there is no lack of intel- 
ligent physicians and physiologists, who not only believe that 
worms do inhabit children, but that they fulfil some wise and 
necessary purpose which we know not of. Dr. Rush, an eminent 
physician, when writing upon this subject, says : " When we con- 
sider how universally worms are found in all young animals, and 
how frequently they exist in the human body, without producing 
disease of any kind, it is natural to conclude that they serve some 
useful and necessary purpose in the animal economy." 

The origin of these entozoa is a question the answer to which 
physiologists have never satisfactorily demonstrated. Some assert 
that their eggs or germs are introduced from the exterior world, 
while others, not exactly understanding how this can be, particu- 
larly when they are found enclosed in shut cavities, fall back upon 
the theory of spontaneous generation. But undoubtedly they 
exist, from the child's birth, in numbers sufficient to fulfil the end 
for which they were designed, and it is only when disease or a 
hereditary habit of body favorable to their development exists, 
that worms show themselves in any quantities, or by their pres- 
ence produce any disturbance. 

Worms, as such, are not injurious. They exist in many chil- 
dren without their presence even being suspected. If worms 
were the cause of disease, their mere expulsion would be sufficient 
to remove the symptoms attributed to their presence. But no 
such beneficial results follow the administration of vermifuges, al- 
though numbers of worms are killed and expelled by their use. 
On the contrary, if anything, they aggravate the case by driving 
the worms from the faeces, which they naturally inhabit, to the 
mucous surface of the intestines, besides exciting a secretion upon 
which they multiply and flourish. 

The proper method of removing what are termed worm-symp- 
toms is to remove that disordered condition of the system which 
is favorable to the development and support of the worms. The 
mere expulsion of the worms is a matter of no consequence ; keep 
the children's digestive apparatus in a healthy condition, and you 
may rest assured that worms will never trouble them. 

In treating these cases, always bear this in mind, that it is not 
the worms merely that you wish to remove, but that habit of body 
which favors their accumulation in such quantities as we some- 



times find them. You cannot get rid of them entirely ; perhaps 
it is as well you cannot ; but as soon as the system recovers from 
its diseased condition you will find no more of them ; they will 
return to their unobtrusive quiet again, or, at least, the " worm- 
symptoms," which were the manifest difficulty, will have subsided, 
although perhaps it will be impossible to find a vestige of worms 
in the passages. 

There are five different species of worms which infest the ali- 
mentary canal, but two of these are peculiar to children. 

The first and most troublesome is the common seat-worm, — 
Ascaris-vermieularis, — thread-worm, pin-worm, or maw-worm, as 
it is variously called. This is the smallest of the intestinal worms, 
measuring only from two to five-twelfths of an inch in length, and 
looks about like a small piece of white cotton thread. Their 
number is extremely variable ; there may be three or four, ten or 
twenty, or they may exist in innumerable hosts, rolled and knotted 
into balls, making formidable obstructions in the intestinal canal. 
They are usually found in the large intestines and rectum. They 
frequently crawl into the urethra and vagina, causing a trouble- 
some itching, and a mucous discharge, and not unfrequently reveal- 
ing the seat of sensations which may lead to evil consequences. 

The next species of worms most frequently found in children is 
the long, round worm, — Ascaris lumbricoides, — which very much 
resembles the common earth-worm. It is of a yellowish, dirty- 
white color, and varies from six to twelve inches in length. The 
small intestines is the favorite locality of this species of worm, 
but they traverse all parts of the alimentary canal. They are 
found in the large intestines, from which they are frequently ex- 
pelled by stool. They are sometimes found in the stomach, and 
not unfrequently find their way into the throat. It is not at all 
uncommon for children to eject them by vomiting. 

Causes. — It is generally believed that a disposition toward 
worms, which exists principally in children, is favored by the use 
of coarse farinaceous, or an exclusively vegetable diet. The use 
of much sugar, fat, cheese, butter, fruit, or any other diet, or cir- 
cumstance which enfeebles or disarranges the digestive system, 
strongly predisposes to their production. Children of a lymphatic 
or scrofulous constitution are more disposed to them than others ; 
and those living in damp, dark, and unclean dwellings, or in 
marshy regions, are more prone to worm-affections than those 
otherwise situated. 


Symptoms. — There is no single symptom, or group of symp- 
toms, that I know of, by which we can to a certainty, diagnose 
the presence of worms in children. The expulsion of a number, 
or their appearance in the stool, is proof that they did exist, but 
no evidence that more remain ; for, as far as my experience goes, 
I have seldom known more than eight or ten to be expelled at a 
time, or rather within a week's time ; though the child may have 
been all the while under the active effect of vermifuges sufficient 
to kill any living thing within the system, in fact, coming near 
killing the patient itself. 

Do not jump to a conclusion, and imagine, because your child 
passed five or six worms, that there necessarily must be more, and 
that they are the cause of your child's indisposition ; for various 
disorders of the digestive tube may and do exist, simultaneously 
with, and yet independent of, the presence of worms. I do not, 
therefore, think it fair always to conclude that the symptoms un- 
der which the child labors are still the result of worms, because 
there may be no more in the bowels. 

The following extract of symptoms is taken from Teste's " Dis- 
eases of Children," page 283 : — 

" Sudden and frequent changes in the color of the face, which 
is sometimes red, sometimes pale, sometimes lead-colored ; bluish 
semi-circles circumscribing the lower eyelid ; increase or diminu- 
tion of the brilliancy of the eyes ; uncertainty or momentary fix- 
edness of the look ; dilatation of the pupils ; itching of the nostrils ; 
bleeding of the nose ; headache after meals ; flow of saliva in the 
mouth, especially during the night ; tongue a little dry, with red 
dots upon the point and edges ; insipid, acid, or fetid odor of the 
breath ; thirst on awaking ; capricious appetites, great hunger, or 
dislike of food ; uneasiness, increased by abstinence ; enlargement 
of the abdomen ; from time to time a pinching pain, or twisting 
sensation in the abdomen ; frecfuent rumbling in the intestines ; 
sudden vomitings without apparent cause ; slight diarrhoea ; from 
time to time very abundant and fetid stools ; itching in the anus ; 
short dry cough, or even violent attacks of cough, like that of a 
severe cold, with or without glairy expectoration ; sorrowful, une- 
qual, and fantastic humor ; attacks of fainting, which may return 
a great number of times in the same day ; disinclination for labor ; 
agitated sleep, talking in the sleep ; nightmare ; aggravation of the 
symptoms in the morning, especially when fasting ; propensity to 
onanism, leucorrhcea ; lastly, convulsions, delirium, epileptiform 
attacks, etc., etc." 


It is not necessary that a child suffering from verminous affec- 
tion should present all the symptoms above enumerated. In fact, 
I should think it a rarity, indeed, to find a patient in whom all 
these symptoms were well marked. Many of them represent 
other disorders, which it is not impossible should exist in conjunc- 
tion with, yet independent of, vermin. 

Treatment. — In examining the various symptoms usually at- 
tributed to worms, we shall find many of tliem the same as those 
which characterize some one of the many forms of gastric or 
intestinal disorders. In the majority of cases, however, the same 
remedies will suit both classes of disease, because they both spring 
from one and the same disturbing influence. 

We shall enumerate here only such remedies as may be properly 
called our worm medicines. And, should the symptoms for which 
they are prescribed refuse to yield to them, the reader had better 
examine the case closely, and see if the symptoms do not depend 
upon some other derangement, such as chronic dyspepsia, diar- 
rhoea, or some inflammatory disease of the intestinal mucous mem- 
brane ; and, if such is found to be the case, refer to such diseases 
under their respective heads. 

I generally commence the treatment of these cases with a few 
doses of Aconitum; not that Aconite is specially adapted to all 
cases of verminous affections, but I find it a valuable remedy to 
quiet the child by allaying the nervous irritability, and thus ren- 
der the symptoms more tractable to the remedies which follow. 

Aconite will also be found of service when there is considerable 
fever, with colic and distention of the abdomen ; great restlessness 
at night ; irritability of temper ; constant itching and burning at 
the anus. A dose may be given once in two hours.* If this 
proves ineffectual, follow it with Ignatia, or it may sometimes be 
alternated advantageously with Stannum. Sometimes, though 
promptly relieved by Aconite, the symptoms will return with 
every new and full moon. When such is the case, Sulphur or 
Silecia may be given, one dose every morning for four or five days. 
Cina. — This is the chief remedy for all complaints really aris- 
ing from worms, especially when the following symptoms are 
present : boring with the fingers in the nose ; picking the lips ; 
changing of the color of the face, being at times pale and cold, at 
others, red and hot ; tongue coated white ; mouth full of tough 
mucus ; capricious appetite ; cross and fretful temper ; bloated 
face, with livid circle around the eyes ; distention and pain in the 


abdomen ; constipation, or loose evacuations ; fever, especially at 
night, with pain in the head, starting or talking in sleep ; grating 
the teeth ; itching at the fundament ; the crawling out of thread 

Niix-vomica. — When, with worm symptoms, there is constipa- 
tion ; severe itching ; burning and pricking sensation at the anus, 
caused by little worms, which may be discovered by drawing the 
fundament open. 

Shigella. — In cases of worm colic, when there is abdominal 
pain, accompanied with fever, urging and scanty discharge of 
slimy stool. 

Silicea. — Especially for scrofulous children, and where worm 
fever assumes a slow, chronic form, with or without diarrhoea. If 
this remedy fails to afford permanent relief, give a dose of Cal- 
carea, and repeat it every other night for one week. 

Lycopodium. — I have accomplished more with this remedy in 
worm affections than with any other, especially where there is 
much itching at the fundament. 

Sulphur may be given at the end of every case, especially where 
other remedies have removed the distressing symptoms. One dose 
may be given every other night for one week. 

Teucrium — " Is unquestionably a specific for the irritation, itch- 
ing, and uneasiness caused by pin-worms. I use it thus : mix from 
three to four drops of the tincture in a tumbler half full of cold 
water ; stir it well, and give to a child two, three, or four years old, 
a large-sized teaspoonful, morning, noon, and at bedtime, for two 
days." — Freligh's Materia Medica. 

Administration op Remedies. — In addition to what has been 
said, we may say that, to make a permanent cure of these cases, 
the treatment should be continued for some little time, and, fur- 
ther, when you have once selected a remedy, do not be in too 
great haste to change it for ariother, even though you do not see 
any immediate improvement from its administration. If, after a 
fair trial, however, it fails to afford relief, and the case remains 
the same, or grows worse, make a new selection, and at the same 
time pay particular attention to the diet. 

Diet. — Avoid all gross, heavy nourishment, such as too much 
bread and butter, potatoes, or boiled vegetables of any kind ; also, 
rich puddings, pies, or cakes, and pastry in genera?. Rather give 
the patient meat-soups, roasted or broiled meat, plenty of cold 
water and milk. Exercise in the open air is very essential. 


Adjuvants. — In ordinary cases of verminous affections, the 
above mode of treatment will be found amply sufficient to effect a 
prompt and speedy cure, but we occasionally meet with cases 
where the itching at the fundament occasions so much annoyance 
to the patient, that immediate means for prompt relief are abso- 
lutely demanded. In such cases I have been in the habit of using 
an occasional injection of cold water. In cases of severe itching, 
and when the simple water afforded no relief, I have added a little 
salt to it, or you can use a weak solution of vinegar and water, 
or lemon-juice and water ; either will be found at times of great 

In mild cases, where the itching was troublesome, I have found 
sweet oil to answer the purpose ; it may be applied both externally 
and internally. 


General Remarks. — This disease, which is said to have de- 
stroyed more than sixty millions of human beings, is now raging 
in Europe, and presenting all the tendencies to travel westward 
that it heretofore has shown previous to its formerly visiting this 
country. It can be i descried afar off as plainly and as certainly as 
the rising of a storm. We can trace its progress and direction 
over the face of the earth as plainly as we can trace the direction 
and progress of the clouds through the heavens. The probabili- 
ties are that it will visit this country with the warm weather of 

It, therefore, becomes the pre-eminent duty of physicians to lay 
before the public such advice and instruction as to the amount of 
danger to which we shall all be exposed, and to give each one an 
opportunity to " set his house in order," and to throw up such 
barriers against the advance of the disease, as investigation and 
experience have taught to be of the most avail. For these reasons, 
this article, though not otherwise within the scope of the present 
work, has been introduced. 

Cholera is, to a great extent, a nervous disorder, and where 
dread and panic prevail, it will reap its richest harvest. Fear will 
cause at once the premonitory symptoms. It will be of the first 
importance, then, to calm the nervous and unreasonable alarm 
of all classes. This can easily be accomplished, by giving the 
people to understand that cholera is a disease which can be gener- 
ally warded off, if they but pay proper attention to known hygienic 


laws, and, also, that it is a disease easily managed, — at least with 
homoeopathic remedies, — if met early enough, and that we have 
simple yet efficient remedies, which, if timely administered, will, 
in nine cases out of every ten, arrest all the premonitory symp- 
toms and cut short the disease. 

Cholera is not a disease difficult to manage, or peculiarly danger- 
ous ; neither is it a disease that can be communicated from one 
person to another by the touch or the breath, by clothing or the 
like. Ordinarily speaking, cholera is not a contagious disease. 
Therefore, do not fear to assist your friends or neighbors, should 
any of them be stricken down. Always remember, however, that 
from the peculiar epidemic constitution of the atmosphere, indis- 
cretions of all kinds, which, under other atmospheric conditions, 
or which had heretofore occasioned but slight derangements, as 
headache or cold, are almost certain to produce the prevailing 
complaint, cholera. Therefore, while assisting others, be careful 
not to expose yourself by over-taxation, anxiety or long fasting. 
Care should be taken to avoid all the general causes of disease ; 
such as late hours, late suppers, over-eating, over-drinking, damp 
apartments or streets, crowded rooms, excitement of all kinds, 
excessive joy, grief, anger, fear, fatigue, and all exhausting employ- 
ment of mind and body. Cultivate cheerfulness, and habitual 
calmness of mind ; dispel all fear ; keep your person cleanly ; live 
upon a good, generous diet ; avoid all acids and high-seasoned 
dishes ; abstain from all unripe fruits and vegetables that are not 
of the freshest kind. Plainly-cooked meats, potatoes cooked dry 
and mealy, bread, rice, and a few other wholesome articles of diet, 
should be strictly adhered to, to the exclusion of all fancy dishes, 
and indigestible articles. 

People who live in clean, well-ventilated houses, have wholesome 
food, are well-clad, and are regular in all their natural habits, have 
very little to fear from cholera." 

There is not much danger of cholera producing great ravages, 
except in such localities as are notorious for filth, and absence of 
general hygienic care. The fever-nests and homes of diphtheria, 
of typhoid and scarlet fever, are the favorite haunts of cholera. 

The districts near the bone-boiling establishments, distilleries, 
swill-milk stables, slaughter-houses, pig-sties, and malarious pond- 
holes, suffer most when cholera is abroad. 

Open privies, and cesspools, heaps of garbage near the house, 
or in the cellar, crowds of inmates in dirty rooms and damp base- 


merits, and even the moderate use of alcoholic drinks, are what 
especially stimulate the disease. 

The gutters of the streets, the privies and cesspools should be 
frequently cleaned, and daily sprinkled with fresh chloride of lime. 
Damp basements and rooms should constantly have an open fire 
in them, to burn up the foul air, and cause a more perfect ventila- 

Chloride of lime, or any other disinfectant, should not be used 
in the house, and especially in the sick-room. There is no evi- 
dence that they have the slightest influence in freeing the atmos- 
phere from its infecting property, whatever it may be ; and the 
fumigation of the house is decidedly prejudicial to good health. 
Keep your house well ventilated and clean. 

An important point to which I wish to call particular attention 
is, that many people imagine that they fortify themselves against 
disease, by keeping their bowels in a relaxed condition, and con- 
sequently are. in the habit of taking an occasional cathartic ; oth- 
ers, with equal wisdom, think, if they have a diarrhoea, it arises 
from some offending substance within, which must be carried off; 
and they take purgative medicines to get rid of it. Both of these 
are serious and often fatal mistakes. 

Diarrhoea, during cholera seasons, has a peculiar tendency to 
run on, if not checked, into the more perilous form of the dis- 
ease ; and nothing is more certain to insure and hasten that catas- 
trophe than purgative medicines. 

The least looseness of the bowels should receive prompt atten- 
tion ; and those remedies which will quiet the irritation, and stop 
the copious discharges, not by their astringent properties, but by 
their direct specific effect upon the disease, are the best. 

The great desideratum for the successful treatment of the dis- 
ease is to meet it early. 

In tropical climates the course of the disease is described as 
one " exhausting march" from the beginning to the termination in 
death. As it has heretofore appeared in the United States, it has 
always been preceded by a well-marked premonitory stage, of 
from one to two or three days' duration ; such as confusion of the 
head, languor and debility, derangement of the stomach, and a 
tendency to diarrhoea. As a general thing, these symptoms occa- 
sion but little, if any, pain or uneasiness, and, what is singular, 
excite no alarm. This is unfortunate ; as a little wholesome fear 
would generate precaution ; and the administration of proper 


remedies at this stage of the disease, is almost certain to ar- 
rest it. 

At present the newspapers are teeming with specifics for cholera ; 
and, under the sanction of what the populace may consider high 
authority, we see recommended a most pernicious course of 
treatment. It is to place the patient in bed, apply a mustard- 
plaster to the pit of the stomach, and give him a good dose of 
opium or laudanum. 

In regard to the blood-purifiers, vegetable pills, cholera mixture, 
and patent nostrums generally, which are thrust before one at 
every turn, it is scarcely necessary to warn the readers of this 
book ; none but the most ignorant ever think of resorting to them. 
The question is frequently asked, " What will the homceopathists 
do when they are called to treat cholera ? Will they rely upon 
small doses ? " In reply, I would state that I think they will, and 
for the following reasons : that, while allopathia loses 54 cases out 
of every 100, homceopathia loses but 9 out of the same number. 
Homceopathia is the only treatment that has ever proved itself tvorthy 
of any confidence in cholera. 

Dr. Lobethal, of Germany, who had charge of a large cholera 
hospital — allopathic — during the epidemic of 1831, and who 
treated an immense number of cholera patients homceopathically, 
in the summer of 1847 and 1849, observes : " It has been reserved 
to the ' specific ' healing art, generally known under the name of 
homceopathia, to stand the test of practical observation, and to 
demonstrate its superiority in combating this fearful disease, — 
cholera, — the appearance of which, followed by an immense 
number of well-substantiated cures, has tended in the highest 
degree to the spread of the new healing art." — Lutz, Practice, 
p. 128. 

Dr. Balfour, of Edinburgh, who is opposed to homceopathists, 
writes to Dr. Forbes, from Vienna, in 1836, in the following words : 
" During the first appearance of the cholera here, the practice of 
homceopathia was first introduced; and cholera, when it came 
again, renewed the favorable impulse previously given, as it was 
through Dr. Meischmann's successful treatment of this disease, that 
the restrictive laws were removed, and homceopathists obtained 
leave to practice and dispense medicines in Austria. Since that 
time, their number has increased more than threefold in Vienna 
and its provinces. No young physician settling in Austria — ex- 
cluding government officers — can hope to make his bread, unless 



at least prepared to treat homceopathically, if requested." — Jos- 
LIN, on Epidemic Cholera, p. 70. 

James Johnson, M. D. —Physician (allopathic) Extraordinary 
to the king of Great Britain — says: "When cholera appeared in 
Hindostan, the papers so teemed with specifics and cures,, that the 
government put a stop to their further publication on account of 
the mortality they caused." He continues : " For ourselves, what 
shall we say ? Alas ! we must own that we are gloomy, heartless 
sceptics, without so much as a grain of faith, or one saving parti- 
cle of belief. Would that it were otherwise — would we could 
only so much as imagine that cholera has been, is, or will be cured 
by the thousand and one plans of happy memory, already pub- 
lished, or to be published. In point of fact, we know no better 
mode of treating cholera than when it first appeared in the island ; 
and the really severe cases are just as fatal as they ever have 
been." — Marcy & Hunt, Theory and Practice, vol. i. p. 363. 

Probably in no part of America did the cholera appear with 
more violence in 1849 than in Cincinnati. Two physicians, Drs. 
Pulte and Ehrmann, treated 1116 genuine cholera patients in all 
stages of the disease, and with a loss of only 35, or about 3 in 100. 

Since homceopathia can produce such results, we feel confident 
that it will cure almost every case, provided the physician is called 
soon after the attack, and before the patient has been poisoned by 
massive doses of calomel and opium ; and, while homceopathia 
continues to produce such results, we are inclined to think its 
adherents will be content with " small doses." 


During the prevalence of cholera much may be done toward 
fortifying the system against its attacks by a judicious administra- 
tion of homoeopathic remedies. I say "judicious administration," 
because I believe the too frequent repetition of large doses, that 
is, the crude drugs, or even the first potency, would do more 
harm than good. Hahnemann recommended Cuprum and Vera- 
trum, of the 30th potency, to be taken in rotation every six or 
seven days. His advice was, " First, take one dose of Cuprum, 
30th ; then wait one week and take a similar potency of Vera- 
trum ; after another week has elapsed, take Cuprum again, and 
so on. 

Perhaps this method cannot be improved on. I certainly should 
not think of giving a lower potency. 


Where a whole family is to be protected, dissolve twelve globules 
in as many spoonfuls of water, and let each member take a 
spoonful or two, as above directed. 

The tincture of Camphor in drop-doses once or twice in the twen- 
ty-four hours is also recommended. Undoubtedly, Camphor is a 
valuable antidote against the poison of cholera, but its effect is 
too transient to be of much service as a prophylactic ; besides 
having a tendency to interfere with other medicines, it had better 
be reserved for the premonitory stage. • 

Every family should be provided with a well-stoppered phial of 
Camphor, so that in case of emergency there will be no delay. 
The ordinary tincture procured at the druggists will answer. Or 
you can make it yourself, by dissolving one ounce of gum Cam- 
phor in ten ounces — i. e. 2% gills — of Alcohol. 

Persons who carry Camphor about with them in their pocket, — 
as some do while travelling, and which is very prudent, — should 
be particular to have it well corked. 

Dr. Hering, of Philadelphia, says : " The surest preventive is Sul- 
phur. Put half a teaspoonful of Flowers of Sulphur into each of 
your stockings and go about your business ; never go out with an 
empty stomach ; eat no fresh bread nor sour food. This is not only 
a preventive in cholera, but also in many other epidemic diseases. 
Not one of the many thousands who have followed this, my advice, 
has been attached by cholera." 

Though Camphor and Sulphur may be good prophylactics, I 
should rather put my trust in Hahnemann's method. 

Cholerine is the name given to the diarrhoea which prevails 
during cholera seasons, or precedes an attack of cholera. It is, 
to all appearances, the beginning of cholera. When it is occa- 
sioned by fear, give Chamomilla. When occasioned by grief, Phos- 
phoric acid or China. If accompanied by nausea, Ipecac. — Con- 
sult article on " Diarrhoea." 

Symptoms op Cholera. — Epidemic cholera varies much in its 
mode of attack. It may seize upon the patient suddenly and 
without warning, at once prostrating him and almost depriving 
him of vitality. The expression of the countenance in such cases 
is sunken and death-like ; the pulse is feeble, almost imperceptible ; 
the skin blue, cold, and shrivelled, and covered with a clammy 
sweat ; cramps in the calves of the legs, fingers, and muscles of 
the abdomen, with stupidity or extreme anguish, vomiting and 
diarrhoea, with rice-water discharges. 


of the legs, fingers, and muscles of the abdomen, with stupidity 
or extreme anguish, vomiting and diarrhcea, with rice-water dis- 

This mode of attack, in this country, at least, is rare ; much 
more frequently the disease is preceded some little time, even for 
a day or two, perhaps, by lassitude ; confusion of the head ; de- 
bility ; diarrhoea ; rumbling in the bowels and stomach ; tongue 
moist and a little coated, perhaps pasty or gluey. At this stage 
the disease can easily be checked ; but if neglected and allowed 
to continue, these symptoms increase in severity and new ones are 
rapidly developed. 

The diarrhoea, which at first consists of digested food and fecu- 
lent matter, becomes yellowish or brown, and thin, soon reaching 
the characteristic rice-water discharges, accompanied with nau- 
sea, vomiting, intense thirst, great anguish and burning in the 

The amount of liquid matter thrown up from the stomach and 
discharged from the bowels is sometimes wonderful. The dis- 
charges resemble water in which rice has been boiled, containing 
white flakes or specks floating in it. This fluid is discharged with 
very little effort. It pours from the bowels almost in a stream, 
and is spouted from the mouth as from a pump. Each evacuation 
is preceded by great noise and rumbling in the intestines, like the 
rumbling of gas, or the running of water. 

These symptoms are soon succeeded by great oppression of the 
chest ; the voice becomes husky and faint ; cramps and hard knots 
form in the muscles of the legs and abdomen ; intense thirst ; and 
great loss of strength. The urine is suppressed ; the pulse be- 
comes small, intermittent, or imperceptible ; the surface grows cold 
and bluish ; the lips purple ; the tongue assumes a leaden hue, and 
feels cold to the touch ; the breath also becomes cold ; the eyes 
sink deep into the sockets ; the cheeks pale ; the skin, bathed in a 
cold sweat, is shrivelled, as though long soaked in water ; the coun- 
tenance becomes withered and ghastly as that of a corpse. 

Attacks of cholera do occur where diarrhcea and vomiting are 
absent ; but with all the other symptoms present in an aggravated 
degree. This variety requires the most prompt attention. 

Of course, it must not be presumed that all these symptoms are 
present in every case ; more or less of them may be absent. The 
picture, more or less vividly drawn, according to the constitutional, 
predisposing, and exciting cause which may exist. 


Favorable symptoms are cessation of the vomiting, purging, and 
cramps, restoration of the secretion of urine, and a return of the 
pulse, warmth of the surface, and natural appearance of the skin. 

Treatment. — The usual premonitory symptoms are a slight 
looseness of the bowels, with or without pain ; the evacuations may 
be rather copious and watery, accompanied with more or less wea- 
riness. These symptoms, though trivial in themselves, during the 
prevalence of cholera are fore warnings, — the first alarm, — which 
should be instantly heeded. The person in whom they appear, if 
away from home, should return at once, with as little exertion as 
possible, and remain quiet. Should there be much diarrhoea, it 
will be as well to lie down ; it will not be necessary to go to bed, 
but it is advisable to keep the recumbent position till the alarm is 

As soon as possible, take a dose of Camphor. The ordinary 
tincture of camphor, which can be obtained from any druggist, is 
suitable. Put twelve drops in a spoonful of sugar, and then dis- 
solve it in twelve spoonfuls of cold water in a tumbler. Of this 
solution, take one spoonful at a dose. Should diarrhoea be the 
principal symptom, take one dose after each evacuation. 

If, after five or six doses have been taken, the diarrhoea contin- 
ues, and especially if the discharges are liquid and light-colored, 
either painless or attended with colic; the tongue coated, and 
sticks a little to the finger when applied to it, take Phosphoric 
acid, after each evacuation. 

Dissolve twelve globules in six spoonfuls of water, and take of 
the solution one spoonful at a dose. 

By this means the disease will be warded off, or, if these symp- 
toms be not premonitory, but actually the first stage of the pesti- 
lence itself, this treatment will immediately arrest it, and shield 
the patient from the torments of the more advanced stages of the 

In whatever manner cholera presents itself, or in whatever stage 
it may be met with, Camphor is the first remedy to be given. It 
is a true specific for the disease, having the power to destroy the 
poison or malignant agent. > 

Should the patient be taken suddenly with burning in the stom- 
ach and abdomen, with anguish and tossing about ; rapid failure 
of strength ; pulse feeble and slow ; heaviness and pressure in the 
head ; bluish color of the face ; pressure at the pit of the stomach ; 
inconsolable anguish ; dread of suffocation ; cramps in the calves 


of the legs and feet ; coldness of the body ; little or no diarrhoea or 
vomiting ; cover him warm in bed, and give Camp/wr, prepared as 
above, every five minutes. Send at once for a homoeopathic phy- 
sician ; continue the Camphor till he arrives, or until signs of re- 
action are observed, which will usually take place by the time five 
or six doses have been given. The size of the dose must then be 
diminished, and the remedy given at longer intervals, until reac- 
tion is fully established. 

When the patient gets warm, and begins to perspire, — which is 
a good symptom, and the effect of the camphor, — great care 
should be taken that the clothes be not hastily thrown off, because 
the perspiration, being suddenly checked, would inevitably bring 
on a relapse. In the course of eight or ten hours, the clothing, 
though still warm, may be left somewhat to the patient's choice. 

If, in addition to the symptoms for which Camphor has been 
recommended, the following symptoms are present, — frequent vio- 
lent vomiting and purging ; cramps in the extremities and abdomen ;' 
rumbling and griping in the bowels ; coldness and blueness of the 
skin ; cold, clammy sweat ; thirst and great restlessness ; skin 
withered and wrinkled ; watery, flocky stools, and coldness of the 
breath, — give Veratrum. Dissolve twelve globules in twelve spoon- 
fuls of water ; give of the solution, thus made, one spoonful every 
five minutes until decided improvement is manifest, when the 
interval between the doses should be lengthened. 

Arsenicum should be given when there is intolerable burning in 
the stomach and bowels, worse after vomiting, with cutting, cramp- 
like pains in the abdomen ; scalding evacuations ; excessive anx- 
iety ; violent thirst ; labored respiration ; hoarseness of the voice ; 
pulse weak and irregular ; blueness of the face and lips ; skin 
cold and clammy ; cramps in the calves of the legs ; vomiting and 
purging, immediately after eating or drinking ever so little ; exces- 
sive fear of death, with great dread of being alone. 

Should the disease, on reaching these shores, present the same 
characteristics that it now does in Europe, it requires no great 
foresight to perceive that Arsenicum and Veratrum will be its spe- 
cifics. These remedies will prove efficient weapons in the hands 
of those who know how to use them skilfully. Arsenicum may be 
administered the same as Veratrum. Many physicians are in the 
habit of giving the two, in alternation, when prompt relief is not 
obtained from either of them singly. I have never found this 
necessity to exist. 


Cuprum. — This remedy should be given when there is vomit- 
ing and rice-water discharges ; skin cold and livid ; pressure in 
the stomach; spasmodic colic; eyes sunken in their orbits ; skin 
corrugated and withered ; spasms of the jaw ; cramps in the calves 
of the legs ; diminished secretion of urine ; loss of voice ; con- 
striction of the chest; cold, clammy sweat; or, should there be 
bloody evacuations. 

Carbo-veg. is called for when the disease has reached the stage 
of collapse; pulse imperceptible; surface cold and bluish; breath 
cold, and voice extinct. 

Secale cornutum. — Especially for aged persons, and when there 
is rapid prostration of strength ; violent thirst ; cold, dry, livid 
tongue ; blueness and withered appearance of the skin. 

During the treatment of cholera, the heat of the body should 
be kept up as much as possible by artificial means ; besides having 
the patient in a warm room and well covered in bed, it is advisa- 
ble to put hot bricks or bottles of hot water about the abdomen 
and to the feet. Friction of the limbs with the dry hand, or with 
a piece of flannel cloth, adds materially in restoring warmth to 
the extremities, and is also the best remedy for the cramps in the 

To quench the intense thirst which is almost always present, 
small quantities of ice or ice-water may be given from time to 
time, provided it does not aggravate the disease. Should the pa- 
tient prefer warm toast-water, it may be allowed. 

Indeed, ice-water itself is a remedy for the colic, vomiting and 
cold skin, and in most cases may be given to the patient in small 
quantities with marked benefit. Injections of cold water are often 
serviceable in relieving the colic and cramps in the intestines. 

External application of spirits is objectionable ; rubbing with 
the dry hand is advisable ; bathing with camphor, patent lotions 
of every description, plasters of mustard, horseradish, and every- 
thing of the kind, are not only discountenanced but positively pro- 

Recapitulation. — Camphor should be given in all cases, at the 
commencement. If the diarrhoea does not yield, and the stools 
are liquid and whitish, and especially if the tongue is covered with 
a sticky, pasty coating, follow it with Phosphoric acid. Should 
there be great anguish in the chest ; immoderate fear of death ; 
lips blue and cold ; great thirst ; burning, pressure, and anxiety 
in the pit of the stomach; vomiting after drinking; rice-water 


evacuations without smell, or dark, putrid evacuations ; respira- 
tion labored ; skin, cold, bluish, and covered with a clammy per- 
spiration, — give Arsenicum. 

Give Veratrum when there is vertigo with nausea ; blue face ; 
blue and cold lips ; coldness of the tongue ; cold sweat on the 
body ; vomiting and purging ; vomiting of watery liquid at- 
tended with colic and pain in the stomach and abdomen ; rum- 
bling in the intestines ; anguish in the chest ; cramps in the chest 
and calves of the legs ;• excessive coldness ; skin, withered and 

Cuprum — should be given when there are cramps all over the 
body ; cramps in the stomach ; coldness and blueness of the skin ; 
diminished secretion of urine ; skin withered and corrugated ; eyes 
sunk deep in the sockets ; hoarseness of voice. 

Secale cornutum. — When the diarrhoea produces great prostra- 
tion of strength, especially in aged persons. 

When complete collapse is present, with coldness of breath, give 

Diet and Regimen. — As soon as the disease has spent its vio- 
lence and the patient begins to mend, there will be a demand for 
nourishment, and it will be necessary that he should early take 
something to assist nature in regaining the strength that has been 
so rapidly exhausted. It is quite as essential, however, that only 
such food should be taken as can easily be digested. A little gruel, 
at first, perhaps, would be as appropriate as anything ; this can soon 
be followed with toast-bread, afterwards with meat-broth, gradually 
increasing the diet both in quantity and quality, as the patient 
regains strength, until he finally gets back to his accustomed 
mode of living. 




Definition. — Considerable mystification exists in the minds of 
many about this complaint, mistaking the latter word scarlatina as 
representing a modified form of the disease ; you will hear parents 
speak of one child having had the real scarlet fever, while another 
only had scarlatina. 

Scarlet fever and scarlatina are one and the same disease, and 
the attempt, which is practised in the profession by those only who 
wish to appear wise above their brethren, to draw any line of dis- 
tinction between them, can lead merely to confusion and a disre- 
gard of requisite precaution. 

Scarlet fever is an epidemic and contagious febrile disease, char- 
acterized by a peculiar rash, which appears upon the first or second 
day, and by inflammation of the tonsils and mucous membrane 
of the mouth. 

The two most important and striking features of the disease are, 
affection of the throat and affection of the skin ; yet either may be 
entirely absent, or at least be so imperfectly marked as to attract 
but little attention. And this circumstance has led authors to 
divide one and the same disease into different varieties. There is 
no good reason why this malady, any more than any other fever, 
should be divided into the variety of forms ascribed to it by many. 

There are mild and grave cases, and although scarlet fever may 
present many degrees of severity and apparent differences, as in 
fact do all diseases, it is scarlet fever still, and as such should be 

Being contagious, and appearing seldom more than once in 
the same individual, this is almost exclusively a disease of child- 

I have never known in my own experience of the second appear- 
ance of this fever in any one person ; but that it does so appear 



sometimes, is proved by incontrovertible facts, brought forward by 
various authors. 

Scarlet fever is believed to be a decidedly less prevalent disease 
than measles. It affects both sexes in about equal proportions, 
and is most common between the ages of one and five. It pre- 
vails at all seasons of the year, but is most frequent in the spring 
and autumn. 

Causes. — As stated above, scarlatina is an epidemic and con- 
tagious disease. That it is propagated by contagion, no one at the 
present day doubts ; at least, there is no lack of evidence upon this 
point, and any one who will take the trouble to investigate the 
subject will soon become convinced of its contagious character ; 
yet all authors agree that it is much less so than small-pox, 
measles, hooping-cough, or chicken-pox. I am decidedly of the 
opinion that the majority of cases of scarlet fever are contracted 
from the epidemic constitution of the atmosphere, and not, as is 
generally believed, by direct contagion. 

I am led to this conclusion by the fact that, in most cases, the 
mother is unable to tell when or where the child has been 
exposed to the disease ; besides, we often find it attacking young 
children, infants at the breast, who have not been out of the house 
for months ; again, we find it manifesting itself in a country vil- 
lage, where the disease has not been known for perhaps years 
before. I certainly see no way in which these cases could have 
occurred, except through the epidemic influence which was at that 
time prevalent in the vicinity. 

The question is often asked, if the infection can be conveyed 
from one house to another by a person's clothes. Under ordinary 
circumstances I apprehend it cannot. By ordinary circumstances 
I mean casual visits to the sick-room. For instance, I do not 
think a mother exposes her children by visiting a neighbor's who 
are suffering from scarlatina, provided she remains but a short 
time in the sick-room, and especially if she walks a few blocks in 
the open air before she reaches her own home. Of course, I should 
not advise any one to visit a house which was infected with the 
disease merely for the sake of paying a visit ; on the contrary, I 
would advise them by all means to avoid it, unless duty call them 
and they could be of real service to the suffering ones. 

But, whereas you might with impunity visit your neighbor's sick 
room, it would be quite a different affair, and highly imprudent 
for one who has been in constant attendance upon a case of scarlet 


fever, to come in contact with your healthy children. How long 
the clothes may retain the infection, after being thoroughly impreg- 
nated with it, is uncertain ; it may be inferred, however, that the 
clothing which is exposed to a current of fresh air will be less liable 
to retain the seeds of the disease for a length of time, than that 
packed away, or shut up closely. Clothing, beddings, or rooms 
that are frequently and thoroughly aired, soon lose their capa- 
bility of disseminating disease. 

" What is the period of incubation of scarlet fever, or how long 
after a child is exposed will the malady manifest itself," is a ques- 
tion often asked. Some authors say from nine to fifteen days, 
others, from two to seven. Dr. Meigs says : " It may be stated 
to vary between two or three days, and two or three weeks." My 
own observation would fix it from three to nine days. 

How long the patient retains the power of imparting the con- 
tagion it is impossible to determine. I certainly do not pretend 
to know. Some assert that it lasts throughout the period of des- 
quamation, and that during that period it is most active. This 
may be so. 

Symptoms. — Scarlet fever commences, as do all eruptive dis- 
eases, with shivering and lassitude, headache frequently severe, 
sometimes with delirium, and occasionally with nausea and vom- 

The eruption generally appears on the second day, and simul- 
taneously with the fever, there is in all cases more or less sore 

Generally the onset of scarlet fever is sudden, the child going to 
bed apparently as well as usual, becomes restless, hot, and wake- 
ful in the night, and in the morning presents all the characteristics 
of the disease ; or, as frequently happens, the child goes out to 
play, or to school, well, is taken sick, perhaps with nausea and 
vomiting, or with shivering and lassitude, returns home, and in 
a few hours shows the eruption over face, shoulders, and neck, 
accompanied with fever and sore throat. 

The eruption usually appears first on the face, neck, and breast, 
and extends rapidly over the whole surface of the body. It first 
appears in dark-red points, which speedily become so numerous 
that the surface seems to be universally red. The eruption is not 
equally diffused, or, at least, not usually so, over the whole body, 
but is more apparent about the groins, upon the back, and in the 
flexures of the joints, than elsewhere. On the arms and legs the 


eruption does not always present the same appearance as upon 
the trunk ; instead of being of a uniform smooth redness, it is 
more spotty and rough. 

In most cases, the fever is attended with a burning irritation of 
the skin. The redness disappears under slight pressure of the 
finger, and returns when the pressure is removed. 

The eruption reaches its height about the fourth day, remains 
stationary foij about one day,. after which it begins to decline, be- 
coming by degrees indistinct, and disappearing altogether in the 
majority of instances, about the seventh or eighth day. At this 
time the skin begins to peel off. In some mild cases the whole 
duration of the eruptive period is not more than two or three days, 
the skin presenting but a slight blush, and there being but little 
heat or fever. 

Sore throat, I believe, is always present ; sometimes, however, 
it is so slight as to pass unobserved by the patient and nurse, but 
upon close inspection inflammatory action is plainly visible. The 
tonsils are swollen and red, the glands of the neck are tumefied 
and tender to the touch. 

In severe cases, the throat symptoms constitute the most im- 
portant feature of the disease, and should receive early and prompt 

There is always fever throughout the whole course of the 
disease, which does not subside on the appearance of the eruption. 
The pulse is strong and frequent, running up to one hundred and 
twenty or even one hundred and sixty. 

The appearance of the tongue is characteristic. At the com- 
mencement of the disease it is covered over with a thick cream- 
like fur, sometimes the edges and tip presenting a deep red color. 
After the first two or three days the tongue clears off and becomes 
preternaturally red and rough, looking like raw flesh. 

Possibly scarlet fever and measles may be confounded by those 
unfamiliar with eruptive diseases. The distinguishing marks be- 
tween the two diseases, therefore, are 1st. The eruption of measles 
is always preceded by catarrhal symptoms, such as coughing, 
sneezing, and running from the nose, while scarlet fever is not. 
2d. Scarlet fever is always accompanied by sore throat ; measles 
is not. 3d. The rash of scarlet fever appears on the second day ; 
that of measles, at least in its most regular form, not until the 
fourth. Generally the eruption of scarlet fever is smooth and 
even to the touch, and of a uniform scarlet color ; in measles, on 


the contrary, the eruption consists of minute little pimples which 
are felt to be slightly elevated, and firm to the touch ; besides the 
eruption is not continuous, but cut up in little clusters by por- 
tions of healthy skin. In measles it is said the eruption presents 
somewhat the tint of a raspberry, and in scarlet fever, that of a 
boiled lobster. 

As before stated, the eruption appearing upon the second day, 
reaches its height about the fourth, remains stationary for one or 
two days, and afterwards gradually declines, disappearing altogether 
about the seventh or eighth clay. About this time desquama- 
tion begins to take place, or, in plain English, the external or 
scarf skin begins to peel off. From the face and body it drops 
off in scurfs or small scales, from the extremities in large flakes, 
and from the hands and feet, it sometimes separates almost 

Scarlet fever does not always present itself in as mild a form as 
the above account of symptoms might seem to indicate. The 
mild and severe cases differ so much from each other that a descrip- 
tion of the former would give one but a faint idea of the fearful 
character which the latter sometimes assumes. " In these malig- 
nant and terrible cases, the eruption, if it appears at all, is livid, 
partial, and fades early, and is attended with feeble pulse, cold 
skin, and typhoid depression ; sometimes the patient sinks at once, 
and irretrievably under the virulence of the poison." Or, where 
the patient survives the first shock, as the disease progresses, a 
condition of the throat develops itself, which frequently baffles 
the skill of the physician and soon destroys the life of the 

This malignant form I shall not particularly describe, as it 
should be treated only by an experienced physician. In fact, 
scarlet fever in its most simple form is not safe in the hands of a 
layman ; for it not unfrequently happens that for one or two days 
the case may promise to be mild, and then, suddenly and without 
any ascertainable cause, assumes the threatening features of the 
worst form of the disease. 

The consequences of scarlet fever are frequently worse than the 
disease itself. Children who have suffered from an attack of it 
are liable to fall into a state of permanent ill health, and become 
a prey to some of the many chronic forms of scrofula, boils, ulcers, 
diseases of the scalp, sores behind the ears, scrofulous swelling of 
the glands of the neck, chronic inflammation of the eyes and 


eyelids. The same results sometimes follow measles and other 
eruptive diseases. 

One of the most frequent and important sequels or results of 
this fever is dropsy. This dropsical affusion attacks subcutaneous 
areolar tissues, that is, the structure or tissue just beneath the 
skin, or any of the cavities of the body. When it affects the head, 
dropsy of the brain, or water on the brain, is the result, and when 
the chest becomes the seat of the affusion, we have dropsy of the 
chest, &c. 

The exciting cause of dropsy is generally believed to be cold. 
A child, just recovering from illness, is much more liable to be 
affected by slight atmospheric changes, than one whose constitution 
has not been enfeebled by disease. Therefore, we have sometimes 
very serious results from slight exposures. Simply standing by 
the window, going down stairs, or into the hall,, or changing rooms, 
is often enough to produce the difficulty in question. 

Dropsy appears to have no relation to the violence and danger 
of the preceding fever ; or, at least, if there is any relation what- 
ever, it is an inverse one, for it has been found by experience that 
dropsy more frequently follows mild cases than severe ones. This 
may be owing to the fact, that less care and caution are observed 
in mild cases during the period of convalescence, and especially 
during the time the cuticle is peeling off. In severe cases, where 
the recovery is slower and more doubtful, there is apt to be more 
care ; cold is more particularly guarded against, and the child is 
not permitted to go out until a later period. On the contrary, in 
mild cases, where the fever and eruption have been but trifling, 
the mother, considering the child well, or nearly so, and perhaps 
not having been warned by the attending physician, permits the 
child to run about the house, stand in the draught of an open door 
or window, or, what is perhaps more frequent, takes the convales- 
cent into a cold room to sleep, before the new cuticle is formed, or 
while it is forming ; the result is, the child takes cold and dropsy 

Perhaps no period is as dangerous as that of convalescence. At 
this time the child needs the most watchful care and attendance, 
and at no stage of the disease is the patient more apt to be neg- 
lected. The mother, thinking the child almost well, leaves him to 
the care of a friend, or older children, while she goes out, and 
they, not understanding the necessity of great caution, permit him 
to stand by an open window, or as happened in one case I attended, 


allow the fire to go out or the room to become chilled. The pa- 
tient, from this exposure, takes cold, becomes drooping, languid, 
irritable, peevish, and restless, after which, swelling about the face 
soon makes its appearance, at first so slight as to be scarcely per- 
ceptible. From the face it extends to the hands and feet, and 
finally to the whole surface of the body. N 

We are frequently asked at what time it will be safe for the 
child to be permitted to leave the room. Physicians are some- 
what at variance on this point. Thinking it best to err, if err we 
must, on the safe side, I have been in the habit of directing the 
mother to keep the patient confined to the room for four full 
weeks from the commencement of the disease, provided it was in 
the cool season of the year. Where the house is heated through- 
out by a furnace, and the halls and other rooms are of the same 
temperature with the one in which the child has been confined, 
this precaution is not necessary. Nevertheless, it is not as well to 
allow free range of the house during convalescence, and especially 
the lower floor of the house, where the outside doors are being 
constantly opened. 

According to the observations of Dr. Wells, " the dropsical 
symptoms commonly show themselves on the twenty-second or 
twenty-third day after the commencement of the disease. They 
have been known to begin as early as the sixteenth, and as late as 
the twenty-fifth day." 

When no dropsical symptoms appeared before the end of the 
fourth week, Dr. Wells always ventured to state that it was no 
longer to be dreaded. 

Treatment. — Our opponents are very fond of saying, that if 
the cases of scarlet fever falling into homoeopathic hands were as 
severe as those coming under allopathic treatment, that the mor- 
tality of the latter would not so far exceed that of the former as 
it now does, and that the relative success of the two practices 
would be about equal. I am inclined to think that there is con- 
siderable truth in the assertion, and yet at first sight it seems 
strange that we should be favored over our brethren. Let us look 
into the case a little and see how it is. Sydenham, good allo- 
pathic authority, has said that " simple scarlet fever is fatal only 
through the ofliciousness of the doctor." Now a large portion of 
all the scarlatina that we meet with is simple, and only becomes 
complicated or serious when the patient is advised to take some 
mild cathartic, which is invariably the prescription of all allopathic 


physicians on first visiting a patient with this fever. A little mag- 
nesia, a small dose of castor-oil, or syrup of rhubard, to be fol- 
lowed with antimonial wine and sweet spirits of nitre, is generally 
the stereotyped prescription. Why they think it so necessary that 
the bowels should be immediately moved, I am sure I do not 
know. The intestinal irritation thus produced, certainly seems to 
me like adding fuel to the fire. If, with the assistance of the first 
prescription, the patient is not better at the next visit, a more 
active course of medication is resorted to, such as blood-letting, 
emetics, purgatives, etc. ; thus, though the case at first presents 
itself in as mild a form as possible, it is soon made serious through 
" the officiousness of the doctor." 

Simple cases need scarcely any treatment at all, least of all a 
cathartic. "What the sense is in throwing this extra amount of 
burthen upon the patient, I never have been able to determine. 
Instead of protecting the child from a long and serious illness, this 
is the very way to produce it. I know of no means by which a 
light case of scarlet fever can be changed to a serious aspect so 
quickly as by the action of a sharp cathartic ; and I have no hesi- 
tation whatever in asserting that this is one of the chief reasons 
why allopathic physicians meet with cases so much more severe 
than we of the opposite school of practice. 

Another reason why our cases are less severe, is, that we inva- 
riably make use of Belladonna as a prophylactic or preventive. 
Experience has confirmed the fact first advanced by Hahnemann, 
that Belladonna, properly administered, will in the majority of 
cases exert a preventive and protecting influence upon the body, 
against the contagion of scarlet fever, and where it does not en- 
tirely prevent the disease, renders it so mild that it seldom proves 
fatal. Allopathic physicians are aware of this fact, but, either 
from obstinacy or some undiscovered cause, they refuse to adminis- 
ter it, as Hahnemann advised, and prescribe doses so large that 
they do not as certainly obtain the desired result, and not unfre- 
quently aggravate the case and really assist in developing the dis- 
ease in its worst form. 

For true scarlet fever, such as Hahnemann describes, Belladonna 
is the specific. When the fever appears free from all complica- 
tions, Belladonna should be prescribed from the onset. It is the 
appropriate remedy for all stages of the disease, and is frequently 
the only one called for. 

It is specially indicated by the following symptoms : — Dry, burn- 


ing fever ; quick pulse ; great thirst ; dry, red, or whitish coated 
tongue ; soreness and burning of throat ; difficulty of swallowing ; 
bright-red appearance of the tongue, mouth, and throat ; swelling 
of the tonsils ; stiffness of the jaws and neck ; quantities of stringy 
mucus in the mouth ; scarlet eruptions on the face, and over the 
entire body ; starting, and closing the eyes for a few moments ; 
and delirium, or when there is / nausea and vomiting ; also when 
the fever begins with convulsions. For this latter symptom, 
Cuprum is an excellent remedy. 

In severe cases, Belladonna may be given frequently, as often 
perhaps, as every hour. The amendment of the symptoms will be 
a reason for lengthening the intervals between the doses. In mild 
cases a dose may be given every two or three hours. 

If the disease presents a favorable appearance after the second 
or third repetition, the remedy may be continued at longer inter- 
vals for three or four days, or until the cuticle peels off, when it 
may be withdrawn, and three or four doses of Sulphur, one dose 
every evening will be sufficient to complete the cure. 

Unfortunately, scarlet fever does not always present itself in 
simple uncomplicated form, owing, I am fully persuaded, in not a 
few cases, to the domestic remedies which are given to work off 
the cold, for which the first symptoms are sometimes mistaken ; or 
to the hot herb teas which are given to throw out the eruption, and 
promote perspiration, when the disease is anticipated. According 
to my experience, gastric, or intestinal irritation, whether induced 
as above, or by a cathartic, is almost sure to be followed by an ag- 
gravation of symptoms ; and I think some of the worst cases I 
have ever seen have been those which at the commencement 
promised to run a moderate course, but in which hot herb teas 
were given, full perspiration induced, and then, from some unac- 
countable cause, or from exposure, the patient would suddenly be- 
come chilled, and the case immediately assume a threatening 

As before stated, it is a well-ascertained fact that Belladonna 
will, if not entirely prevent, at least so moderate the disease as to 
make it easily manageable. Neglect in this particular, may fre- 
quently be accounted the cause of the gravity of many cases. To 
meet' the various anomalies which the disease presents, other reme- 
dies than the one mentioned are called for. 

Aconitum. — is sometimes necessary at the commencement of 
the attack, before the eruption makes its appearance ; when the 



fever is high, pulse rapid, head hot, extremities cold, and great 
agitation. After Aconite has subdued these inflammatory, febrile 
symptoms, or after the eruption has appeared with soreness of the 
throat, Belladonna should be given, or Aconite and Belladonna 
may be given in alternation every hour, from the onset of the dis- 
ease, especially if there be violent fever, with dry heat, full, quick 
pulse, congestion of the head, occasional delirium, or dulness and 
drowsiness, with starting from sleep when awakened, twirling of 
the fingers and tossing about. Should the patient be better under 
the treatment during the day, but at night the symptoms, especially 
the restlessness and sleeplessness, increase, give an occasional dose 
of Ooffea. 

Mercurius. — may follow Belladonna, or be given in alternation 
with it, when Belladonna alone has failed to produce a favorable 
change in the symptoms, and there is ulceration of the tonsils, 
swelling of the glands, increase of mucus in the mouth, and 
offensive breath. 

Arsenicum. — is indicated when there is great prostration of 
strength ;. when the ulcers in the throat present a livid appearance 
about the edges, and emit an offensive odor. This is a prominent 
remedy for the malignant form of the disease. 

Opium. — is sometimes indicated, especially when the breathing 
resembles snoring ; starting, or constant delirium ; puffed red 
face, great restlessness ; burning heat of the skin, with or without 

When the scarlet eruption strikes in, or assumes a livid bluish 
hue, give Bryonia and Belladonna in alternation, every half-hour. 
If no relief is afforded, give Ipecacuanha, or Camphor. 

Crotalus, Phosphoric acid, Arsenicum, Lachesis, or Nitric acid 
will be found of service in malignant cases. 

Sulphur. — is a valuable remedy, and is almost always required 
to complete the cure. When the symptoms calling for Belladonna 
do not promptly yield to that remedy, an occasional dose of Sulphur 
will be found beneficial. 

Rhus. — For the dropsical swelling which sometimes follows the 
fever, especially when the swelling affects the inferior extremities. 
Should this remedy not answer the purpose, and there is lingering 
fever in the evening, puffiness of the face, swelling of the hands 
and feet, give an occasional dose of a high attenuation of Belladonna. 

Digitalis. — When there are indications of dropsy of the chest. 
When there exists, after taking cold, considerable swelling of the 


glands of the neck, give Bhus, and should this do no good, follow 
with Arsenicum. 

When the whole body swells after the patient has taken cold, 
give Bryonia, Helliborus, Bhus, or Calcarea. 

Pulsatilla. — For earache consequent upon scarlet fever, give 
one dose every hour, or every two hours, according to the severity 
of the case. If this does not afford relief after five or six doses 
have been taken, alternate Belladonna and Hepar-sulphur every 

Lycopodium. — For running from the ears, give one dose every 
six hours ; wait three or four clays, and if not better, give Calcarea, 
or Silicea in the same manner. 

Aurum. — For running from the nose, give one dose once in six 

Administration op Remedies. — Two drops or twelve globules 
of the chosen remedy may be dissolved in twelve spoonfuls of 
water, and one spoonful of the solution given every half hour, 
hour, or two hours, according to the severity of the symptoms. 

In all cases consult a Homoeopathic physician if possible. 

As adjuvants or assistants to the regular mode of treatment, a 
variety of articles has been recommended, such as baths, lotions, 
inunctions, affusions, etc. ; my own experience in regard to the ap- 
plication of these, has not been very extensive. The only external 
application I have ever recommended, has been simply to bathe 
the child with a weak solution of saleratus, and apply cold water 
bandages to the throat, and I am inclined to think that homoeop- 
athic physicians generally meet with such good success in the 
treatment of scarlet fever, that they are seldom tempted to resort 
to other remedial agents than those which come legitimately under 
the law of " similiaP 

Inunction has within the last few years been highly recommend- 
ed in the treatment of this disease. Inunction means simply 
smearing the patient all over with oil or fat. It is performed in 
this manner : — Take a piece of fat bacon about the size of your 
hand, and rub the patient with it from head to foot, omitting only 
the face and scalp, every morning and evening. This is to be 
done as soon as aware of the nature of the disease. It is said that 
children like this rubbing very much, as soon as they become ini- 
tiated and learn how pleasant it is. It is recommended especially 
for those whose skin is very hot and dry, and when the eruption 
is intense, accompanied by violent itching and irritation. On ac- 


count of the disagreeable character of "bacon, Dr. Meigs recom- 
mends the following ointment, which can be obtained from any 
druggist : — 

Glycerine, one drachm, 
Ointment of- rose-water, one ounce. 

The two thoroughly mixed together form an unctuous substance of 
which the doctor says : " In my hands it has had the effect of 
allaying, in all cases, the violent irritation, caused by the intense 
heat and inflammation of the skin. This preparation removes, of 
course, the dryness and hardness of the skin, keeping it, instead, 
soft and moist. It lessens, or even removes, the burning and itch- 
ing caused by the eruption." — Diseases Child. 3d ed., p. 539. 

Baths. — Though having never myself used baths in the treat- 
ment of this disease, I am inclined to the opinion that great bene- 
fit may be derived from the judicious external employment of 

To make a proper application of water, the physician, or at least 
an intelligent, educated nurse, should be constantly with the pa- 
tient, because the efficiency of the treatment depends upon the 
proper adaptation of the temperature of the water to each individ- 
ual case ; for instance, if ice-cold affusions were made on a scarlet 
fever patient, when the skin was pale and cool, the pulse rapid 
and feeble, great injury would be done. Such a case should be 
treated with hot or warm baths. Some cases require cold water, 
some temperate, others warm ; again, at some stages of the disease 
it may be necessary to use cold baths, at others warm ones ; in 
fact, water of various temperatures must be applied according to 
the state or condition and nature of the case under treatment. 

I have always been in the habit of recommending the applica- 
tion of cold bandages to the throat, as soon as the patient com-" 
plained of soreness, and especially in those cases attended with 
great heat of skin, high fever, pulse full and strong, violent in- 
flammation of the throat, and the glands about the neck swollen 
and hard. The bandages should be dipped afresh into the water 
every few minutes, and the application continued as long as the 
throat symptoms continue severe. 

Sponging the patient off with a weak solution — just sufficiently 
alkaline to be perceptible to the taste — of saleratus water, pro- 
duces all the soothing effect claimed so strongly for inunction. In 
case of repercussion of the eruption, I should highly recommend 


the course of treatment recommended by Dr. Mundle, an experi- 
enced hydropathist, as quoted by Dr. Pulte. " In case the scarlet 
fever strikes in suddenly, the patient is sponged off in cold water 
all over ; and if spasms had ensued, cold water is dashed over him 
in larger quantities until the spasmodic action ceases ; he is then 
wrapped, without being dried or rubbed, in woollen blankets, if 
possible, and as much cold water given internally as he can drink ; 
in most cases a general perspiration will ensue, the eruption re- 
appear, and the patient is saved. 

Diet and Regimen. — During the height of the fever, the patient- 
seldom cares for anything to eat. When the mouth is dry and 
parched, small quantities of thin rice gruel, or gruel made of 
arrow-root, may be administered, or, if the patient prefer it, he 
may be allowed rice-water, toast-water, or cold water, to drink. A 
very pleasant and cooling drink is made by adding a little rasp- 
berry or strawberry syrup to' pure cold water. The best syrups 
are those prepared by " Turner Brothers," corner of Franklin and 
"Washington Street, New York. Warm drinks should not be 
allowed, unless especially craved. When the teeth and lips be- 
come covered over with crusts or scabs, they should be carefully 
cleansed with tepid milk and water. Great care should be taken 
to keep the mouth as cleanly as possible, and this can only be done 
by constant attention. 

After the fever has abated, there will be a craving for something 
more substantial, in the shape of food. The return, however, to a 
more nourishing diet should be gradual, and great care should be 
taken in order to avoid overtaxing the digestive organs, as neglect 
in this respect may be productive of the most serious consequences. 
In mild attacks, the patient may be allowed, during the whole 
illness, gruel and weak broths ; but in severe cases, and during 
the raging of the fever, toast-water, barley-water, and perhaps very 
thin gruel, is about the only nourishment that it is advisable to 
administer. During the early part of convalescence, gruels, milk- 
toast, etc., may be allowed as the appetite returns. If this does 
not interfere* and digestion goes regularly on, recourse may soon 
be had to broths, soups, digestible meats, etc. 

The room in which a scarlet-fever patient is confined, should be 
as large and airy as possible ; it should be well ventilated, but 
never fumigated. The bed should be kept sweet and clean, 
clothes, bandages, in fact, everything about the patient, as soon as 
done with, should be removed. Of course great care should be 


taken to guard strictly the patient, lest he should take cold. A 
room can be kept well ventilated without exposing the patient. 

Particular caution is also necessary about allowing a child to 
go out too early, as often various secondary disturbances are caused 
by want of proper prudence ; but of this we have spoken at length, 

Prevention. — I believe as a general thing, all schools of medi- 
cine now acknowledge the prophylactic properties of Belladonna 
against scarlet fever. During the prevalence of the disease, it is 
advisable that all who are liable to an attack should take this 
remedy as a preventative, and then if the disease is not entirely 
guarded against, it is at least rendered comparatively harmless. 
One dose of the thirtieth attenuation of Belladonna should be 
taken every other evening^ for at least ten days. 


Definition. — This, though frequently mistaken for, is quite 
a different disease from scarlet fever. Scarlet rash consists of 
small granular elevations, easily felt on passing the hand over the 
skin. The eruption is of a dark-red color, sometimes almost 
purple ; the pressure of the finger leaves no white imprint as 
it does in scarlet fever, and there is seldom any, or at least no 
great amount of sore throat. Scarlet rash may be easily con- 
founded with measles, as the eruption in the two diseases is very 

Causes. — This malady is most common in summer and autumn, 
nevertheless it does occur at all seasons of the year. It attacks 
children of all ages. It is not a contagious disease, and is said 
to be occasioned by gastric derangement, also by sudden atmos- 
pheric changes, by violent exercise, by the use of cold drinks 
while the body is heated, and by checked perspiration. 

Symptoms. — The eruption is generally preceded by chilliness, 
alternating with heat, accompanied by loss of strength, heaviness, 
and fulness of the head, restlessness, sometimes with vertigo, 
severe pain in the head, and even mild delirium. There is for the 
first few days in connection with the above symptoms, more or 
less fever, heat and dryness of the skin, loss of appetite, and 
perhaps some gastric derangement. After these symptoms have 
continued for an indefinite length of time, the rash appears ; 
sometimes upon the third or fourth day, and in its regularity and 


appearance so much resembles measles, that it may be mistaken 
for that disease. There is this difference, however, between scarlet 
rash and measles ; the latter disease is accompanied by catarrhal 
symptoms, running at the nose, eyes, &c, the eruption appearing 
invariably on the fourth day, first on the face, next on the body, 
and lastly on the extremities. Such regularity is not found in 
scarlet rash, neither is the rash accompanied by catarrhal symp- 
toms, and the eruption may appear irregularly, or at once over the 
whole body. 

Scarlet rash need not be confounded with scarlet fever, as the 
rash of the latter is of a bright tint, and generally quite uniform 
over the whole surface of the body : in scarlet rash the eruption is 
composed of irregular circular patches, and their color is of a 
deep rose red, instead of a bright-red or scarlet. In scarlet fever 
we have a peculiar sore throat ; in the simple rash we have none ; 
besides scarlet rash is not contagious. 

Treatment. — Aconite is about the only remedy called for in 
ordinary cases, perhaps where there is great restlessness it might 
be advantageously alternated with Coffea. 

Ijjecacua?iha and Pulsatilla are sometimes called for, especially 
when the disorder is attended with nausea and vomiting. 

If the rash disappears suddenly, alternate Ipecacuanha and 

Belladonna is called for when there is fulness of the head, blood- 
shot eyes, starting and closing the eyes, and other symptoms of 
head disturbances. 

When there is stupor, give an occasional dose of Opium. 

Administration of Eemedies. — Dissolve twelve globules of the 
selected remedy in twelve spoonfuls of water, and give one spoon- 
ful of the solution at a dose. The repetition of the remedy will 
depend upon the severity of the symptoms. Generally a dose of 
Aconite every two hours will sooir end the difficulty. 

Diet and Regimen. — The same as in " Measles." 


Definition. — This disease is characterized by inflammatory 
fever ; by catarrhal symptoms ; hoarseness, dry cough ; sneezing, 
drowsiness, and an eruption. The eruption appears generally on 
the fourth day, in the shape of small, red dots, like flea-bites, which, 
as they multiply, unite together into irregular circles or horse-shoe 


shapes, leaving the intermediate portions of skin of their natural 
color. These red points are slightly elevated, and can readily be 
felt by passing the hand over the surface. 

In many respects, measles resemble scarlet fever; it has its 
period of incubation, its introductory fever, its peculiar rash, it 
occurs but once to the same person, and is contagious. 

Causes. — The causes of measles are epidemic influences and 
contagion. Of these two modes of propagation there is scarcely a 
doubt but that the former is by far the most active. 

At precisely what period of the disease its infectious nature is 
most to be feared is not well ascertained, neither are we certain 
as to how long it lingers about the patient after convalescence has 
fairly taken place. The average period of incubation or time 
required to develop the disease after exposure, is from seven to 
twenty days. 

Symptoms. — As a general thing, the first symptoms complained 
of are lassitude, irritability, aching in the back and limbs, and 
shivering, which is soon followed by fever, thirst, and headache, 
and by irritation of the mucous membrane of the eyes, nose, 
mouth, and larynx. 

The symptoms preceding an attack are similar to those of a 
catarrh or cold in the head. The eyes assume a peculiar appear- 
ance, somewhat as if blood-shot ; the eyelids are heavy, turgid, and 
red. There is generally much sneezing, watering at the eyes, 
copious defluxion from the nose, soreness of the throat, and a 
dry, hoarse, peculiar cough. These symptoms are owing to the 
irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the 
throat and nasal passages. 

This, the first, or catarrhal stage of the disease, lasts generally 
about three days ; upon the fourth day, seldom earlier, frequently 
later, the eruption makes its appearance. The eruption itself con-' 
sists at first of distinct points, not unlike flea-bites, of a more or 
less rose, or bright red, or crimson color, which, as they multiply, 
unite into blotches or patches, that are mostly of an irregular, 
oval, or semi-lunar shape, leaving the intervening portions of skin 
of their natural color. 

The rash is two or three days in coming out ; beginning upon the 
chin or cheeks, or some other portion of the face, it extends to 
the neck, arms, and trunk of the body, and finally to the lower 
extremities. This stage lasts from twenty-four to forty-eight hours. 
The fever does not diminish when the eruption makes its appear- 


ance.. On the contrary, during this period all the symptoms are 
at their height, but the moment the eruption passes its highest 
point of intensity the fever gradually begins to diminish, the catar- 
rhal symptoms subside, the cough loses its hoarseness, becomes 
looser, and finally dies away. 

About the seventh or eighth day of the attack, or third or fourth 
of the eruption, the disease begins to subside. The rash first fades 
on those parts where it first made its appearance, and it not unfre- 
quently happens that it has almost entirely disappeared upon the 
face, while it is still livid upon the lower extremities. 

After the eruption passes away, the parts which it recently 
occupied are left covered with a dry, small scurf, small bran-like 
scales. The skin does not peel off in large flakes as it sometimes 
does in scarlet fever, but it crumbles away like dust or fine powder. 

This stage of desquamation, as it is called, is more indefinite in 
its duration than those which precede it ; but, as a general thing, 
it lasts six or seven days, and during this period the patient 
ought to receive as much care as when the disease was at its height. 

The above account of symptoms are those which appear in a 
regular or usual form of the disease, but the eruption presents 
various irregularities, which we will now notice. 

The severity of measles does not depend upon the amount of 
the eruption, or rather because the rash appears early and plenti- 
ful, it is no sign that the disease will be more 'severe or more 
dangerous ; on the contrary, the worst cases met with are those 
where the eruption is but partial, does not come out well, appears 
late, or irregular. In what is called the black measles, the erup- 
tion comes out slowly and imperfectly, and is of a livid, purplish, 
or even blackish color. This is a very dangerous form of the 
disease ; the patient may die early from exhaustion, or congestion 
of the brain or lungs. 

A retrocession of the eruption* is very apt to be followed by un- 
pleasant, if not alarming symptoms. 

Sometimes measles are complicated with gastric disarrange- 
ments ; in such cases the tongue will be found coated ; there is 
some nausea and perhaps sickness at the stomach ; the eruption 
does not stand out as prominent as it should, and the healthy por- 
tions of skin between the patches of eruption have a yellowish 
tinge. Perhaps the most frequent and important complication of 
measles is inflammation of the lungs. Inflammation of the bowels' 
is also a frequent complication. 



As scarlet fever and measles may possibly be confounded one 
with the other, we have taken pains to point out their distinguish- 
ing feature under the head of the former disease, to which the 
reader is referred. 

Treatment. — Aconitum. — In ordinary cases this is about the 
only remedy called for ; in fact the simple uncomplicated forms of 
the disease need scarcely any treatment whatever except hygi- 

In all cases, no matter how mild, the patient should be confined 
in a large, well-ventilated room. In most cases the patient is quite 
willing to lie in his bed during the first part of the disease ; but. as 
soon as the eruption begins to disappear and the fever subside, he 
Will want to be dressed, and, when once dressed, he will think it 
strange that he cannot go out, especially if he feels quite well ; 
however, he should not leave his room, and certainly not the 
house, until he has regained his accustomed healthful look. 

It has always been the custom to shut a measles patient in a hot 
room, and allow him nothing but hot drinks. This is a most per- 
nicious habit, and has no doubt led to a great many serious and 
even fatal results. 

The bed, if it be possible, as we before said, should be placed in 
a large, iv ell-ventilated room. The patient should never be allowed 
hot drinks, and especially those which are recommended, to throw 
out the eruption. If he is thirsty, give him cold ivater, as much 
as he wants. It is the most palatable, and by far the best drink 
you can procure. I have never known small quantities — say a 
wineglass full at a time — of the coldest water do any harm. On 
the contrary, I have seen the most happy results brought about by 
its free use. In those cases where the eruption is backward about 
coming out, give the patient a glass of good cold water and cover 
him up warm in bed. This is especially advisable where the fever 
is violent and the heat of the skin very great. 

The diet, during the febrile stage, ought to be extremely light. 
The patient, as a usual thing, will ask for but little ; but that 
little should consist of thin wheat or rice-flour gruel, barley-water, 
toast-water, milk and water, tapioca, crackers soaked in water, or 
some similar food. When the fever begins to abate, the allowance 
may be increased to plain or toast bread, or bread pudding, or to 
some light broth, either animal or vegetable, and even to a small 
quantity of chicken or beef-steak once a day until the strength is 
fully regained, when the usual diet can be resumed. By observ- 


ing the above rules strictly, and giving the patient an occasional 
dose of Aconitum, you will have no trouble in managing all ordi- 
nary cases. 

Owing to complications, which are not unfrequently present, 
other treatment than the simple one pointed out above will be 
called for. 

Belladonna. — This remedy should be given when there is con- 
siderable soreness of the throat, shooting and prickling pain when 
swallowing, much thirst, and a spasmodic, dry cough"; also, in 
those cases where the eruption is backward about coming out, and 
when there is congestion to the head, high fever, restlessness, and 

Pulsatilla. — This may be alternated with Aconite, especially 
should the catarrhal symptoms predominate, or should there be 
gastric derangement. Where the gastric symptoms predominate, 
it is sometimes necessary to give an occasional dose of Ipecacuanha. 

Ipecacuanha and Bryonia — in alternation, are called for when 
the eruption does not come out well, or, when the measles strike 
in suddenly, and look pale, and especially if there be sickness at 
the stomach, and oppression at the chest. 

Bryonia — is called for where there is threatened bronchitis or 
pneumonia, indicated by shooting pains or stitches in the chest, 
and violent, dry cough. 

Euphrasia — for severe inflammation and watering of the eyes. 

Rhus — in alternation with Bryonia, when the symptoms assume 
a typhoid form, the tongue being dry and red, the skin hot and 
dry, constant or occasional delirium. Should there be, in addition 
to the above symptoms, great restlessness, intense thirst, brownish 
or dark diarrhoea, alternate Arsenicum and Rhus. 

Sequels. — Disorders consequent upon measles are frequently 
even more dangerous than the primary affection. Running at the 
ears, inflammation and swelling^of the glands, especially about the 
neck, are apt to occur. This is frequently the case in scrofulous 

For running at the ears, and earache, give Pulsatilla, or Sulphur. 

Swelling of the glands of the neck, Arnica, Rhus, or Mercurius. 

For burning and itching of the skin, Nux-v., Sulphur, or Arsenicum. 

For the remaining cough, which often lingers with the patient 
for some time, give Bryonia, Brosera, BTyoscyamus, Causticum. 
— See article on " Cough." Comp. BTepar-s. 

When measles are epidemically prevailing, Pulsatilla has been 


recommended as a preventive. One dose should be given every 
two or three days ; this, it is said, will often ward off an attack ; 
or, if the disease should be taken, render it mild. 

Diet and Regimen. — Of this we have already spoken. 

Administration of Remedies. — Of the tincture, one drop, or 
twelve globules should be dissolved in twelve spoonfuls of water, 
and of this solution, one spoonful may be given every two or three 
hours, according to the severity of the symptoms. 

For the sequels of the disease, the remedy should not be re- 
peated oftener than once in six hours. 


Definition. — Urticaria, or as it is more commonly called, nettle- 
rash, is a non-contagious eruptive disease, characterized by little, 
hard elevations upon the skin, of uncertain size and shape, and 
generally of a red color, with a whitish tinge ; sometimes, how- 
ever, there is little or no redness, and the elevated parts are even 
paler than the surface around them ; more frequently, however, I 
think the elevated spots are partially red and partially white. The 
eruption, on making its appearance is attended with intense heat, 
tingling and itching in the spots ; it is much like that produced 
by the sting of the nettle, from which it takes its name. 

Causes. — Some persons have a constitutional predisposition to 
this disease, and the slightest error in diet, or the most trivial 
functional derangement of the digestive apparatus, is sufficient to 
bring on an attack. Children possessing a fine, delicate skin, are 
particularly predisposed to attacks of hives ; in such, slight gastric 
disturbance, a warm day, excessive clothing, dentition, or almost 
any little disturbance will produce an attack. 

Symptoms. — As a general thing, the disorder in children mani- 
fests itself without any premonitory symptoms. The eruption, as 
before stated, consisting of elevated spots, sometimes red, more 
frequently partly red and partly white, attended with heat, burn- 
ing and itching, the blotches are constantly changing from one 
position to another, or disappearing in a few hours on one part, 
and appearing on another. The most frequent form of the dis- 
ease which we meet with in small children consists in large 
inflamed blotches of an irregular shape, being either round or 
oblong, appearing suddenly, and preceded by very slight if any 
constitutional symptoms. The blotches are of a bright-red color, 
excepting the slightly elevated center, which is white. 


This form of the disease is not dangerous, but is very annoying, 
and occasions great irritability and crying. The eruption most 
commonly makes its appearance about the face, the upper part of 
the arms, thighs, and buttocks. 

In some cases, especially in the older children, the eruption is 
preceded by headache, bitter taste in the mouth, coated tongue, 
nausea, vomiting, and fever. This is particularly the case in that 
form of the rash which is induced by errors in diet and exposure 
to cold. 

Another form of the disease which is preceded for a few hours 
or a few days by feverishness, headache, nausea, chilliness, and 
languor, is where the blotches assume reddish and solid elevations, 
either round or oblong, often called wheals. They resemble as 
much as anything the ridges caused by the stroke of a whip-lash. 
This eruption, like the other forms, is attended with violent itch- 
ing and burning. During the attack, the patient is usually more 
or less feverish, and suffers from headache, languor, loss of appe- 
tite, and other signs of gastric derangement. 

Treatment. — Aconite should always be given when the erup- 
tion is preceded or accompanied by much fever, hot skin, thirst, 
furred tongue, restlessness, and anxiety. 

Pulsatilla. — "When the attack has apparently been excited by 
indigestible food. 

Nux-vomica. — When there is considerable gastric derangement 
with constipation. 

Dulcamara. — When caused by taking cold, accompanied by 
diarrhoea at night ; slimy taste in the mouth ; coated tongue. 
This remedy may be given in alternation with Antimonium-crud. 

Rhus. — For those predisposed to the eruption, and especially 
when it arises or has been thrown out by some particular article 
of food. 

Ledum Palustre. — This remedy will cure the majority of cases. 

External applications, except it be a solution which is being 
given internally, should be avoided, as their use is liable to cause 
a sudden disappearance of the eruption, which may have a serious 
or even fatal consequence. 

Should the rash strike in suddenly, and the patient complain of 
oppression, great weakness, and sickness at the stomach, give 
Ipecac, or Bryonia ; if not better in a couple of hours, give Arsen- 
icum. At the same time endeavor to promote perspiration by cov- 
ering the patient well and giving him plenty of cold water to drink. 


For chronic urticaria give Calcaria and Lycopodium, in alter- 
nation, one close every fourth day. 

Administeation of Remedies. — Of the remedy chosen give 
five globules dry upon the tongue every three hours. Or, in 
severe cases, dissolve six globules in twelve spoonfuls of water, 
and give one spoonful of the solution every hour. 

Diet and Regimen. — About the same as that recommended in 
" Measles." 

erysipelas. st. a]stthoisry''s eire. 

Definition. — Causes. — Erysipelas is a non-contagious disease, 
characterized by a cleep-red rash, or superficial inflammation of 
the skin, which has the peculiarity of spreading from place to 
place, the part first attacked recovering while the neighboring 
parts are becoming affected. 

Erysipelas in childhood is a rare disease ; I have seen but a few 
cases ; three are all that I can now call to mind, and they resulted 
from vaccination ; not that the vaccine matter poisoned the child, 
but rather the local irritation produced in introducing the virus 
acted as the exciting cause or agency, which brought into action a 
disease, the seeds of which already existed in the system. Any 
other scratch would have been followed by a like result. 

The causes of erysipelas are obscure : slight points of irritation 
upon the skin may form a nucleus from which the erysipelatous 
inflammation may spread, but these certainly cannot be the real 
cause. There must be a general epidemic constitution of the air 
at times, in certain localities or districts, which predisposes to the 
disease, or else there is a hereditary taint in the system. 

Symptoms. — As a general thing, we find but few if any marked 
premonitory constitutional symptoms ; the appearance of the erup- 
tion being the first sign of the disease, after which we soon have 
fever, heat, dryness of the skin, and thirst. 

The inflamed surface is at first of a bright-red and shining 
appearance, but it soon assumes a purplish hue, and, as this change 
takes place, the parts become tense, hard to the touch, and more 
or less swollen and painful. The color disappears under pressure 
of the finger, but returns as soon as the pressure is removed. 

"When the inflammation once begins, if not soon arrested there 
is no knowing where it will end. When it starts upon the face it 
may extend to the scalp and cover its whole surface, or, when 
commencing upon the arm, it may extend down to the fingers, or 


up to the shoulder, and from there over the whole trunk of the 

Treatment. — Aconite. — This remedy is called for when there 
is high inflammatory fever ; hot, dry skin ; thirst ; etc. 

Belladonna. — This is the principal remedy for this disease, at 
least it has proved itself so in my hands. It is especially valuable 
for erysipelas of the face, with swollen eyes, great thirst, dry skin, 
and delirium. 

Lacliesis. — When there is considerable swelling; also, swelling 
of the adjoining glands, and when little blisters appear upon the 
surface and turn yellow or blue. 

Arsenicum. — When the eruption assumes a dark hue ; also, 
when there is great prostration of strength. 

Pulsatilla. — Especially in that form of the disease where the 
eruption disappears in one place to reappear in another. Graphites 
.is also useful in this form of the disease. Pulsatilla should be 
given when the disorder follows some particular article of diet ; 
also, when it affects the ear. It may be followed by Rhus or Bryonia. 

Mercurius and Hepar-s. — are called for when erysipelas ter- 
minates in abscesses. 

For this disease it is always best, when possible, to consult a 
homoeopathic physician. 

Administration of Remedies. — Dissolve six globules in as 
many spoonfuls of water, and give of the solution one spoonful 
every two or three hours. Should the first remedy, after waiting 
a reasonable length of time, fail to afford relief, select another and 
administer it in the same way. 

Diet and Regimen. — The same as for any other febrile disease, 
measles or scarlet fever. 

To allay the itching which is sometimes almost intolerable, dust 
the parts over with powdered starch, or burnt rye flour. 

Wet or greasy applications^ every description should be ab- 
jured, as they always aggravate disease. 


Definition. — Psora, scabies, or itch, which, if not the most 
elegant, is certainly the most expressive name, is a contagious 
eruptive disease, characterized by more or less numerous distinct 
pointed vesicles, transparent at the summit, and filled with a viscid 
serous fluid, while, from the base of each vesicle, as a general 
thing, run off small red lines. 


At present, itch is a rare disease ; at least as far as my observa- 
tion goes, it is so in this city. By foreign writers it is said to be 
very common among the poor in the large cities of Europe. 

Causes. — Itch is a contagious disease, and in all probability is 
contracted only by actual contact. 

The little vesicles which rise upon the skin are caused by the 
presence of a small insect, called Aearus Scabici. The zigzag 
track, which the mite makes in burrowing beneath the scarf-skin 
to lay its eggs, can readily be seen ; not so, however, with the mite 
itself, for it is very small, measuring, according to Wilson, between 
T \ Y and -^L of an inch in length, and between ^fa and ^ of an inch 
in breadth. — Wilson's Diseases of the Skin. 

■ Symptoms. — As a general thing, the eruption first appears upon 
the wrists and between the fingers, and extends more or less 
rapidly over the whole body except the face. It is frequently, 
however, confined to the hands, fingers, and bend of the joints. 

As above stated, the eruption appears in the form of small, 
pointed, transparent vesicles. Their number is variable ; in some 
cases they are very abundant, while in others they are but few, and 
confined for the most part to the flexures of the joints. At first, 
the vesicles are of a pinkish color, and contain a drop of viscid 
or sticky transparent serum; these soon become broken by the 
clothes or fingers, or burst spontaneously and form thin scabs. 

The disease is always attended by severe itching ; in fact this is 
the most prominent symptom and distressing feature of the dis- 
ease. The itching is most troublesome at night, being increased 
by the warmth of the bedclothes. 

Treatment. — For true itch, as we have described, Sulphur 
ointment is the specific and only remedy called for. 

Take of the finest Powder of Sulphur — sold by all druggists 
under the name of "Milk of Sulphur" — one part to two parts 
of lard ; mix thoroughly and rub it well into the skin, before a 
fire, night and morning, for two days. 

During this treatment the patient should wear a flannel gown 
and keep his bed. On the third day the skin should be washed off 
with soap and water. Should the first attempt not succeed in 
removing the trouble, repeat it. 

The disease scarcely requires any constitutional treatment, but 
should the Sulphur ointment do no good, simply because there are 
no mites for it to destroy, give the patient an occasional dose of 
Mercurius, say three globules once in four horns. 


When the vesicles are dry and small, or when from neglect the 
vesicles have spread so as to acquire the appearance of ulcers 
that have discharged their contents, give Eepar-s. the same as 

Sulphur may be used when the above remedies fail. Sulphur 
may be followed by Causiicum. 


Simple itching of the skin is scarcely a disease, of itself, but 
rather a symptom of some disease, and, indefinite though it is, it 
may direct us in the selection of a remedy for the morbid condi- 
tion which gives rise to the irritation. 

Should the itching always commence after the patient gets warm 
in bed, give Pulsatilla, Mercurius, or Cocculus. 

When the itching moves from one place to another on being 
scratched, give Ignatia. 

If it always commences when undressing, as is sometimes the 
case, Nux-v., Pulsatilla, or Arsenicum, sometimes Cocculus. 

When the itching is accompanied by intense burning, give Rhus, 
Ledum, Apium-v., Nux-v., or Bryonia. 

Stinging in the skin, Drosera, Staphysagria, Thuja, or Byronia. 

When the skin bleeds readily from scratching, Mercurius, or 

When the itching comes on in the daytime, and arises from 
over-heating, Lycopodium. 

Should either of the above remedies fail to produce the desired 
relief, give one dose of Sulphur, night and morning, when better 
results may be obtained. 

In administering the remedies, give from four to eight globules, 
morning, noon, and night. When parts of the body itch so intol- 
erably that the child will scratch them till they bleed, besides giv- 
ing the remedies above recommended, rub the parts with sweet oil. 
Sometimes powdered starch, sprinkled thickly over the skin, will 
allay the irritation. Again, washing with camphor-soap will stop 
it, or rubbing with spirits of camphor. 

For itching, produced by mosquito bites, Camphor is a specific, — 
applied externally. 



Definition. — By the term herpes, physicians understand a 
peculiar, non-contagious eruptive disease, characterized by an 



assemblage of numerous little vesicles or watery pimples, in clus- 
ters. These patches of vesicles are surrounded by more or less 
inflammation, or rather the vesicles are situated on an inflamed 
surface, and are separated from each other by portions of perfectly 
healthy skin. 

The fluid which fills the apex of each little vesicle is at first 
transparent and colorless, but soon becomes milky and opaque, 
and in the course of eight or ten days is entirely absorbed, or 
concretes into furfuraceous, bran-like scales. 

There are several varieties of herpes ; those that are most com- 
mon in children are zoster or shingles, and eircinatus or ringworm. 
The other varieties are so seldom met with, that we deem it use- 
less to mention them. 

Herpes is quite a frequent disease in childhood, especially that 
variety known as " Ringworm." 

Causes. — The causes of skin diseases are obscure and uncer- 
tain. Perhaps the most appreciable cause, the one most clearly 
ascertained, and certainly the most frequent, is some disturbance 
of the digestive function. Bilious disorders of all kinds, sudden 
transitions of temperature, suppressed perspiration, irregularity 
in diet, and local irritants may be set down as the exciting causes. 

Ringworm, or " Herpes Circinatus." — Almost every one is 
more or less familiar with this form of the disease. Its character- 
istic feature is the peculiar arrangement of the vesicles, which are 
very small, and disposed in circular rings. The vesicles present 
the same appearance, except that they are smaller, dry up and 
exfoliate, as they do in the other varieties of the disease. 

The first indication we have of the presence of the disease, or 
of its threatened appearance, is the more or less vivid redness 
of the skin at the point affected. This redness or inflammation is 
soon studded over, more or less thickly, with vesicles. The circu- 
lar patches — as a general thing they are exactly circular — vary 
a good deal in size, being in some instances not larger than a 
ten-cent piece ; in others it may present a diameter of two or 
three inches. 

"When small the whole surface of the patch is inflamed, the 
centre being of a lighter shade than the circumference. When 
large, the circumference alone is red, the centre retaining the 
natural color of the skin. 

These eruptive patches or rings may appear upon any part of 
the body, but are most frequent perhaps upon the upper extremi- 
ties and neck. 


Ringworm of the scalp, is considered by many authors, as a 
separate and distinct disease, differing from herpes circinatus, as it 
appears upon other parts of the body. For my own part, I can 
see no good reason for considering it anything but the simple 
herpes which we have just described. 

If, indeed, there be a difference in the two diseases, we not 
unfrequently have them both existing in the same patient at the 
same time. 

The latter is said to be contagious ; the former, not. This may 
be so. I have not sufficient data upon this point to give an intelli- 
gent opinion. 

Herpes Zoster, or, as it is sometimes called, " Shingles," is 
quite an uncommon variety of the disease, at least, I think so, 
from the fact that I have never met with but one case. The word 
" zoster " signifies a girdle or belt, and is applied to this disease, 
from the fact that eruption appears in the form of a half zone 
or belt surrounding the body. 

Old ladies will tell you, that, if the two ends of this vesicular 
zone meet, — that is, if the belt extends clear around the body, — 
the child will die ; but, as this never happens, it need give you no 
alarm. The most frequent seat of shingles is at the waist, the 
belt seldom extending more than half-way around the body, com- 
mencing, as a general thing, at the mesial line in front, and 
extending to some point behind. 

From most descriptions of the disease, one would think that 
the eruption formed a perfect half zone, but this is not the case ; 
it is rather made up of distinct patches arranged in a line, but 
separated from each other by portions of healthy skin. 

Shingles is generally preceded by constitutional symptoms more 
or less severe, such as languor, loss of appetite, rigors, headache, 
sickness, and fever. The local symptoms are pungent and burn- 
ing pain at the points where the*eruption makes its appearance. 

The duration of herpes is variable ; it is an acute disease, and 
seldom lasts over eight or ten days ; some cases, however, last 
longer, especially of the variety called circinatus. Sometimes the 
rings appear, and in a short time fade away, but to re-appear upon 
some other part of the body ; and thus, by the formation of succes- 
sive rings or patches, the disease is continued for three or four 

Treatment. — As a general thing, ringworm yields readily . 
under the action of Sepia. 


Give three globules of the 200 th potency every night, for three 
days ; then omit four days, and repeat in the same manner. 

Should this prove insufficient, or should the rings reappear after 
having once vanished, give Rhus and Sulphur in alternation, one 
dose every third day. As soon as amendment takes place, discon- 
tinue the remedies ; the cure will steadily progress to completion. 

Occasionally, it will be found necessary to give either Natrum- 
mur., Calcarea, Graphites, Silicea, Mtric-ac, Phosphorus, or Mer- 

Should there be violent itching, give Mtric-ac, or Graphites. 

Should the surface be scaly, give Sepia, Silicea, or Sulphur. 

Should it be moist or running, give Calcarea, Graphites, or 

For ringworm of the scalp, first give one dose of Rhus, — 200th — 
every evening for three days ; then omit three, and repeat as 
before. Should the case improve, continue the remedy at long 
intervals, until the cure is completed. 

Should the eruption be moist and offensive, give Staphysagria, 
as above directed for Rhus. Rhus may be advantageously followed 
by Staphysagria. Should these remedies fail, give one or two 
doses of Arsenicum, when better results may be expected. 

Should the eruption affect the scalp and face at the same time, 
give Hepar-s. or Calcarea. 

When the glands of the neck become painful and swollen, give 
Mercurius or Bryonia. 

The only external application that is called for is a solution of 
the remedy which you are giving internally. This may be made 
by dissolving eight or ten pills in a teacupful of tepid soft water. 

For Zona, or Shingles, give Aconite, especially when, on the first 
breaking out of the eruption, there is languor, headache, pain in 
the chest, and fever. When these symptoms have somewhat sub- 
sided, Rhus will be the appropriate remedy, and may be given 
once in four hours. 

Should there be nausea and vomiting, give Tartar-emetic, one 
close every two hours until relief is obtained. 

When the fluid in the vesicles becomes dark and maturated, 
give Hepar-s. the same as Rhus. 

When there is great thirst, dry skin, with burning and uncom- 
fortable restlessness, give Arsenicum. 

Sometimes, after resisting all other remedies, it will yield kindly 
to a few doses of Sulphur. 


Should the eruptive patches degenerate into ulceration, give one 
of the following remedies : Mercurius, Lycopodium, Sulphur ', or Sepia. 

Diet and Regimen. — As the complaint often arises from gastric 
derangement, particular care should be taken as to what the 
patient is allowed to eat. Avoid all high-seasoned food, all rich 
dishes, all irritating substances ; in one word, place the child upon 
a plain, farinaceous diet. 

The skin should be kept clean ; avoid all irritating and all scented 
soaps, and be a little careful to have the clothes so adjusted that 
they will not rub and irritate the eruptive patches. 


Definition and Causes. — During the heats of summer, infants 
and young children are frequently much annoyed with an eruption 
consisting of small papulse or pimples, few of them being larger 
than a pin's head, scattered more or less thickly over the affected 
surface. The pimples are about the size of a pin's head, and are 
of a red color, more or less bright, according to the intensity of 
the eruption. As a general thing, the skin between the papulse 
retains its natural appearance. The eruption is most abundant on 
those parts covered by the dress ; its development is undoubtedly 
favored by warm rooms and excess of clothing. As a general 
thing, we find it more copious about the neck, the upper part of 
the chest, and on the arms and legs. 

More or less fever usually accompanies the disorder ; and the 
intolerable itching of the parts affected causes much fretfulness 
and a constant desire to scratch. In the infant there is great 
restlessness, worrying, and disturbance of the sleep. 

Treatment. — In the majority of these cases, scarcely any 
treatment whatever is called for. Only when the eruption is very 
abundant, and the child is much annoyed by the heat and itching 
it occasions, is it necessary to pay any attention to it. It is re- 
garded as salutary, rather beneficial than otherwise, to the child ; 
and it is therefore considered bad practice to apply anything which 
has a tendency to repel it. 

Aconite and Chamomilla — will generally afford relief, especially 
when the eruption is attended with fever and restlessness. 

Rhus, Arsenicum, and Sulphur are sometimes called for. 

Administration of Remedies. — Dissolve six pills in as many 
spoonfuls of water, and of this solution give one spoonful, every 
two hours. 


Great comfort and benefit will be obtained by frequent bathing. 
Sponging the child off two or three times a day with bran-water, 
or slippery-elm water, or any other mucilaginous substance, will 
often allay the irritation, and afford considerable relief. 


Definition. — Under the general head of Strophulus, we have 
included, red gum, white gum, and tooth-rash. These eruptions are 
most common during dentition. Their causes are, various dis- 
turbances of the digestive apparatus. They are never attended 
with any danger, and as they are about the only pimply eruption 
to which young infants are subject, there is no difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing them. We shall describe them separately. 

Red Gum. — The papula) or pimples, characterizing this variety 
of the disease, rise sensibly above the level of the skin ; they are 
of a vivid red color, and scattered here and there over different 
parts of the whole body : we more commonly find them, however, 
on the cheeks, fore-arm, and the back of the hands. Red gum 
occurs chiefly within the first two months of lactation. The erup- 
tion remains upon the skin some time, one or two weeks, perhaps ; 
the pimples disappearing and reappearing in successive crops. It 
usually terminates in exfoliation of the scarf-skin. 

White Gum. — This variety of strophulus is characterized by 
white instead of red papulae. 

Tooth-Rash. — In this variety the pimples or papulae are much 
smaller, more numerous, and set more closely together than in the 
others ; their color is not so vivid, but they are generally more 
prominent, and constitute a more severe disorder. The eruption, 
for the most part appearing only during dentition, has on this 
account received the name of tooth-rash. 

Treatment. — As a general rule, it is hardly worth while to 
make a prescription for either of these complaints. If the bowels 
be out of order, as they sometimes are, a corrective should be ad- 
ministered. Cleanliness and attention to the dress, however, are 
usually all that is necessary. 

Either Coffea, Ghamomilla, Aconite, or Belladonna may be given 
when there is great restlessness. Dose, the same as in " Prickly 


Definition. — Chicken-pox, or varicella, as it is technically 
called, is a contagious, eruptive, febrile disease, characterized by 


more or less numerous transparent vesicles or little bladders, 
which appear first as a small red dot or stigma, and gradually 
change into vesicles about the size of a small pea, containing a 
watery, sometimes a milky fluid. 

At one time many considered varicella as but one of the varie- 
ties, or modified forms, of small-pox. Observation and experi- 
ence, however, have proved that it is an independent and specific 
disease, and not in the remotest way related to variola or vario- 
loid. It is propagated by contagion, and by epidemic in- 

Symptoms. — The constitutional symptoms of varicella are, as a 
general thing, trifling : occasionally we have, as precursory symp- 
toms, chills folloAved by heat, hurried pulse, loss of appetite, nau- 
sea, and sometimes vomiting. After which, the eruption makes 
its appearance, but without that regularity which marks variola. 
Sometimes it is first observed upon the back or face ; perhaps 
more frequently upon these parts than elsewhere ; however, it 
may appear upon any part of the body. As a general thing, the 
premonitory symptoms are entirely absent, or, at least, so imper- 
fectly developed as to pass unnoticed, and the appearance of the 
eruption is the first declaration of the presence of the malady. 

The eruption appears in the form of small red stigmata or pim- 
ply spots, which, in the course of a few hours, exhibit small vesi- 
cles in their centres. About the second day the papulag are con- 
verted into globular vesicles, the size of a small pea, and filled 
with a transparent fluid, which is either entirely colorless, or of a 
faint orange tinge. Generally the vesicles are not very numerous, 
and are scattered over the body. Sometimes we find them crowd- 
ed together, even running into each other. On the fourth day, 
they begin to shrink ; those that have not been broken by acci- 
dent, or scratched open by the child, in its effort to allay the itch- 
ing which they give rise to, assuming a shrivelled appearance at 
the margins, and soon turning into a thin, brownish, horny scurf, 
which falls off in two or three days, leaving behind no scar, but a 
faint-red spot, which soon disappears. 

The eruption is usually accompanied by a sensation of heat and 
itching, which is the occasion of a great deal of uneasiness. The 
child rubs and scratches those vesicles that are within reach, 
breaking and thus preventing them from running the regular 
course above described. 

Treatment. — Unless complicated, this disease requires but lit- 


tie treatment beyond attention to diet and the avoidance of cold 
during convalescence. 

Poor people let their children, during the whole course of the 
disease, run about the streets the same as ever, and they recover. 

Should the constitutional effects be marked, the fever and head- 
ache being considerable, an occasional dose of Aconite or Bella- 
donna may be given. 

The disease may be very much shortened by giving an occa- 
sional dose of Pulsatilla. This remedy has also been recom- 
mended as a preventive. 

Coffea. — When there is restlessness and considerable nervous 
excitement ; disturbed sleep, with dreams and moaning. 

Tartar-emetic. — When the eruption is very severe. Mercu- 
rius, Cantharides, and Ignatia are useful in some cases. 

Administration op Remedies. — Dissolve six globules in six 
spoonfuls of water, and give one spoonful of the solution every 
three hours. Should headache and fever be present, a dose may 
be given every hour. 

Diet and Regimen. — The same as in " Measles." 



Definition. — Small-pox is an epidemic and contagious erup- 
tive, febrile disease, characterized by an initial fever, which upon 
the third or fourth day is followed by an eruption of red pimples. 
In the course of two or three days these pimples are gradually 
changed into small vesicles, which contain a drop of transparent 
fluid. From the fourth to the sixth day these are changed into 
pustules, for the suppurative process now commences, converting 
the serum or transparent fluid, contained in the vesicle, into pus 
or matter, after which the pustules dry up, and are converted into 
scabs, which fall off between the fifteenth and twentieth day. 

Owing to the attention now everywhere given to vaccination, 
small-pox is comparatively a rare disease in children, especially 
among the middle and upper classes of society. I have never seen 
a case in a person under twenty years of age, and so deem it 
almost superfluous to write this description of the disease. But, 
as among the careless and the poorer classes vaccination is some- 
times neglected, the disease will occasionally break out, and one 
case is enough to alarm the whole neighborhood, it is as well that 
all should understand its nature and appropriate treatment. 


Causes. — Variola is a contagious and epidemic disease. The 
principal cause of the disease is universally acknowledged to be 
contagion. That it is propagated by epidemic influence, however 
is doubted. At what period of its course the disease acquires its 
power of infection is not clearly ascertained, and .as it is always 
best to err, if err we must, on the safe side, it is advisable to avoid 
the patient and his house, from the moment the real nature of the 
disease becomes apparent. 

The period after one is exposed to the disease, — that of incuba- 
tion, — which elapses before the first symptoms manifest them- 
selves, varies from nine to twelve or fourteen days. 

Like scarlet fever, one attack protects the constitution, in the 
majority of cases, against subsequent contagion. 

Symptoms and Treatment. — The disease has been divided into 
four stages, which we will proceed to describe, and give the treat- 
ment appropriate to each as we go along. 

First or Febrile Stage. — This commences, as we have before 
observed, from nine to twelve or fourteen days after exposure to 
the contagion. The patient first complains of pains in the bones 
and loins, similar to, and indeed they are often mistaken for those 
of a common cold, or he may be taken with a chill, more or 
less severe, accompanied with headache, and soon followed by 
fever ; dry, hot skin, and great thirst. Nausea and vomiting often 
exist from the beginning of the attack ; there are at the same time 
loss of appetite, oppression in the stomach, and constipation, 
more or less obstinate ; tongue red and dry. The principal symp- 
tom, during this stage of the disease, is the pain in the loins, 
which, though varying much in degree, is always severe. 

In some cases the head symptoms are severe, consisting of rest- 
lessness, and irritability ; light hurts the eyes ; there is swimming 
in the head ; the mind wanders ; the patient is flighty, and occa- 
sionally there are convulsions. 

These symptoms continue up to the time the eruption makes 
its appearance, winch is usually from forty-eight to seventy-two 

As appropriate remedies for this stage of the disease we have 
recommended Aconite, Belladonna, Bryonia, Rhus, and Tartar- 

Aconite. — Is especially called for during the chill and first few 
hours of the fever, and when there is severe pain in the head ; 
full bounding pulse ; thirst ; intolerance of light, and delirium. 



Belladonna — may follow Aconite, especially ■when there is se- 
vere headache and delirium ; also, when there is intolerance of 

Bryonia. — For the severe backache, pains in the bones, soreness 
of the chest, and constipation. Should this not relieve, alternate 
it with Rhus. 

Tartar-emetic. — For nausea and vomiting with clamminess of 
the skin. 

Dr. Teste, in writing upon this disease, after recommending 
Causticum and Mercurius-cor . (each of the 30th potency), to be 
given in alternation, once in four hours, says : " and we shall 
see, in an immense majority of cases, that, under the influence of 
this medication, the exanthema and all its concomitant symp- 
toms will be extinguished as if by magic." How true this asser- 
tion is, I cannot say, as I have never applied these remedies in 
this disease. I can say, however, that many of Dr. Teste's positive 
assertions cannot be substantiated in practice. 

Another remedy, which is gaining great repute, as a complete 
annihilator of the disease, is Thuja-occidentalis ; it is said to 
" throttle " the disease, in whatever stage it is administered. 

Second or Eruptive Stage. — Some time in the course of the 
third day, after the patient is first stricken with fever, the eruption 
begins to make its appearance in the shape of small red pimples, 
of the size of pin-heads ; as the eruption comes out, the fever 
subsides. This pimply eruption first shows itself upon the face, 
and then extends to the neck, trunk, limbs, hands, and feet. This 
stage of the disease lasts about three days, during which time the 
papulae or pimples gradually increase in size, and are changed into 
vesicles, or little pouches, filled with a transparent fluid. 

At the same time the eruption appears upon the skin, we have 
something corresponding to it, affecting the mucous membrane of 
the mouth, throat, and nose. Sometimes there is severe inflam- 
mation of the throat, with tenderness and swelling of the glands 
about the neck. 

The treatment, called for in this stage of the disease, depends, 
in a great measure, upon the effect of that instituted for the 
preceding one. If Thuja, or Mercurius-cor., and Causticum 
should have arrested the disease, other remedies will be uncalled 

Tartar-emetic, and Thuja, to a certain extent, undoubtedly have 
the power of arresting or mitigating the eruption. We frequently 


have cases reported in our medical journals, where, by these 
remedies, the disease in full progress has been arrested, and the 
pock dwindled away without ever arriving to maturity. 

If, during the eruptive stage, the delirium for which Belladonna 
has been given still remains, Stramonium should be administered, 
and especially if the eruption is at all backward about coming 

Bryonia. — When the eruption does not make its appearance as 
promptly as it should ; also, when there are constipation, headache, 
and pain in the back. 

Should there be, during the eruptive stage, much or any chest 
difficulty, with a hoarse, rattling cough, give Tartar-emetic or 

Third, or Suppurative Stage.— At this point the eruption 
changes from vesicular to pustular ; that is to say, the transparent 
fluid, which we have spoken of as being contained in the vesicles, 
gradually becomes opaque, whitish, and finally yellow, having 
changed from serum to pus. This change takes place from the 
fourth to the sixth day of the eruption, or about the eighth or 
ninth day of the disease. During this stage the pustule completes 
its development ; the pock becomes distended, and as large as a 
split bean. During the filling up of the pock the face swells, often 
to such a degree that the eyes are completely closed. 

As the eruption occupies about three days in coming out, those 
pustules which appeared first upon the face are quite in advance 
of those which appeared last upon the extremities. In fact, while 
those upon the face are in the third — the suppurative — stage, 
those upon the breast are in the second — the vesicular ; while 
those upon the extremities are in the first, or just making their 
appearance. Without this division of the burthen the disease cer- 
tainly would be unbearable. 

The treatment adapted to this^stage depends in a great measure 
upon the general feature of disease at its arrival. If there are 
no alarming symptoms ; if the fever which is reproduced during 
this time is not severe ; if the color of the skin between the pus- 
tules is not of a livid hue, the remedies which the patient is already 
taking may be continued. 

Mercurius. — This remedy is called for when there is sore throat 
and considerable fever. 

Arsenicum — should be given when the skin between the pus- 
tules becomes dark, livid, or brown. Should the pox itself become 


black, and typhoid symptoms set in, Muriatic acid should be given. 
For stupor during this stage, give Opium. For diarrhoea, China. 

Fourth, oe Stage of Desiccation. — This is the stage of de- 
cline. At about the eighth day of the eruption a small, dark spot 
makes its appearance on the top of each distended pustule. At 
this point the pock bursts ; a portion of the matter oozes out, 
and the pustule dries up into a scab. This, however, is not always 
the case ; sometimes the dark point formed upon the apex extends 
itself until the whole pustule is converted into a hard crust. 

The formation of crusts begins upon the face, and extends 
thence to the trunk and extremities. When at length these 
crusts fall off, the appearance of the skin beneath is peculiar ; 
there is left a purplish-red stain, which gradually fades away, or 
else, in severe cases, where there has been true ulceration of the 
skin beneath, there is a depressed scar, or, as it is said, the patient 
is "pitted." Desquamation, or the falling off of the crusts does 
not reach the limbs until about three or four days after it has 
commenced on the face. 

The above description corresponds to a regular and favorable 
course of the disease, where the pustules are not so numerous as 
to run together ; it is called the distinct, in contradistinction to the 
confluent, or that severe form where the pustules are numerous, 
come in contact, and, running together, form one immense scab 
covering the whole surface ; the latter being necessarily more severe 
and dangerous than the former. 

The treatment for this stage is very simple ; scarcely anything is 
called for except cleanliness. Simple ablution with tepid water 
will generally be all that is required. 

At the beginning of this stage it is as well to give an occasional 
dose of Sulphur ; say, one dose of three globules every morning 
until four doses are taken. 

Diet and Regimen. — The room in which the patient is -confined 
should be as large and airy as possible ; it should be kept at a 
moderate temperature, well ventilated, and almost dark. A straw 
bed or mattress is preferable to a feather bed. 

The diet should be cooling, such, for instance, as water, ice- 
cream, lemonade, oranges, roasted apples, stewed prunes, straw- 
berries, gruels, toast, etc. Avoid the fruit and acids if diarrhoea 
should be present. 

Animal food should not be used until convalescence is pretty- 
well established. 



This is simply a modified form of small-pox. The treatment 
•which has been given for that applies equally well for this disease. 


As a preventive against small-pox, vaccination is favorably known 
and practised by all civilized nations. Many persons object to 
vaccination for fear that, by this means, some other disease may 
be introduced into the system. To avoid this, employ a physician 
whose ability and integrity are above suspicion. 

Vaccination and revaccination, from time to time, are considered 
by every physician as an imperative duty, and the only safeguard 
against the encroachment of one of the most loathsome and fear- 
ful of all diseases. 


Definition and Causes. — By intertrigo is understood those 
superficial sores, excoriations, or gallings, which sometimes ap- 
pear behind the ears, between the thighs, in the folds of the 
neck, or other parts of the body .where the skin folds back upon 
itself. This troublesome disorder, as a general rule, is peculiar to 
fat children. It is said to be caused by the mother or nurse's in- 
dulging in high-seasoned or acrid food, and particularly pork. 
Fat children are predisposed to the disease ; and, no doubt, any- 
thing which irritates the skin will act as an exciting cause ; a 
want of cleanliness, or, on the contrary, too frequent washing, 
especially with coarse soap, acrid perspiration, especially when 
combined with some of the various " baby powders " that are sold 
by druggists, frequently assist^ I have no doubt, in the develop- 
ment of the disease. 

Treatment. — For this disease, we have recommended Chamo- 
milla, that is, when the disease has not originated from the nurse 
or child's drinking " Chamomile tea," in which case we should 
rather make use of Ignatia or Pulsatilla. Should these remedies 
fail to remove the unpleasant effect of the drug, give one or two 
doses of Sulphur, — three pills, night and morning. 

Sometimes the disease, if not caused, is kept in existence by 
Lycopodium, which forms the chief ingredient of most of the 
" baby powder." When this is the case, discontinue the powder, 


and give an occasional dose of Camphor, Pulsatilla, or a little 
weak Coffee, such as we use upon the table, and follow this up 
with Cfraphites, — one dose of the 30th potency every night. 

When the eruption covers a large surface and keeps spreading, 
give Mercurius, 30th, three globules, night and morning. Should 
this not bring about a favorable appearance of things, discon- 
tinue the Mercurius, and give one or two doses of Sulphur, when 
better results may be looked for from a readministration of Mercu- 
rius. Should there at any time during the course of the disease 
be fever, with hot skin, a little Aconite will be called for. Obsti- 
nate cases call for Carbo-v., Graphites, Sulph-acid, Silicea, or 


We not unfrequently find upon the face of children and young 
persons, small, black-headed pimples, from which, by pressing upon 
their sides, we can squeeze out a small vermiform, or worm-like 
cylinder, about one line in length. The disease received the name 
" comedones," from the fact that they were for a long time believed 
to be small animals ; investigation, however, has proved that the 
white cylinder which we squeeze out is nothing more nor less than 
an accumulation of fatty matter in the follicles of the skin, and 
the black head is caused by the dust which adheres to it. 

The causes of comedones are, anything which obstructs the ex- 
cretory ducts of the cutaneous follicles ; or, indeed, the secretion 
itself may be of a morbid character, which is frequently the case 
in persons with a torpid skin ; the contents of the oil tubes be- 
come too thick and dry to escape in the usual manner. The 
obstructed and distended tube sometimes inflames, even suppu- 
rates, and the pimples become very sore. 

Treatment. — The remedies recommended for this disease are, 
Belladonna, Calcarea, Carbo-v., Sulphur, Nux-vomica. 

Of the one chosen, dissolve six globules in twelve spoonfuls of 
water, and give of the solution one spoonful every six hours. 


Definition. — By the term abscess is understood what in popu- 
lar language is called a " gathering." A collection of pus or 
matter in any part of the body, resulting from inflammation, 
which may be either acute or chronic. 


Abscesses are of various kinds : a gathered breast, in technical 
language, is called a mammary abscess ; a boil is an abscess ; but 
of these we have spoken, or will speak elsewhere, and shall in the 
present article confine ourselves to what are frequently called 
lymphatic tumors and superficial gatherings, such as we so often 
meet with in children, especially about the head and neck. 

Causes. — An abscess is not an original disease, but is always 
the result or termination of inflammatory action. Inflammation 
and suppuration of the cervical glands of the neck are frequently 
concomitants of other diseases. Scald-head, scarlet fever, measles, 
and many other diseases, are frequently followed by glandular in- 
flammation, which terminates in the formation of pus, — true 

There is about some children a hereditary dyscrasia, or constitu- 
tional taint, — scrofula, or some kindred disease, for instance, 
which predisposes to the disorder. 

Symptoms. — Abscesses, as above stated, may be either acute or 
chronic. The acute species is preceded and accompanied by sen- 
sible and inflammatory action in the affected part ; it is hot, tume- 
fied, throbbing, and painful. The commencement of the suppura- 
tive process, that is, when the formation of matter takes place, is 
to be known, or, at least suspected, by the change in the character 
of the pain which takes place at this time, and by the appearance 
of the skin. The pain which has previously been acute, loses its 
intensity, becomes dull and throbbing ; the skin changes from a 
red to a livid color. The tumor presents a somewhat conical 
shape, and the skin over its apex becomes thin and of a dark livid 
color. At this point, if left alone, the abscess will burst, and allow 
its contents to escape. 

In abscesses of any magnitude, during the suppurative process, 
we usually have more or less definitely marked rigors or chills, 
succeeded in turn by increase of fever. After an abscess is fully 
formed, provided it is not too deeply seated, fluctuation in the 
tumor is always perceptible. 

Chronic Abscesses. — Although all abscesses are the result, of 
inflammation, the inflammatory action in chronic abscesses is 
sometimes of so low a grade as to be almost imperceptible ; in- 
deed, during the first stage of the disease, it is entirely so ; and 
were it not for the swelling, which always becomes apparent be- 
fore it reaches any great magnitude, we would scarcely know that 
anything ailed the child. 


The entire absence of all local and constitutional symptoms 
renders the disease obscure, until it begins to approach the sur- 
face, and form an external swelling. 

An acute abscess readily heals, as soon as the pus is freely 
evacuated. Not so with a chronic abscess ; the latter, instead of 
contracting and filling up with healthy granulations, that is, por- 
tions of new flesh, remains open, and discharges copiously of thin, 
acrid matter ; and this state, if continued any great length a 
time, results in the production of hectic fever, or, in other words, 
the patient goes into a decline. 

Teeatment. — As abscesses do not always end in suppuration, 
but sometimes in resolution, as we say, — that is, the inflamma- 
tion and swelling subside, without the formation of pus, the tumor 
not gathering, — it is not always advisable to apply poultices, as 
this may cause it to gather, when it otherwise would not. Should 
a swelling appear anywhere upon the surface of the body, which we 
apprehend may terminate in an abscess, our first endeavor should 
be to bring about resolution, that is, to cut short the inflammation 
before it reaches the point of suppuration. This can best be done 
by the internal administration of Aconite and Belladonna, in al- 
ternation, and by the external application of cold water. This 
treatment is especially recommended when there is considerable 
constitutional disturbance, with intense pain and extensive in- 
flammation of the parts. 

Should this treatment fail to arrest the disease, the next best 
thing to be done is to hasten suppuration ; and this we endeavor 
to do by the internal administration of Hepar-sulph., one dose of 
the third potency every four hours, and the external application 
of hot fomentations and poultices. Ground flaxseed makes the 
best, because it retains its heat and moisture — the chief proper- 
ties of all poultices, — longer than almost any other substance. 

As soon as the abscess points or comes to a head, the skin be- 
coming livid and thin, and there is distinct fluctuation, it is advisa- 
ble to make a free incision into the tumor, and evacuate the mat- 
ter. Some do not advise this treatment, but wait until it bursts of 
itself. The sooner, after suppuration takes place, the matter is 
discharged, the sooner the abscess will heal. I see nothing 
gained, therefore, by waiting : it is but prolonging the patient's suf- 
fering, and retarding the cure. 

After the abscess has opened, and the matter has been freely 
discharged, the poultices should be discontinued, and simple dress- 


ing substituted. During this stage the patient can take Calcarea- 
carb. or Silicea, one dose every evening. 

The remedies for chronic abscesses are, Mercurius, Hepar-s., 
Silicea, Calcarea, Lacliesis, Phosphorus, and Sulphur. 

Silicea or Sulphur are especially indicated in severe, prostrated 
cases, in which the suppuration is long continued and seems to ex- 
haust the system. 

For hard and swelled glands on the neck, under the ears or 
chin, Mercurius and Calcarea are the principal remedies. 

Of either of the above remedies, when selected, you can dissolve 
six globules in twelve spoonfuls of water, and of this solution give 
one dose every four hours. 

Diet. — In acute abscesses, where there is considerable fever, 
the diet should be about the same as in fevers. During the long 
and tedious course of some exhausting chronic abscesses, it will 
be found necessary to select such a diet as will nourish and 
strengthen the patient. The food should be nutritious and of 
easy digestion. Broiled steak, mutton chop, meat broths, rice and 
barley gruel, etc., may be allowed. 


Definition. — A boil consists of a round, or rather cone-shaped, 
inflammatory, and very painful swelling, immediately under the 
skin. It varies in size from a pin's head to a pigeon's egg. It 
always has a central " core," as it is called, and is mostly found in 
strong and vigorous children. A boil always suppurates, and 
sooner or later discharges its contents, the matter being at first 
mixed with blood, and afterward composed of pus. A boil never 
discharges freely, and never heals until the core comes away. 

Causes. — I do not know why it is that children, who, to all ap- 
pearance, are otherwise perfectly healthy, should be troubled with 
boils. It is very easy to say, that some children possess a consti- 
tutional predisposition to them, or inherit them, or that they fre- 
quently follow eruptive diseases and fevers ; but this is not a satis- 
factory explanation of their cause, yet nevertheless it is all that 
we can say. You may attribute them to bad blood, — which is a 
very common way some people have of accounting for many dis- 
eases, — but what does that amount to ? 

Treatment. — The treatment is about the same as that for ab- 
scesses. Apply a poultice early, and bring the tumor to a head as 


soon as possible, for the sooner the matter is discharged, the sooner 
the process of reparation will begin. — See "Abscesses." 

Arnica given internally is said to lessen the pain and inflamma- 
tion ; one dose every four hours. Should the boil be very red, hot 
and painful, and attended with fever, thirst, and headache, give 
Belladonna once in three hours, either alone or in alternation with 
Mercurius. "When it is slow in coming to a head, give Hepar- 
sulph. After the tumor has broken, if the suppuration is exces- 
sive, give Mercurius, and especially should there be much swelling 
and hardness about the base of the tumor. 

After the matter has been discharged, discontinue the poultice, 
wash the parts clean, and dress with lint and simple salve. The 
lint should be placed next to the sore, and the salve over the lint. 

To eradicate the predisposition to boils, one dose of Sulphur of 
a high potency — 200 — twice a week. 

Administration of Remedies. — Of the remedy selected, dissolve 
twelve globules in twelve spoonfuls of water, and of this solution 
give one spoonful at a dose as above directed. 


Definition. — Tinea capitis is a contagious eruptive disease 
of the scalp. It is characterized at first by small yellow pus- 
tules, situated on an inflamed ground. The pustules are of a 
peculiar shape, depressed in the centre, and scarcely raised above 
the level of the skin. Each pustule, as a general thing, surrounds 
a hair. Perhaps the whole disease, as some authors assert, 
consists in an inflammation of the hair follicles. 

The disease is not a common one, much less so than ringworm 
of the scalp, or milk-crust. Among the upper and middle classes 
of society it is seldom if ever met with. I have never seen but one 
case in this city, except in dispensary practice. 

Causes. — There is very little doubt but that this disease is 
contagious, although some authors think otherwise. This differ- 
ence of opinion may arise from the fact that the disease is not 
unfrequently confounded with other similar disorders of the scalp. 
My experience in this disease has been quite limited ; still, I think 
I can say, with a good degree of certainty, that it may be propa- 
gated by direct contact of the diseased with a healthy skin, or by 
means of combs, brushes, towels, etc. 

Although chiefly found in children, it is by no means exclusively 
confined to them. 


Children living in low, damp, and ill-ventilated dwellings, and 
those subjected to an unwholesome or an insufficient diet are most 
prone to it. 

Symptoms. — The feature which distinguishes this disease from 
other eruptions of the scalp is the peculiar shape of the scabs or 
crusts. Commencing as a small yellow pustule, scarcely raised 
above the level of the skin, it gradually increases to perhaps an 
inch in circumference. As it spreads, the watery portions of the 
pustule dry up, leaving a large yellow crust with inverted edges 
and a depressed centre. This cup-formed yellow crust, pierced by 
a hair, is peculiar to this disease, and distinguishes it from all 
other eruptions of the scalp. 

At first, when the pustules are small, they are usually isolated ; 
but, as they increase in diameter, their edges come in contact, and 
thus a number of pustules blended together form irregular patches 
of larger or smaller size. 

When the crusts have been removed, the surface beneath is seen 
to be red and moist, having the appearance of ulceration. 

By no other eruptive disease of the scalp with which I am 
acquainted is there a permanent loss of the hair. In this disease 
the hair falls out, and the scalp is left shining and uneven. The 
hair seldom ever reappears ; if it does, it is short, woolly, and 

Treatment. — Until you can secure the services of a good 
Homoeopathic physician, follow the treatment given for " milk- 

The first essential step is to remove the hair. This may b'e done 
sufficiently well with a pair of scissors ; shaving the head is hardly 
practicable. No attempt whatever should be made to remove the 
crusts. Strict attention should be paid to cleanliness. A good 
and soothing wash for the head is bran-water. 

Calcarea-carb., Sulphur, Lycopodium, Sepia, Arsenicum, and 
Rhus are among the prominent remedies for this disease. 


Definition. — This is almost exclusively a disease of infancy. 
It is characterized by an eruption of small, round, yellow, flattened 
pustules, which are crowded together upon a red surface. 

The pustules end by the drying up of their contents into thick, 
rough, and yellow scabs. 


The eruption may appear upon the forehead, cheeks, or scalp, 
the latter place being the more frequent seat of the disease. 

Causes. — Like most other varieties of infantile eruptive dis- 
eases, the real cause is very imperfectly understood. 

As it occurs for the most part during first dentition, many sup- 
pose the evolution of the teeth to be the cause of the disease. 
Among other speculations it is asserted, that it arises from expos- 
ures to unhealthy hygenic conditions ; as, for instance, improper 
or unwholesome food, want of cleanliness, damp or ill-ventilated 
apartments. Not a few think it arises from some constitutional 
taint existing within the child, as scrofula, or some kindred dis- 
ease, and that it more frequently manifests itself in fair, fat chil- 

My own opinion is, that children so affected possess a constitu- 
tional tendency to the disease, and that the exciting cause, in 
nine cases out of ten, is some gastric derangement. 

Symptoms. ; — In some cases the eruption is confined entirely to 
the face ; in others, entirely to the scalp ; or, again, it may impli- 
cate both, extending up the side of the face, affecting the ear, neck, 
and portions of the scalp. 

The disease may either be acute or chronic in its nature. When 
acute, it is not unfrequently attended with severe inflammation of 
the skin. It appears in all grades of severity; in some cases it is 
very light, extending over a small surface, remaining - stationary, 
or quickly drying up and disappearing ; or, when severe, the whole 
scalp may become completely scabbed over, presenting an offensive 
and disgusting appearance. 

As a general thing, it attacks but a small spot at first, and then 
gradually spreads to the surrounding parts. When they first appear, 
the pustules are numerous, small in size, of a light yellowish or 
straw color, and not unfrequently attended with severe burning 
or itching. These soon break or get broken, and discharge a sticky 
fluid, which glues the hair together and forms into thick, uneven 
crusts. The successive discharges from the surface beneath con- 
stantly add to the thickness of the crust, and as the fluid escapes 
from under -the crusts, it irritates or inoculates the parts with 
which it comes in contact, and thus extends the disease until in 
some cases the whole scalp is covered with a thick, rough, brown- 
ish-yellow crust. In warm weather, or from the warmth of the 
head and exposure to the air, these crusts sometimes undergo par- 
tial decomposition, and exhale a sickening and most offensive odor. 


When the crusts are removed, the surface beneath is found inflamed 
and wet ; the secretion which oozes from them plainly visible ; little 
excoriated points soon form new crust similar to the one that has 
been removed. 

The disease, as it appears upon the face, passes through about 
the same course, as when appearing upon the scalp, except that 
the large crusts are seldom allowed to form. The severe itching 
attending the disease causes the child constantly to scratch or 
rub the part, sometimes to such an extent as not only to prevent 
the scabs from forming, but to cause the surface to bleed quite 

In most cases, the general health of the patient remains good ; 
sometimes, when the inflammation and itching are severe, it makes 
the child cross and peevish, disturbs its sleep and makes it fever- 
ish. The glands, situated upon the neck and especially behind the 
ears, not unfrequently inflame, become hard and painful, and 
finally gather and break. 

The duration of the disease depends upon the severity of the 
case, and the treatment which is instituted for its removal. Some 
cases yield in a few weeks ; others, more stubborn, may continue 
for months, and, if improperly treated, even for years. The whole 
course of the disease may not be of the same severity ; it not 
unfrequently subsides to such an extent that the mother is already 
congratulating herself upon the speedy return of her child's 
health, when a fit of indigestion, or the cutting of a new tooth, or 
even some change in the weather, may bring it back with renewed 

Treatment. — I frequently meet with children, who have had 
the disease for months, their parents refusing to do anything for 
its removal, under the impression that an attempt to cure it would 
be attended with serious risk to the health, and even the life of the 
patient. Now, the idea that the disease is useful, and beneficial to 
the future health of the child, is preposterous. Perhaps it origi- 
nated from the fact that a sudden suppression of the disease, by 
active, external means, has been followed by dangerous and even 
fatal symptoms. But then it should be remembered that suppress- 
ing is not curing a disease. I believe it to be unsafe to procure, 
by the employment of external means, the suppression of any 
eruptive diseases. "We are all aware that alarming and dangerous 
symptoms frequently follow the " striking in," as it is called, of 
measles and scarlet fever. Every physician can call to mind cases 


of acute disease of the brain, resulting from the sudden drying up 
of this very disease by the application of some one of the numerous 
specific ointments. This is a literal " striking in " of the disease, 
a metastasis or translation from the scalp to the brain. 

The idea that the disease is in any way beneficial to the health 
of the child cannot be entertained by any one who has had much 
acquaintance with the suffering it produces. The dreadful itching 
produces restlessness, crying and sleeplessness; in fact, it keeps 
the infant in a constant state of actual suffering, and which, I am 
certain, cannot continue, as the disease sometimes does, for months, 
or even years, without seriously injuring the constitution of the 

I consider it therefore, an entirely mistaken act of kindness 
which permits the disease to continue a single day without an 
endeavor to arrest it, under the impression that the child is thereby 
being permanently benefited. 

Active treatment should be instituted as soon as the first symp- 
tom of the disease is observed. In the first stage, when the itching 
is severe, and seems to be particularly aggravated at night, Aconite 
is the best remedy, either alone, once in two hours, or in alterna- 
tion with Chamomilla. 

Rhus. — Should Aconite fail to relieve the itching and inflam- 

If, after the acute symptoms have subsided, the incrustations 
still continue to form, or if they remain stationary, we should give 
Viola-tricolor. Frequently this remedy will be sufficient to com- 
plete the cure. 

In obstinate cases, when the above remedies fail to produce a 
favorable change, or when the improvement is slow, Sulphur is a 
good remedy. Sulphur and Rhus alternate well together. 

Oalcaria-earh. — When the eruption is dry and scurvy. 

Lycopodium. — When the eruption is moist, the discharge pro- 
fuse, and of a fetid smell. 

Mezereum, Antim.-crud., Sepia, Hepar, Arsenicum, Graphites, and 
Nitric acid, are sometimes called for. 

Should the eruption, which had previously been moist, suddenly 
dry up, and the child become drowsy, unnaturally sleepy, and 
sleep with its eyes half open, give Hellebore or Bryonia. Consult a 
Homoeopathic physician, in all cases, when it is convenient. 

Administration op Remedies. — During the acute stage of the 
disease, the remedy may be repeated as often as once in three 


hours. Afterward, one dose, night and morning will be sufficient. 
Of the remedy chosen, dissolve twelve globules in twelve spoonfuls 
of water ; and, for a dose, give two spoonfuls of the solution, or, 
if preferred, give three globules dry upon the tongue. 

Apply nothing externally but a little Glycerine. Keep the head 
clean by washing with weak soapsuds of Castile soap. ' 




Remarks. — The study of diseases of the brain and nervous 
system, being surrounded with many and peculiar difficulties, our 
knowledge in regard to them is less definite perhaps than that of 
most other diseases which we are called upon to treat. 

"We can ascertain the state of many disorders by ou